List of membranophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number


List of membranophones by Hornbostel-Sachs number

The Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification groups all instruments in which sound is produced primarily through a vibrating membrane. This includes all drums.

*2: Instruments in which sound is produced through a vibrating membrane
**21: Instruments in which the membrane is struck
***211: Instruments in which the membrane is struck directly, such as through bare hands, beaters or keyboards
****211.1: Instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped (kettle drums)
*****211.11: Single instruments
*****211.12: Sets of instruments
****211.2: Instruments in which the body is tubular (tubular drums)
*****211.21: Instruments in which the body has the same diameter at the middle and end (cylindrical drums)
******211.211: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.211.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.211.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.212: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.212.1: Single instruments
*******211.212.2: Sets of instruments
*****211.22: Instruments in which the body is barrel-shaped (barrel drums)
******211.221: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.221.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.221.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.222: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.222.1: Single instruments
*******211.222.2: Sets of instruments
*****211.23: Instruments in which the body is double-conical
******211.231: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.231.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.231.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.232: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.232.1: Single instruments
*******211.232.2: Sets of instruments
*****211.24: Instruments in which the body is hourglass-shaped
******211.241: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.241.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.241.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.242: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.242.1: Single instruments
*******211.242.2: Sets of instruments
*****211.25: Instruments in which the body is conical-shaped (conical drums)
******211.251: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.251.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.251.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.252: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.252.1: Single instruments
*******211.252.2: Sets of instruments
*****211.26: Instruments in which the body is goblet-shaped (goblet drums)
******211.261: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*******211.261.1: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is open
*******211.261.2: Instruments in which the end without a membrane is closed
******211.262: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*******211.262.1: Single instruments
*******211.262.2: Sets of instruments
****211.3: Instruments in which the body depth is not greater than the radius of the membrane (frame drums)
*****211.31: Instruments which do not have a handle
******211.311: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
******211.312: Instruments which have two usable membranes
*****211.32: Instruments which have a handle
******211.321: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
******211.322: Instruments which have two usable membranes
***212: Instruments which are shaken, the membrane being vibrated by objects inside the drum (rattle drums)
**22: Instruments with a string attached to the membrane, so that when the string is plucked, the membrane vibrates (plucked drums)
**23: Instruments in which the membrane vibrates as a result of friction
***231: Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated from a stick that is rubbed or used to rub the membrane
****231.1: Instruments in which the stick is inserted in a hole in the membrane
*****231.11: Instruments in which the stick can not be moved and is subject to rubbing, causing friction on the membrane
*****231.12: Instruments in which the stick is semi-movable, and can be used to rub the membrane
*****231.13: Instruments in which the stick is freely movable, and is used used to rub the membrane
****231.2: Instruments in which the stick is tied upright to the membrane
***232: Instruments in which a cord, attached to the membrane, is rubbed
****232.1: Instruments in which the drum is held stationary whileplaying
*****232.11: Instruments which have only one usable membrane
*****232.12: Instruments which have two usable membranes
****232.2: Instruments in which the drum is twirled by a cord, which rubs in a notch on the stick held by the player
***233: Instruments in which the membrane is rubbed by hand
**24: Instruments in which the membrane vibrates by singing or speaking into it (kazoos)
***241: Instruments in which the membrane is vibrated by an unbroken column of wind, without a chamber
***242: Instruments in which the membrane is placed in a box, tube or other container

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, depending on how the membrane is attached to the body:

*6: Membrane glued to the body
*7: Membrane nailed to the body
*8: Membrane laced to the body
**81: Lacing is cord- or ribbon-bracing, in which the cords stretch between membranes or in the form of a net
***811: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***812: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***813: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***814: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
**82: The lacing at the lower end is attached to a non-sonorous hide
***821: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***822: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***823: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***824: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
**83: The lacing at the lower end is attached to an auxiliary board
***831: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***832: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***833: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***834: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
**84: The lacing at the lower end is attached to flange, carved from a solid block
***841: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***842: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***843: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***844: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
**85: The lacing at the lower end is attached to a belt
***851: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***852: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***853: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***854: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
**86: The lacing at the lower end is attached to pegs inserted in the body of the drum
***861: Lacing does not use a special device to stretch the cords
***862: The middle of the lacing has ribbons or cords tied crossways to increase the tension of the lacing (tension ligature)
***863: The lacing is zigzag, with every pair of strings attached to a ring or hoop (tension loop)
***864: Wedges, placed between the body and the lacing, can be used to alter the tension by adjusting the positioning of the wedges
*9: Membrane is bound to the body with a ring slipped on top of it
**91: Membrane is attached by a ring made of cord
**92: Membrane is attached by a ring made of a hoop
***921: Drum has no mechanism
***922: Drum has mechanism
****9221: Drum has no pedals
****9222: Drum has pedals

21. Struck drums

*Bass drum
*Bodhrán
*Bongo drum
*Conga
*Dabakan
*Kettle drum
*O-daiko
*Octoban
*Snare drum
*Tabla
*Taiko
*Tamak'
*Tambourine (the jingles also make this an idiophone)
*Timpani
*Tom-Tom
*Tumdak'

22. Plucked drums

Some commentators believe that instruments in this class ought instead to be regarded as chordophones (see below).

23. Friction drums

*Cuíca
*Rommelpot

24. Singing membranes

Instruments in which a membrane modifies some other sound (typically the human voice) in some way (mirlitons).
*Kazoos


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number — The following lists contain musical instruments, categorized according to the Hornbostel Sachs system by how they make sound.*List of idiophones by Hornbostel Sachs number *List of membranophones by Hornbostel Sachs number *List of chordophones… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Caribbean membranophones — Enko redirects here. enko is also a common suffix of Ukrainian surnames, meaning son of . Conga drums are a common part of Caribbean music across much of the area This is a list of membranophones used in the Caribbean music area, including the… …   Wikipedia

  • Directly struck membranophones — is one of the sub categories of musical instruments found in the Hornbostel Sachs system of musical instrument classification. The type of membranophones or drums found in this group are those instruments that produce sound when struck directly… …   Wikipedia

  • Membranophone — A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.… …   Wikipedia

  • Musical instrument — A musical instrument is a device created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can serve as a musical instrument it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Southeast Asian arts — Literary, performing, and visual arts of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. The classical literatures of Southeast Asia can be divided into three major regions: the Sanskrit region of… …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.