Echinopsis peruviana


Echinopsis peruviana

Taxobox
name = Peruvian Torch cactus



image_caption = "Echinopsis peruviana" specimen (2.4 m tall)
image_width = 250px
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Caryophyllales
familia = Cactaceae
genus = "Echinopsis"
species = "E. peruviana"
binomial = "Echinopsis peruviana"
binomial_authority = (Britton & Rose)
synonyms = "Trichocereus peruvianus"

Peruvian Torch cactus ("Echinopsis peruviana" syn. "Trichocereus peruvianus") is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about 2000-3000 meters above sea level.

The plant is bluish-green in colour, with frosted stems, and 6-8 broadly rounded ribs; it has large, white flowers. It can grow up to 7 meters tall, with stems up to 20 cm in diameter; it is fully erect to begin with, but later possibly arching over, or even becoming prostrate. Groups of 6-8 honey-coloured to brown rigid spines, up to 4 cm in length, with most about 1 cm, are located at the nodes, which are evenly spaced along the ribs, up to approximately 2.5 cm apart.

A short-spined variant which is nearly identical in appearance to its relative, "Echinopsis pachanoi" (San Pedro cactus), is known. It is therefore possible that many misidentified plants are being sold (both as Peruvian Torch and as San Pedro), but since local variations as well as hybrids do exist (both cultivated and natural), this will obviously make proper identification difficult.

Uses

Some uses for "Echinopsis peruviana" include:cite web
url=http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichocereus_peruvianus
title=Echinopsis peruviana - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
publisher=es.wikipedia.org
accessdate=2008-02-23
last=
first=
]
* For dandruff and seborrhea or for a general shampoo, mucilage of the stem is used.

* Sore throat: Decoction of the stem.

* Antirheumatic: The stem is cut, soaked for a day and the next day used to wash the area of pain with this mucilage water.

* Vetrinarial: For getting rid of pig parasites, the cactus stem is peeled, smashed and let to soak in water overnight. It is then mixed with food given to the animal.

* Adherent in paints: The peeled stems are beaten and left to stand in water, filtrate is added to minerals such as lime or gypsum. The result is a kind of gum for paint.

* Wood: The dried stalks are very resistant to moths. The dried stalks are used to make scales and in the construction of houses.

Cultivation

USDA Hardiness Zones: 10-12cite web|url=http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Cactaceae/Echinopsis_peruviana.html |title=San Pedro Macho Echinopsis peruviana |accessdate=2008-01-15 |last=Faucon |first=Philippe |work=www.desert-tropicals.com ]

"Echinopsis peruviana" can be propagated from either seeds or cuttings.

Propagation from cuttings

Like many other plants, "Echinopsis peruviana" can be propagated from cuttings. The result is a genetic clone of the parent plant. [http://www.sacredcactus.com/Cactus_TIPs_ebay.pdf San Pedro Cactus Growing Tips (www.sacredcactus.com)] ] For example, the top 15 cm end of a cactus column can be cut off with a knife, then the cutting can be left to dry for about two weeks in the shade, or in a dry place. This is so that the surface of the cut end dries out like paper forming a seal to keep out microorganisms such as mold. The cutting can then be dipped in rooting hormone (optional, but effective) and planted on the surface of or buried to a maximum of 2.5 cm deep in good topsoil mixed with some sand and perlite. The cutting is kept in the shade or indirect sunlight, so that the root system can develop and the cactus does not grow too thinly. After about 6 months, significant roots will have formed and the cutting can be repotted in the same type of soil..]

Chemistry

It contains a number of psychoactive alkaloids, in particular the well-studied chemical mescaline, which it sometimes contains at higher levels than those of "Echinopsis pachanoi" (San Pedro cactus), although not as high as "Lophophora williamsii" (Peyote).

ubspecies

"Echinopsis peruviana" ssp. "puquiensis" (Rauh & Backeb.) C.Ostolaza Nano [cite web
url=http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Cactaceae/Echinopsis_puquiensis.html
title=Echinopsis peruviana ssp. puquiensis
publisher=www.desert-tropicals.com
accessdate=2008-02-23
last=
first=
]

Varieties

Some varieties of "Echinopsis peruviana" are:
* var. "ancash" (KK1688), San Marcos, Ancash, northwest Peru.
* var. "ayacuchensis" (KK2151), southwestern Peru.
* var. "cuzcoensis" (KK340), Huachac, Cuzco, southeastern Peru.
* var. (H14192), Huntington, EE.UU.
* var. "huancabamba", Piura, northwest Peru.
* var. "huancavelica" (KK242a), west central Peru.
* var. "huancayo" (KK338), west central Peru.
* var. "huaraz" (KK2152), Ancash, northwestern Peru.

* var. "matucana" (KK242) Lima, central west Peru.
* var. "puquiensis" (KK1689), Puquio, Apurímac Region, southwestern Peru.
* var. "Rio Lurin" (KK2147), Rio Rimac, Lima, west central Peru.
* var. "tarmensis" (KK2148), Tarma, Junin, west central Peru.
* var. "trujilloensis", Trujillo, La Libertad, northwestern Peru.

References

Notes

General references

* James D. Mauseth, Roberto Kiesling, "Cactus and Succulent Journal (US)" 70 (1): 32-39
* Michael S. Smith, "The Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World"
* [http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=245 Trichocereus peruvianus - Peruvian torch cactus]
* [http://www.plot55.com/growing/trichocereus.html Growing Trichocereus species (Plot55.com)]

External links

* [http://www.troutsnotes.com/sc/KK242_us/kk242USindex.htm "Echinopsis peruviana" KK242 Photos]
* [http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Cactaceae/Echinopsis_peruviana.html "Echinopsis peruviana" (Desert Tropicals)]
* [http://www.bcss.org.uk/seedgrow.html How to grow CACTI and other succulent plants from seed (British Cactus and Succulent Society)]
* [http://www.desertgardens.com/cactus_gardening_articles/growing2.htm Growing Cacti From Seed (Desert Gardens LLC)]


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