- Value product
The "value product" (VP) is an economic concept formulated by
Karl Marxin his critique of political economyduring the 1860s, and used in Marxian social accounting theory for capitalist economies. Its annual monetary value is approximately equal to the netted sum of six flows of income generated by production:
*rent paid by producing enterprises from current gross income, including land rents.
feespaid by producing enterprises from current gross income, including royaltyfees, certain honorariums and corporate officers' fees, and certain leasing fees incurred in production and paid from current gross income.
The last five money-incomes are components of realised
surplus value. In principle, the value product also includes unsold inventories of new outputs.
The concept is formulated more precisely when Marx considers the reproduction and distribution of the national income (see e.g. his manuscript called "Results of the Immediate [or Direct] Process of Production", available in English in the Pelican edition of
Das Kapital), and also online; and the last chapters of Das KapitalVolume 3).
Marx wrote this in 1864, i.e. about 70 years or so before the first comprehensive
Gross National Productand Capital Formation statistics were pioneered by the likes of Wassily Leontief, Simon Kuznetsand Colin Clark(the United Nations standard accounting system was first finalised in 1953). Marx's manuscript for Das KapitalVol. 3 ends with a discussion of "relations of distribution", but he did not live to complete his analysis. In outline his approach is quite clear however.
Gross Output(or the total value of output sales) the "value of production" ("VPn").
variable capitalpaid , circulating constant capitalconsumed , fixed capitalconsumed , and surplus valueproduced , then:
: Gross Output
: true new value added
So, Marx's "value product" really expressed his view of the true total "new
value added" or the net product. In his view, this total is equal to the value of wage payments + surplus value, the latter which would include, apart from net profit, interest and rent, the net tax levy and royalty-type fees paid in respect of incomes generated by production of output, plus the surplus-value component of unsold inventories of new output. Marx himself never discussed taxation and royalty-income in detail; they were only a small portion of the total national income when he lived (around 5-10% or so).
An additional comment by Marx
Marx claims that, in an accounting period, the workforce in the capitalist sector normally produces a new value which is equal to its own wage-cost, plus an additional new value (called
However, Marx warns that:
Quotation|"The habit of representing surplus-value and value of labor-power as fractions of the value created — a habit that originates in the capitalist mode of production itself, and whose import will hereafter be disclosed — conceals the very transaction that characterizes capital, namely the exchange of variable capital for living labor-power, and the consequent exclusion of the laborer from the product. Instead of the real fact, we have false semblance of an association, in which laborer and capitalist divide the product in proportion to the different elements which they respectively contribute towards its formation." [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch18.htm] |Karl Marx
For this reason, Marx criticized ratios such as the "share" of profits and wages (
wage share) in the gross or net product as deceptive, because they disguised the real capitalist relations of production, specifically the rate of surplus value. His primary interest was in the ratio between generic profits and wages (the rate of exploitation).
Marxian new value added, versus GDP
The equation of new
value addedwith net output or GDP(also known as gross value added) would have made no sense to Marx, mainly because net output "includes" depreciation(or the consumption of fixed capital), yet "excludes" various property rents paid by producing enterprises from their gross income (on the ground that renting out an asset does not itself constitute production) as well as a portion of net interest (regarded as property income).
As regards depreciation, for Marx the value of "real"
depreciationat least did not constitute any "new" value, but, value "conserved" and "transferred" to the new products by living labor. It appeared as added value, only because when costs are deducted from gross sales income to obtain net profit, depreciation is regarded as a component of the new "gross" profit income. In official national accounts, a distinction is made between gross value added (including depreciation charges) and net value added (excluding them).
Of course, in reality it could be that real ("economic") depreciation diverges from depreciation for tax purposes. In that case, the reported
consumption of fixed capitalcould contain an element of undistributed profit. Additionally, official national accounts may include in consumption of fixed capital the value of those "insurance premiums, interest and rents" paid from gross income, which relate directly to the acquisition or maintenance of productive fixed assets, on the ground that they are part of the cost of operating productive fixed assets. In Marxianeconomics, however, these flows would be regarded either as a faux frais of production, a circulating constant capitaloutlay, or an element of gross surplus value.
By contrast, Marx considered rents paid by producing enterprises from their gross income as a part of surp-lus value, and as an integral part of the cost structure of the social product. Business rents, excluded as intermediate expenditures from GDP, therefore are included in the Marxian value product as a component of surplus value.
From a Marxian point of view, official
value addedalso includes some dubious components such as the rental value of owner-occupied housing. This entry is the market rent of owner-occupied housing that would apply "if" the housing was rented, treated as a "service". But most of it does not refer to any real flow of income, nor is it clear that this component has anything to do with production.
As regards net interest, the official product accounts will exclude a portion of it, insofar as it is defined as "property income" unrelated to the value of production. But if it is paid from current gross revenues of producing enterprises, then it should be included in the Marxian value product. For this reason, the Marxian net interest aggregate is likely to be larger than the official one.
Criticism & controversy
Marx's idea of value creation and value product makes little sense from the point of view of the theory of
factors of productionand production functions.
Marx himself already anticipated this, in chapter 48 of Capital Vol. 3, titled "The Trinity Formula" where he discusses the view that land, labour and capital (which he sarcastically calls the "holy trinity" of political economy) all contribute to the creation of new value (Marx regarded human labour and land as the mainsprings of material wealth, but he considered "value" as a purely "social" attribution referring to labor-content). In modern
macroeconomics, the controversy surfaces again, and is discussed in amusing essays by Prof. Anwar Shaikh (see references).
In Marxian social accounting, one theoretical controversy concerns the treatment of the wages of so-called
productive and unproductive labour. "Unproductive labour" by definition does not make net additions to the new value product, but only "transfers" value from other sectors. Depending on how the gross and net product are defined, the value of these wages could be accounted for either as a component of surplus value, or as a circulating constant capitaloutlay, or be "excluded" from the value product altogether.
Different interpretations are offered by Shane Mage, Murray Smith, Anwar Shaikh and Fred Moseley. One aspect often overlooked in this controversy is that wages costs and labour costs are not the same thing. Employers and employees must also pay social insurance levies of various types, and there may be other imposts on wages; also, the "buying power" of wages is reduced by indirect tax imposts and profit imposts. This affects the magnitude of a society's variable capital and the value of labour power.
Another Marxian accounting controversy, less discussed, concerns which net tax receipts of government constitute part of the new value product.Obviously taxes included in official gross product measures do not equal the net total tax take, because some taxes are unrelated to production and therefore excluded. The Marxian critique of
public financeappears to be rather undeveloped as yet, however. In principle, net tax levied on current production and paid out of current gross revenues would be included in the value product.
Least discussed is the problem of finding a non-arbitrary, rigorous distinction between value created and value transferred in respect of services. The conceptual problem here is essentially that it may be difficult to specify unambiguously what the nature and function of the "product" sold is, when services are rendered.
Some Marxists have argued however that Marx's value relations and value aggregates cannot be measured at all, and at best only experienced. That was manifestly not Marx's view; already in his "Grundrisse" manuscript he had referred to a balance sheet cited by
Malthus; in Das Kapitalhe attempted to calculate the rate of surplus value according to data provided by Frederick Engels; and towards the end of his life, as Leontief noted, he wrote that he wanted to study the "ups and downs" of economic activity mathematically (but Samuel Moore convinced him that the data to do it did not exist yet). Engels later remarked that the problem really was that much data relevant to testing Marx's concepts simply was not available.
The difference between Marx and naïve
empiricistswas essentially that Marx did not believe in conflating real economic relations with the "data" that represented those relations. At best, useful statistical "indicators" could be constructed to verify the observable trends. Yet, if this was not done, one was left only with hypotheses and speculations.
Subsequent Marxian scholars have argued the critique of political economy should continue, with regard to the new economic concepts and theories, rather than stop at the point where the ink dried on the last sheet of paper that Marx wrote on. One reason is that the new concepts and theories might distort the representation of economic reality, just as much as the old ones that Marx criticized.
USSRand other Soviet-type societies, Marx's social accounting approach strongly influenced the Material Product System(MPS), a social accounting method alternative to GDP accounts, which distinguished sharply between "productive" and "non-productive" sectors of the economy. These accounts focused on balances of the value of material goods produced. In some respects, this is ironic, since Marx's social accounting referred to the capitalist economy, not to a socialist economy. The MPS accounts were abandoned in favour of GDP accounts after the downfall of official communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe.
Karl Marx, "Results of the Direct Production Process" [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1864/economic/index.htm]
Karl Marx, Economic Manuscripts of 1861-63 [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/economic/index.htm]
Karl Marx, Capital Vol. 3: The Trinity Formula [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1894-c3/ch48.htm]
Anwar Shaikh, "Laws of Production and Laws of Algebra:The Humbug Production Function", in "The Review of Economics and Statistics", Volume 56(1), February 1974, p. 115-120. [http://homepage.newschool.edu/~AShaikh/humbug.pdf]
Anwar Shaikh, "Laws of Production and Laws of Algebra—Humbug II", in "Growth, Profits and Property" ed. by Edward J. Nell. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1980. [http://homepage.newschool.edu/~AShaikh/humbug2.pdf]
Anwar Shaikh and Ertugrul Ahmet Tonak, "Measuring the Wealth of Nations". Cambridge: CUP
Fred Moseley, "The decline of the rate of profit in the post-war US economy: A Comment on Brenner". [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/%7Efmoseley/HM.html]
Murray E. G. Smith, "Productivity, Valorization and Crisis: Socially Necessary Unproductive Labor in Contemporary Capitalism", in: "Science and Society"; 57(3), Fall 1993, pages 262-93.
Shane Mage, "The Law of the Falling Tendency of the Rate of Profit; Its Place in the Marxian Theoretical System and Relevance to the US Economy". Phd Thesis, Columbia University, 1963.
Additional references on unproductive labour [http://netx.u-paris10.fr/actuelmarx/economarx/refe0206.htm]
Paul Dunne (ed), "Quantitative Marxism". Polity Press, 1991.
national income and product accounts
labour theory of value
productive and unproductive labour
Compensation of employees
Consumption of fixed capital
United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA)
Abstract labour and concrete labour
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