- Jewish political movements
Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of
Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. From the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans to the foundation of Israelthe Jewish people had no territory, and, until the 1800s they by-and-large were also denied equal rights in the countries in which they lived. Thus, until the nineteenth century effort for the emancipation of the Jews, almost all Jewish political struggles were internal, and dealt primarily with either religious issues or issues of a particular Jewish community.
Birth of Jewish political movements
Since Jews were excluded as outsiders throughout Europe, they were mostly shut out of politics or any sort of participation in the wider political and social sphere of the nations in which they were involved until the Enlightenment, and its Jewish counterpart,
Haskalah, made popular movements possible. As long as the Jews lived in segregated communities, and as long as all avenues of social intercourse with their gentileneighbors were closed to them, the rabbiwas the most influential member of the Jewish community. In addition to being a religious scholar and clergy, a rabbi also acted as a civil judgein all cases in which both parties were Jews. Rabbis sometimes had other important administrative powers, together with the community elders. The rabbinate was the highest aim of many Jewish boys, and the study of the Torah (first five books of the Bible) and the Talmud was the means of obtaining that coveted position, or one of many other important communal distinctions. Haskalah followers advocated "coming out of the ghetto", not just physically but also mentally and spiritually. The example of Moses Mendelssohn(1729–1786), a PrussianJew and grandfather of the great composer Felix Mendelssohn, served to lead this movement. Mendelssohn's extraordinary success as a popular philosopher and man of lettersrevealed hitherto unsuspected possibilities of integration and acceptance of Jews among non-Jews.
The changes caused by the Haskalah movement coincided with rising revolutionary movements throughout Europe. Despite these movements, only France, Britain, and the Netherlands had granted the Jews in their countries equal rights with gentiles after the
French Revolutionin 1796. Elsewhere in Europe, especially where Jews were most concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe, Jews were not granted equal rights. It was in the revolutionary atmosphere of the mid-19th century that the first true Jewish political movements would take place.
Jewish Emancipation, Haskalah"During the early stages of Jewish emancipation movements, Jews were simply part of the general effort to achieve freedom and rights that drove popular uprisings like the Revolutions of 1848. Jewish statesmen and intellectuals like Heinrich Heine, Johann Jacoby, Gabriel Riesser, Berr Isaac Berr, and Lionel Nathan Rothschildwere active with the general movement towards liberty and political freedom.
Still, in the face of persistent
anti-semiticincidents like the Damascus Blood Libel of 1840, and the failure of many states to emancipate the Jews, Jewish organizations started to form in order to push for the emancipation and protection of Jews. The Board of Deputies of British Jewsunder Moses Montefiore, the Central Consistoryof Paris, and the Alliance Israelite Universelleall began working to assure the freedom of the Jews throughout the middle of the 1800s.
ocialist and Labor movements
Jewish leftFrustration with the slow pace of Jewish acceptance into European society, and a revolutionary utopianism, led to a growing interest in proto-socialist movements, especially as early socialist leaders, like Saint-Simon, preached the emancipation of the Jews. Moses Hessplayed a role in introducing Karl Marx(who grew up Christian) and Friedrich Engelsto historical materialism. The Jewish Ferdinand Lassalle, founded the first actual workers' party in Germany, the General German Workers' Association(which ultimately merged with other parties to become the Social Democratic Party of Germany) and made Jewish emancipation one of his goals.
The more intellectual socialist movements of the Jews in Western Europe never gathered steam as emancipation took hold. In Eastern Europe and Russia, however, the "Bund"ndash the
General Jewish Labor Unionndash founded in 1897, became a key force in organizing Jews, and, at least initially, the major opponent to the most important of the Jewish political movements, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people - Zionism, or the return to Zion.
The aim of Zionism was to set up a secular state in the vicinity of the Biblical
Land of Israel. Zionism, or the idea of a restored national homeland and common identity for the Jews, had already started to take shape by the mid-1800s, with Jewish thinkers such as Moses Hesswhose 1862 work "Rome and Jerusalem; The Last National Question" argued for the Jews to settle in Palestineas a means of settling the national question. Hess proposed a socialist state in which the Jews would become agrarianised through a process of "redemption of the soil" which would transform the Jewish community into a "true" nation, in that Jews would occupy the productive layers of society rather than being an intermediary non-productive merchant class, which is how he perceived Jews in Europe. Hess, along with later thinkers such as Nahum Syrkinand Ber Borochov, is considered a founder of "Socialist Zionism" and Labour Zionismand one of the intellectual forebears of the kibbutzmovement. Others like Rabbi Zvi Kalischer viewed a return to the Jewish homeland as the fulfillment of biblical prophecy through natural means.
As the nineteenth century wore on, the persecution of the Jews in Eastern Europe where emancipation had not occurred to the extent it did in Western Europe (or at all) increased. Starting with the state-sponsored massive anti-Jewish
pogromsfollowing the assassination of Tsar Alexander II and continuing with the Dreyfus Affairin Francein 1894, Jews were profoundly shocked to see the continuing extent of anti-Semitismfrom Russia to France, a country which they thought of as the home of enlightenment and liberty.
In reaction to the first,
Judah Leib Pinskerpublished the pamphlet Auto-Emancipationin January 1, 1882. The pamphlet became influential for the "Political Zionism" movement. The movement was to achieve momentum under the leadership of an Austrian-Jewish journalist, Theodor Herzl, who published his pamphlet " Der Judenstaat" ("The Jewish State") in 1896. Prior to the Dreyfus Affair, Herzl had been an assimilationist, but after seeing how France treated its loyal Jewish subjects, he proposed building a separate Jewish state. In 1897 Herzl organized the First Zionist Congressin Basel, Switzerland, which founded the World Zionist Organisation(WZO) and elected Herzl as its first President. After the state's establishment Zionism, in its various forms, would become the largest Jewish political movement, although more Jews would participate in the national politics of the countries in which they resided.
In the aftermath of the 1905 pogroms in Russia, the historian
Simon Dubnowfounded the Folkspartei(Yiddishe Folkspartay) which had some intellectual audience in Russia, then, in independent Polandand Lithuaniain the 1920-1930s where it was represented as well in the Parliaments ( Sejm, Seimas) as in numerous municipal councils (incl. Warsaw) till in the late 1930s. The party didn't survive the Shoah, the Holocaust.
The territorialists, who had split from the Zionists after the Seventh Zionist Congress in 1905, called for creation of a sufficiently large and compact Jewish territory (or territories), not necessarily in the
Land of Israeland not necessarily fully autonomous. Some territorialist leaders, such as Nachman Syrkin, supported the Socialist versions of Zionism, while some others, such as Lucien Wolf, actively opposed Zionismand promoted anti-nationalist ideas. Isaac Nachman Steinberg, one of the founders of the Freeland League, held anti-authoritarian socialist views, as well as his close friend Erich Fromm, who supported Steinberg's territorialist ideas.
While the Jews in general played an important role in the international anarchist movements, many Jewish anarchists actively promoted
Yiddishlanguage and culture, focused on specifically Jewish issues. While most Jewish anarchists were irreligious or even vehemently anti-religious, some Jewish anarchist and anti-authoritarian thinkers, such as Martin Buber, rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, Isaac Nachman Steinbergand Gustav Landauer, were religious or religiously inclined and often referred to the Torah, Talmud and other traditional Judaic sources, claiming that anarchist ideas are deeply rooted in the Jewish tradition. The Jewish anarchists believe that in the stateless, free and diverse anarchist society the Jews would have more opportunities to express their individual and cultural autonomy. Many Jewish anarchists, while promoting universal internationalistvalues, had actively participated in the development of the Yiddish culture and Jewish community life.
There was some intersection between the Jewish anarchist, Folkist and Territorialist movements. For example,
Isaac Nachman Steinberg, a renowned Territorialist leader, held anarchist views. Most Jewish anarchists supported anarcho-syndicalismand communist anarchism, while a few were individualist anarchists. The small contemporary anarchist movement in Israel is very active in peace and Palestinian solidarity actions.
Modern Jewish political movements
Zionism continues to be the central trans-national political movement of most Jews, although it has split into a variety of branches and philosophies that span the political spectrum from left-wing to right-wing. Jews are also active in government in many of the countries in which they live, as well as in Jewish community organizations that often take political positions.
Over the past century, Jews in Europe and the Americas have traditionally tended towards the political left, and played key roles in the birth of the
labor movementas well as socialism. While Diaspora Jews have also been represented in the conservative side of the political spectrum, even politically conservative Jews have tended to support pluralism more consistently than many other elements of the political right. Daniel J. Elazar connects this pluralist tendency to the fact that Jews are not expected to proselytize, and argues that whereas Christianityand Islamanticipate a single world-state, Judaism does not. [http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles2/jud-democ.htm] This lack of a universalizing religion is combined with the fact that most Jews live as minorities in their countries, and that no central Jewish religious authority has existed for over 2,000 years. "(See list of Jews in politics, which illustrates the diversity of Jewish political thought and of the roles Jews have played in politics.)"
There are also a number of Jewish secular organizations at the local, national, and international levels. These organizations often play an important part in the Jewish community. Most of the largest groups, such as
Hadassahand the [http://www.ujc.org/ United Jewish Communities] , have an elected leadership. No one secular group represents the entire Jewish community, and there is often significant internal debate among Jews about the stances these organizations take on affairs dealing with the Jewish community as a whole, such as antisemitism and Israeli policies. In the United States and Canada today, the mainly secular United Jewish Communities(UJC), formerly known as the United Jewish Appeal(UJA), represents over 150 Jewish Federationsand 400 independent communities across North America. Every major American city has its local "Jewish Federation", and many have sophisticated community centers and provide services, mainly health care-related. They raise record sums of money for philanthropic and humanitariancauses in North America and Israel. Other organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League, American Jewish Congress, American Jewish Committee, American Israel Public Affairs Committee, Zionist Organization of America, Americans for a safe Israel, B'nai B'rithand Agudath Israelrepresent different segments of the American Jewish community on a variety of issues.
Jewish left- Jewish right
Zionism( Jewish nationalism)
*David Vital, A People Apart: A Political History of the Jews in Europe 1789-1939, Oxford University Press, 2001.
* A special issue of the journal [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org "Labyrinthe. Atelier interdisciplinaire"] (in French) has been devoted to the issue: [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org/sommaire2512.html "Des Juifs contre l'émancipation. De Babylone à Benny Lévy"] [Jews Against Emancipation: From Babylon to Benny Lévy] (2007). [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org/document2803.html Editorial] available online.
* [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Modern/Overview1700.htm My Jewish Learning on Jewish Political Movements]
* [http://urj.org/worship/letuslearn/emancipation/ URJ Emancipation information]
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