- Frederick IX of Denmark
- Frederick IX redirects here. For the article about the Margrave of Brandenburg, see Frederick IX, Margrave of Brandenburg.
Frederick IX (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg) (11 March 1899 – 14 January 1972) was King of Denmark from 20 April 1947 until his death on 14 January 1972.
Birth and family
Prince Frederick was born on 11 March 1899 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby on Zealand during the reign of his great-grandfather King Christian IX. His father was Prince Christian of Denmark (later King Christian X), the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick and Princess Louise of Sweden (later King Frederick VIII and Queen Louise). His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.
He was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899. The young prince had 21 godparents, among them his great-grandfather Christian IX of Denmark, Nicholas II of Russia, George I of Greece, Oscar II of Sweden, his grandfather Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom) and his uncle Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Frederick's only sibling, Knud, was born one year after Frederick.
Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederick's grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Frederick's father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne.
Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Frederick's father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederick himself now became crown prince.
Frederick was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy (breaking Danish royal tradition by choosing a naval instead of an army career) and the University of Copenhagen. Before he became king, he had acquired the rank of Rear Admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He apparently acquired several tattoos during his naval service.
Marriage and Issue
Instead, he married Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1910–2000) at Storkyrkan in Stockholm on 24 May 1935. She was a daughter of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (later King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden) and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. They were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were double third cousins. In descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother.
They had three daughters:
- Princess Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid (born 1940), later Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, who married French Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, who was created Prince Henrik of Denmark, in 1967.
- Princess Benedikte Astrid Ingeborg Ingrid (born 1944), who married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg in 1968.
- Princess Anne-Marie Dagmar Ingrid (born 1946), who married King Constantine II of the Hellenes in 1964.
From 1942 until 1943, Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his father who was temporarily incapacitated after a fall from his horse in October 1942.
Frederick's reign saw great change. During these years, Danish society shook off the restrictions of an agricultural society and developed a welfare state. And, as a consequence of the booming economy of the 1960s, women entered the labour market. In other words, Denmark became a modern country, which meant new demands on the monarchy.
When he had no sons, it was expected that his younger brother Knud would inherit the throne, in accordance with Denmark's succession law (Royal Ordinance of 1853).
However, in 1953, an Act of Succession was passed, changing the method of succession to cognatic primogeniture. This meant that his daughters could succeed if he had no sons. His eldest daughter, Margrethe, did so, as Queen Margrethe II. By order of 27 March 1953 the succession to the throne was limited to the issue of King Christian X.
Shortly after the king had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he fell ill. On his passing 14 days later in Amalienborg Palace on January 14, 1972, King Frederick IX was buried at Roskilde Cathedral near Copenhagen, after a lying in state at the chapel of Christiansborg Palace. Previous rulers had been interred in the cathedral, but it was the King's wish to be buried outside.
He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Queen Margrethe II. Queen Ingrid survived her husband by 28 years. She died on 7 November 2000. Her remains were interred alongside him at the burial site outside Roskilde Cathedral.
On 20 April 1982, a statue of King Frederik IX dressed in the uniform of an admiral was unveiled by the Copenhagen harbour on the 35th anniversary of his accession to the throne in 1947 and in the tenth year after his death.
Titles, styles and honours
Titles and styles
- 11 March 1899 – 14 May 1912: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark
- 14 May 1912 – 1 December 1918: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark
- 1 December 1918 - 17 June 1944: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark and Iceland
- 17 June 1944 - 20 April 1947: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark
- 20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972: His Majesty The King of Denmark
16. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 8. Christian IX of Denmark 17. Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Cassel 4. Frederick VIII of Denmark 18. Landgrave William of Hesse-Kassel 9. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel 19. Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark 2. Christian X of Denmark 20. Oscar I of Sweden 10. Charles XV of Sweden 21. Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg 5. Princess Louise of Sweden 22. Prince Frederick of the Netherlands 11. Princess Louise of the Netherlands 23. Princess Louise of Prussia 1. Frederick IX of Denmark 24. Paul Frederick, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 12. Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 25. Princess Alexandrine of Prussia 6. Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 26. Prince Heinrich LXIII Reuss of Köstritz 13. Princess Augusta Reuss of Köstritz 27. Countess Eleonore zu Stolberg-Wernigerode 3. Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 28. Nicholas I of Russia 14. Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia 29. Princess Charlotte of Prussia 7. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia 30. Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden 15. Princess Cecilie of Baden 31. Princess Sophie of Sweden
Frederick IXCadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 11 March 1899 Died: 14 January 1972
- ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10126". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10126.htm#i101253. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
- ^ "Prinser og Prinsesser kommer også i kirkebogen". The Danish State Archives. http://www.sa.dk/composite-2686. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- ^ "King Frederick IX (1899-1972)". The City of Copenhagen. http://vejpark2.kk.dk/apps/monumenter/index.asp?lang=uk&mode=detalje&id=286. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Denmark
Monarchs of Denmark Early monarchsc.916–1412(Harthacnut) · Gorm the Old · Harald Bluetooth · Sweyn Forkbeard1 · Harald II · Cnut the Great1 · Harthacanute1 · Magnus the Good · Sweyn II · Harald III · Canute the Saint · Olaf I · Eric Evergood · Niels · Eric the Memorable · Eric Lamb · Sweyn Grathe / Canute V / Valdemar the Great · Canute VI · Valdemar the Victorious / Valdemar the Young · Eric Plough-tax · Abel · Christopher I · Eric Klipping · Eric Menved · Christopher II · Valdemar III · Christopher II · Interregnum · Valdemar Atterdag · Olaf II · Margaret I2 Palatinate-Neumarkt1397–1448 Oldenburg1448–1863 Schleswig-Holstein-
Danish princesThe generations are numbered from the ascension of Christian I as King of Denmark in 1448. 1st generationPrince Olaf · Prince Knut · John · Frederick I 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generationPrince Frederick · Christian, Prince Elect · Frederick III · Prince Ulrik 6th generation 7th generation 8th generationPrince Christian · Christian VI · Prince Frederik Charles · Prince George · Prince Frederik Christian · Prince Charles 9th generation 10th generation 11th generation 12th generationPrince Christian · Prince Christian · Frederick VII 13th generation 14th generation 15th generation 16th generation 17th generation 18th generation*also a prince of Greece
**lost his title due to an unequal marriage
***not a Danish prince by birth, but a royal prince consort
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