Tehran Metro


Tehran Metro

Infobox Public transit
name = Teheran Metro


imagesize =
locale = Teheran
transit_type = Rapid transit (line 1,2,4)
Regional rail (line 5)
began_operation = 1999 / 2000
ended_operation =
system_length = km to mi|140.0|precision=1|abbr=yes
lines = 5
vehicles =
stations = 60
ridership =
track_gauge =
reporting marks =
operator =
owner =

History

Tehran metro is one of the middle east's biggest metros.The initial plans of the Tehran Metro, which was to be Iran's first metro system, were laid out before the Iranian revolution in the 1970s. In 1970 the Plan and Budget Organization and the Municipality of Tehran announced an international tender for construction of a metro in Tehran. The French company SOFRETU, affiliated with the state-owned Paris transportation authority RATP, won the tender and in the same year began to conduct preliminary studies on the project. In 1974, a final report with a so-called 'street-metro' proposal was tendered. The street-metro system recommended a road network with a loop express way in the central area and 2 highways for new urban areas and a 8-line metro network which were complemented by bus network and taxi services. Geological surveys commenced in 1976. In 1978 construction on the line was started in northern Tehran by the French company, however this development was shortlived with the advent of the Iranian Revolution and Iran–Iraq War in 1979 and 1980 respectively. SOFRETU ceased operations in Iran in December 1980. On March 3, 1982, the Iranian Cabinet ministers formally announced the stop of Tehran Metro operations by the French company.

In 1985, the "Tehran Metro Execution Plan" was re-approved by Majles (Iran Parliament) on the basis of legal project of "Amendment of Law of Establishment of Tehran Urban and suburban Railway Company" which had been founded on Farvardin 1364 (April 1985). This was a literal continuation of the exact same project that had been laid out before the revolution. Work proceeded slowly due to the continuing Iran–Iraq War and often ground to a halt.

By the summer of 1985, urban pressure from the rapidly urbanising population, and lack of developed public transport system prompted the work to be resumed in earnest. 'Line 1' (From Blvd. Shahid Ayatollah Haghani to City of Rey) and its extension to Behesht-e-Zahra Cemetery was made a priority. 'Line 2' (From Dardasht in Tehran Pars district to Sadeghiyeh Second Square) and an extending towards the City of Karaj and Mehrshahr district was also made a secondary priority. Studies were also made to establish the previously designed Line 3 and 4. It was decided that an organisation by the name of the Metro Company should be established in order to handle the future development of the system.

Following this phase, the Metro Company was managed by Asghar Ebrahimi Asl for eleven years. During this time, hundreds of millions of dollars were spent on the system and the Metro Company was given government concessions for the exploitation of iron ore mines in Bandar Abbas (Hormuzgan Province), exploitation and sale of Moghan Diotomite mine in Azarbaijan Province, export of refinery residues from Isfahan oil refinery as well as tar from Isfahan steel mill [http://www.msedv.com/rai/metro_history.html] . The year after Asghar Ebrahimi Asl left the management of the Metro Company and Mohsen Hashemi, the current Chairman of the company, succeeded him, the first line of the Tehran Metro was launched between Tehran and Karaj.

On March 7, 1999, an overland Tehran-Karaj express electric train started a limited service of 31.4 km between Azadi Square (Tehran) and Malard (Karaj) calling at one intermediate station at Vardavard. The line was constructed by the Chinese company NORINCO.

Line 5 of the Tehran metro began operating in the year 1999 and was Iran's first metro system.

From 2000 onwards, commercial operation began on Lines 1 and 2. The wagons on these lines are provided by CNTIC. The railway tracks and points on these lines are provided by the Austrian company VOEST ALPINE

The Metro uses equipment manufactured by a wide range of international companies:Double-deck passenger cars for the Tehran-Karaj commuter line are supplied by CNTIC and assembled by the Wagon Pars factory in Arak.

To date, approximately one billion US dollars have been spent on the Metro project. [http://www.msedv.com/rai/metro_history.html] Once fully operational, the Tehran Metro is expected to transport about 2 million passengers through its first and second lines.

The lines

Line One

The line, coloured red on system maps, is currently 28.1 km long, of which 14.9 km are underground (from Martyr Haqqani highway to Shoush-Khayyam crossing) and the rest runs at surface level. The number of stations along this line is 22 of which 14 stations are located underground and 8 above ground. As of 2005, the total capacity of line one is 640,000 passenger per day, with trains stopping at each station for 20-30 seconds. The trains are each made up of seven wagons, with a nominal capacity of 1,290 seated and standing passengers. The maximum speed of the trains is 80 km per hour which will be tempered to an average of 37 km per hour due to stoppages at stations along the route.

Line One runs mostly north-south. Extension of the line from Mirdamad station to Tajrish Square is under construction and once completed some 8.1 km underground route with 7 stations would be added to the existing line length. The construction was to be completed by March 2007, however has faced major issues due to large rock bed in part of the tunnels and water drain issues. It is scheduled for completion before March 21 2008.

Line Two

This line is 20.4 km long, with 19km as a subway and 1.4km elevated. There are 19 stations along this line one of which is shared by Line One. Line Two is coloured blue on system maps and runs mostly east-west through the city.

Line Three

This line, coloured green on system maps, will be 16.2 km long at the end of Phase 1, but once completed the length would be 37 km with 32 stations. There is also potential plans for this line to be extended above ground to Imam Khomeini International Airport. Its direction is mostly east-west, and it connects with the western end of Line Two at Tehran (Sadeghiyeh) station.

Line Four

The line will be 20 kilometers long with 22 stations and one terminal. Two stations of this line are shared by line two. Three stations (4KM long) opened in April 2008. It is scheduled to have another 7 stations open before years end.

Line Five

The line is 41.5 km long and has seven stations and one terminal. Entering the area of Karaj with main stations at Bonyad-e Rang, Karaj and Mehrshahr.

afety concerns & commuter perceptions

All routes have been equipped with ATP, ATS, CTC and SCADA. More and more residents use the metro due to the improvement in the peak-hour headways, the opening of more stations and overall improvement with new escalators, elevators and air-conditioning in the trains.

Art in Tehran Metro

Combination of the modern art and traditional Persian art is prominent in every station of the Tehran Metro.

Accidents

* On 18 July 2006, a twenty meter square area immediately adjacent to the entrance of the Toupkhaneh metro station caved in. There were no casualties, but the station had to undergo numerous repairs.


=Cultural da

The Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation has complained that the vibrations caused by the Metro were having a significant and highly adverse effect on the Masudieh Palace in the Baharestan neighbourhood of central Tehran [http://www.payvand.com/news/05/apr/1106.html] . The Cultural Heritage Organisation has also complained about vibrations near other historic sites such as the Golestan Palace and the National Museum of Iran. However, engineers and technical experts believe that it is the noise that induces the false sense of vibration and like many metro systems in large cities (Paris, London ...), no untoward impact is probable.

Metro Systems in other cities of Iran

* Mashhad Metro
* Isfahan Metro
* Shiraz Metro
* Tabriz Metro
* Ahvaz Metro

ee also

* List of rapid transit systems
* List of Tehran metro stations
* Tehran Monorail
* Transport in Iran

External links

* [http://www.tehranmetro.ir Tehran Metro]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoxF-DlpCPQ&mode=related&search= Video Clip of one of the Tehran Metro stations]

ources

* [http://www.msedv.com/rai/metro_history.html]


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