Otley


Otley

Coordinates: 53°54′18″N 1°41′13″W / 53.905°N 1.687°W / 53.905; -1.687

Otley
Otley Wharfemeadows 2009.jpg
The River Wharfe at Otley
Otley is located in West Yorkshire
Otley

 Otley shown within West Yorkshire
Population 14,124 (2001)
OS grid reference SE205455
    - London  193 miles 
Parish Otley
Metropolitan borough City of Leeds
Metropolitan county West Yorkshire
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town OTLEY
Postcode district LS21
Dialling code 01943
Police West Yorkshire
Fire West Yorkshire
Ambulance Yorkshire
EU Parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
UK Parliament Leeds North West
List of places: UK • England • Yorkshire

Otley is a market town and civil parish in the metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, by the River Wharfe. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town has a total resident population of 14,124.[1] The town hosts Wharfedale General Hospital which serves the surrounding area.

Contents

History

Toponymy

Otley's name is derived from Othe, Otho or Otta, a Saxon personal name and leah, a woodland clearing in Old English. It was recorded as Ottanlege in 972 and Otelai or Othelia in the Domesday Book of 1086.[2][3] The name Chevin has close parallels to the Welsh term Cefn meaning ridge and may be a survival of the ancient Cumbric language.

Early history

The town dates from Saxon times and was part of an extensive manor granted by Athelstan to the see of York. The Archbishops of York had a residence and were lords of the manor. Their palace was located on the site occupied by the Manor House.[3] Otley is close to Leeds and may have formed part of the kingdom of Elmet. Remains of the Archbishop's Palace were found during the construction of St Joseph's School. The town grew in the first half of the 13th century when the archbishops laid out burgage plots to attract merchants and tradespeople. The burgage plots were on Boroughgate, Walkergate and Kirkgate. Bondgate was for tenants who did not have 'burgage' privileges. A leper hospital was founded on the road to Harewood beyond Cross Green.[4]

Documented history for the market begins in 1222 when King Henry III granted the first Royal Charter. The town had two cattle markets, Wharfedale Farmers' Auction Mart on East Chevin Road and the Bridge End Auction Mart which has closed and was subsequently demolished. Market days are Tuesday, Friday and Saturday, and there is a Farmers' Market on the last Sunday of every month.

Thomas Chippendale, the cabinetmaker, was born in a cottage at the junction of Boroughgate and Wesley Street[4] and his statue stands next to the old Grammar School in Manor Square that he once attended. J.M.W. Turner, the painter, visited Otley in 1797, aged 22, when commissioned to paint watercolours of the area. He was so attracted to Otley and the surrounding area that he returned time and time again. His friendship with Walter Ramsden Fawkes made him a regular visitor to Farnley Hall, two miles from Otley. The stormy backdrop of Hannibal Crossing The Alps is reputed to have been inspired by a storm over Otley's Chevin while Turner was staying at Farnley Hall.

Industrial revolution

Weir on the River Wharfe at Otley

The woollen industry developed as a cottage industry but during the Industrial revolution and the mechanisation of the textile industry, mills were built using water then steam power. A cotton mill and weaving shed for calicoes were built by the river in the late 18th-century. Later woolcombing and worsted spinning were introduced.[4] By the mid 19th century 500 inhabitants were employed in two worsted-mills, a paper-mill, and other mills.[3] A tannery was established in the 19th-century.[4]

The Wharfedale Printing Machine was developed in Otley by William Dawson and William Payne. An early example can be seen in Otley Museum. By 1900 was the printing machinery trade, with over 2,000 employed in seven machine shops was Otley's most important industry.[4]

Governance

Historically Otley was a market-town and ecclesiastical parish in the wapentakes of Skyrack and Claro in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It was the seat of the Mid-Wharfedale Urban District council until local council reorganisation in 1974 and since then it is a civil parish in the metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire.

Otley lies in the Leeds North West constituency of the UK Parliament and is represented by MP Greg Mulholland (Liberal Democrats). It is part of the Otley & Yeadon ward on Leeds City Council and is represented by three Liberal Democrat Councillors Ryk Downes, Colin Campbell & Graham Kirkland. It is twinned with the French town of Montereau-Fault-Yonne, south of Paris.

Otley and Wharfedale ward has a population of 24,000, and Otley itself has a population of 14,348, according to Census 2001.

Geography

A view over Otley.

Otley lies 28 miles south-west of York, 10 miles north-west of Leeds, 10 miles north-east of Bradford, and 196 miles from London. The town lies in lower Wharfedale at a bridging point of the River Wharfe where there is a seven arched bridge and is surrounded by arable farmland. The south side of the valley is dominated by a gritstone escarpment overlooking Otley called The Chevin and to the north is Newall Carr.[3] In 1944, Major Le G.G.W. Horton Fawkes of Farnley Hall donated 263 acres (1.1 km²) of land on the Chevin to the people of Otley. This has been expanded to 700 acres (2.8 km²) and constitutes Chevin Forest Park. It was from a quarry on the Chevin that the foundation stones for the Houses of Parliament were hewn.

To the east and west of Otley are flooded gravel pits, where sand and gravel have been extracted in the 20th century. The gravel pits to the east at Knotford Nook are a noted birdwatching site. Those to the west are devoted to angling and sailing.

To the west are the villages of Burley-in-Wharfedale and Menston. To the east is Pool-in-Wharfedale.

Location grid

Transport

The main roads through the town are the A660 to the south east, which connects Otley to Bramhope, Adel and Leeds city centre, and the A65 to the west, which goes to Ilkley and Skipton. The A6038 heads to Guiseley, Shipley and Bradford, connecting with the A65. To Harrogate, the A659 heads east to the A658, which is the main Bradford-Harrogate road.

Public transport is coordinated by West Yorkshire Metro and services are operated by FirstGroup plc West and North Yorkshire, TLC, Utopia and Harrogate Coach Travel. There are local services connecting the town and outlying areas. Otley has a bus station is served by the following services:

Otley railway station opened in 1865 and closed in March 1965, the town bypass follows the line of the old railway. A bus service (967) runs from Menston station, which is on the Wharfedale Line from Leeds, Bradford and Ilkley. The X52 and X53 bus services stop at Weeton station on the Harrogate Line.

Otley is close to Leeds Bradford International Airport, and the 757 bus service connects directly to the town.

Education

the Old Prince Henry's Grammar School

A grammar school was founded by Thomas Cave who named it "The Grammar School of Prince Henry." It is built in the Elizabethan style and also used as a court-house.[3] Its successor is Prince Henry's Grammar School, Otley in Farnley Lane. Further Education is provided by Park Lane College Leeds' Otley Centre

Otley has a number of primary schools, Ashfield Primary School, Otley All Saints Primary School, The Whartons Primary School, Westgate Primary School and St. Joseph's Catholic Primary School.

Closed schools include, Thomas Chippendale Primary School (previously Weston Lane Middle School), All Saints CE Junior School, Ashfield Infant School, Newall Primary School, Otley secondary modern school, Otley National School and The Whartons Middle School.

Religion

Otley's first church was built in the early 7th century. In All Saints Parish Church there are the remains of two early Anglo-Saxon crosses, one of which has been reproduced for the town's war memorial. Its church was the centre of an ancient ecclesiastical parish which comprised the chapelries of Baildon, Bramhope, Burley in Wharfedale, Denton, and Farnley, and the townships of Esholt, Hawksworth, Lindley, Menston, Newall with Clifton, Pool-in-Wharfedale, and Little Timble. All Saints Church dates from the 12th century and was built in the Norman style but little of the original remains, except the north doorway.[3][5]

Buried in the graveyard is an ancestor of the 19th century American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and the grandparents of Thomas Fairfax who commanded Parliament's forces at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. In the graveyard of the parish church stands a replica of the entrance to Bramhope Tunnel, a monument to those killed during its construction.

Methodist preacher John Wesley was a frequent visitor to the town in the 18th century. Allegedly his horse died in the town and is buried in the grounds of the parish church. Its grave is marked by an unusual stone, also known locally as the "Donkey Stone". His Journal for 1761 reads, "6 July Monday; In the evening I preached at Otley and afterwards talked with many of the Society. There is reason to believe that ten or twelve of these are filled with the love of God." Wesley Street is named after him.

Culture and community

Otley Show in 2009.

Otley has a diverse range of cultural organisations. It has five active Morris dance sides, the Wharfedale Wayzgoose, (Border),[6] The Buttercross Belles (Ladies Northwest), Flash Company (Border, Molly, Appalachian & Clog), Hellz Bellz (Contemporary) and Kitchen Taps (Appalachian Step).

Drama groups include Otley Community Players, Otley Youth Theatre (OY) and a thriving arts centre in the former courthouse. There is a poetry society which meets in the Black Horse Hotel monthly. The town has a Brass Band who perform at many events in the town. It is not a regular contesting band, but won first prize in the unregistered section at their first contest at Hardraw Scar in September 2007, repeating the accomplishment in 2008.

Otley hosts the annual Otley Folk Festival in September, a Victorian Fayre in December, a carnival in June and in May, what is reputed to be the oldest one day agricultural show in the country. This celebrated its bicentenary in 2009. There is a beer festival organised by the church in November.

Black Horse Hotel

Otley once vied with a handful of towns for the distinction of having the most pubs per head of population in England. It was mentioned in a BBC Radio 4 "More or Less" programme broadcast in April 2008. The story also featured on the BBC website [1].

There were 17 pubs in the town although the Spite (properly known as the Roebuck), the Chevin and the Royalty are on the outskirts, with the Spite located in North Yorkshire. The Black Horse Hotel situated in the town centre is historically the largest pub and hotel. The Black Bull in the Market Place, was allegedly drunk dry by Cromwell's troops on the night before the battle of Marston Moor during the English Civil War and has a 15th century well in the beer garden. The Junction Inn has won numerous awards including a CAMRA award for best pub. There is a working men's club located on Weston Lane north west of the town centre.

Otley has four Scout troops, the 2nd Otley, Otley Parish, Otley Bridge and Otley Methodist Scouts.[7]

Filmography

Otley is "Hotton" in the ITV television soap opera Emmerdale, and appears in ITV's Heartbeat where Otley Courthouse is the old Police Station. The town was the setting for the drama series The Chase and the ITV dramatisation of The Bad Mother's Handbook. It was the setting for the film, A Private Function.

Sport

Cross Green rugby ground, the home ground of Otley RUFC.
Competitors take part in the annual Otley Cycle Race.

Otley R.U.F.C. play home matches at Cross Green,[8] which was the venue for the Italy v USA fixture in the 1991 Rugby World Cup. In 1979 Cross Green was the site of a victory by the North of England against the All Blacks.[9] Australia suffered the same fate in October, 1988. Otley R.U.F.C. finished 5th in National Division One in both the 2003-4 and 2004-5 seasons but were relegated to National Division Two at the end of the 2006-7 season. The club won National Division Two in 2007-8 and returned to National Division One for the 2008-9 season. Former England captain Nigel Melville began his career at Otley. Bath, Gloucester and England rugby footballer Mike Tindall was born in Otley. Old Otliensians RUFC club play in Yorkshire League 4.

Otley Town Football Club has teams in the Premier division of the West Yorkshire League, the Premier division of the Harrogate & District League and the reserves division of the West Yorkshire League. It runs junior teams including two girls' teams. The club is a Charter Standard football club run by volunteers.

The former Republic of Ireland defender Alan Kernaghan was also born in Otley. The town has a Sunday League team, Otley Wharfeside AFC who play in the Wharfedale Triangle Football League.[2],

Otley Cricket Club, founded in 1820, play in the Airedale and Wharfedale Senior Cricket League. The club has won the league title 13 times and shared it in 1966. The club has three senior teams.[10] Otley Athletic Club meets at 7.15pm each Tuesday and Thursday at Otley Cricket Club, Cross Green.[11]

Otley Angling Club was formed in 1897 by local land owners. It controls the fishing on the River Wharfe through Otley and a coarse fishing pond on the outskirts of the town. It runs regular fishing matches on the river and junior matches on the club pond.[12]

Notable people


References

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : Leeds Retrieved 2009-09-10
  2. ^ Mills 1998, p. 263
  3. ^ a b c d e f Lewis, Samuel (1848), "Otley, (All Saints)", A Topographical Dictionary of England (British History Online): pp. 369–372, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51196#s22, retrieved 2010-12-14 
  4. ^ a b c d e Otley Conservation Area, West Yorkshire Joint Services, http://www.archaeology.wyjs.org.uk/documents/archaeology/ConsOtl.pdf, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  5. ^ The Ancient Parish of Otley, GenUKI, http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Otley/index.html, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  6. ^ Wharfedale Wayzgoose Borders Morris Side, Waygoose, http://www.wharfedale-wayzgoose.co.uk/, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  7. ^ Wharfedale District Scouts, Retrieved 2011-05-27
  8. ^ Otley RUFC home, sportnetwork.net, http://official.sportnetwork.net/main/otley--official/s175.htm, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  9. ^ "TV screening of Otley's historic rugby day". Telegraph & Argus. Newsquest Media Group. 16 September 2004. http://archive.thetelegraphandargus.co.uk/2004/9/16/97284.html. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  10. ^ Otley Cricket Club, spitchero.com, http://www.pitchero.com/clubs/otleycricketclub/, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  11. ^ Otley AC Otley Athletic Club, Otley Athletic Club, http://www.otleyac.org.uk/ Otley AC, retrieved 2011-01-16 
  12. ^ Otley Angling Club, Otley Angling Club, http://www.otleyanglingclub.co.uk, retrieved 2011-01-16 
Bibliography
  • Mills, A.D. (1998), Dictionary of English Place-Names, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-280074-4 

External links


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