Traverse City, Michigan


Traverse City, Michigan
Traverse City, Michigan
—  City  —
Downtown Traverse City

Official Logo
Location of Traverse City within Grand Traverse County, Michigan
Coordinates: 44°46′05″N 85°37′20″W / 44.76806°N 85.62222°W / 44.76806; -85.62222Coordinates: 44°46′05″N 85°37′20″W / 44.76806°N 85.62222°W / 44.76806; -85.62222
Country United States
State Michigan
Counties Grand Traverse, Leelanau
Incorporated 1891 (village)
Incorporated 1895 (city)
Government
 – Type Council-Manager
 – Mayor Chris Bzdok[1]
 – City Manager R. Ben Bifoss
Area
 – City 8.7 sq mi (22.5 km2)
 – Land 8.4 sq mi (21.8 km2)
 – Water 0.3 sq mi (0.8 km2)
Elevation 626 ft (191 m)
Population (2010)
 – City 14,674
 – Density 1,743.3/sq mi (673.1/km2)
 – Metro 142,316 (2,008 est.)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 – Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 231
FIPS code 26-80340[2]
GNIS feature ID 1615042[3]
Website http://www.ci.traverse-city.mi.us

Traverse City (play /ˈtrævərs ˈsɪti/ or local /ˈtrævər.sɪti/) is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Grand Traverse County,[4] although a small portion extends into Leelanau County. It is the largest city in the 21-county Northern Michigan region. The population was 14,674 at the 2010 census, with 143,372 in the Traverse City micropolitan area. Despite its modest population, Traverse City functions as the major commercial nexus for a seven-county area totaling over 2,700 square miles (7,000 km2) and, along with cross-peninsula counterpart Alpena, is one of Northern Lower Michigan's two anchor cities.

The Traverse City area is the largest producer of tart cherries in the United States.[5] Near the time of cherry harvest, the city holds an annual week-long Cherry Festival in the first full week in July, attracting approximately 500,000 visitors annually.[6] The surrounding countryside also produces grapes, and is one of the centers of wine production in the Midwest.[7] Tourism, both summer and winter, is another key industry. The Traverse City area features varied natural attractions, including freshwater beaches, vineyards, a National Lakeshore, downhill skiing areas, and numerous forests.[8] In 2009, TripAdvisor named Traverse City the number two small town travel destination in the United States.[9]

Contents

History

Traverse City is named after the Grand Traverse Bay, which the city heads. The bay earned its name from 18th century French voyagers who made la grande traverse or "the long crossing" across the mouth of the Grand Traverse Bay.[10]

Downtown Traverse City as viewed from West Grand Traverse Bay

In 1847, Captain Boardman of Naperville, Illinois, purchased the land at the mouth of the Boardman River at the head of the west arm of the bay. During that year the captain, his son, and their employees built a dwelling and sawmill near the mouth of the river. In 1851 the Boardmans sold the sawmill to Hannah, Lay & Co (Perry Hannah, Albert Tracy Lay and James Morgan), who improved the mill greatly. The increased investment in the mill attracted additional settlers to the new community.

As of 1853, the only operating post office in the Grand Traverse Bay region was the one located at Old Mission, which was then known as "Grand Traverse." While in Washington, D.C. in 1852, Mr. Lay had succeeded in getting the U.S. Post Office to authorize a new post office at his newer settlement. As the newer settlement had become known as "Grand Traverse City," Lay proposed this name for its post office, but the USPS clerk suggested dropping the "Grand," in the name, as to limit confusion between this new office and the one at nearby Old Mission. Mr. Lay agreed to the name "Traverse City" for the post office, and the village took on this name.

Climate

Its location on the 45th parallel is tempered by the strong and moderating effects of Lake Michigan and Grand Traverse Bay, which have a particularly noteworthy effect on the peninsulas that branch north of the city. As a result they have viticulture and Cherry orchards.[11] Conseqeuntly, it generally experiences warm, mild summers and severe winters. Lake Michigan especially, but also Grand Traverse Bay, greatly impact the area's diverse coastal weather patterns, which occasionally consist of sudden and/or large amounts of precipitation during the seasonally active periods. Lake-effect snowfall constitutes a large percentage of the total annual snow accumulation, which averages around 80 inches (203 cm).[12] Periods of snowfall typically last from November to April, with snow flurries as late as May or as early as September not unexpected.

Traverse City's record high temperature is 105 °F (41 °C), and its low temperature is −33 °F (−36 °C), recorded on February 17, 1979.

Climate data for Traverse City, Michigan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 59
(15)
58
(14)
82
(28)
88
(31)
97
(36)
104
(40)
105
(41)
100
(38)
96
(36)
86
(30)
77
(25)
62
(17)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 29
(−2)
29
(−2)
38
(3)
52
(11)
64
(18)
75
(24)
81
(27)
78
(26)
71
(22)
60
(16)
44
(7)
33
(1)
55
Average low °F (°C) 15
(−9)
13
(−11)
21
(−6)
32
(0)
41
(5)
52
(11)
59
(15)
58
(14)
51
(11)
41
(5)
31
(−1)
21
(−6)
36
Record low °F (°C) −23
(−31)
−33
(−36)
−30
(−34)
1
(−17)
16
(−9)
29
(−2)
31
(−1)
29
(−2)
26
(−3)
13
(−11)
−5
(−21)
−10
(−23)
−33
(−36)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.9
(48)
1.5
(38)
1.8
(46)
2.3
(58)
2.8
(71)
2.5
(64)
2.8
(71)
2.7
(69)
3.0
(76)
2.8
(71)
2.7
(69)
1.8
(46)
28.6
(726)
Source: weatherbase.com[13]

Geography

Boardman River between downtown Traverse City and Grand Traverse Bay

Traverse City is a part of the greater Northern Michigan region. The city is the main inland port of the Grand Traverse Bay; a long, natural harbor separated from the waters of Lake Michigan by the Leelanau Peninsula, and divided longitudinally almost evenly by a narrow peninsula of tiered hillsides and farmland called Old Mission Peninsula.

The most prominent and historically connected of the city's waterways is the Boardman River. Along with Boardman Lake, the river is part of the Boardman River Watershed and winds throughout the city as an integral and defining part of the downtown topography and economy, before flowing out into West Grand Traverse Bay. The Boardman’s 287-square-mile (740 km2) watershed contributes one-third of the water volume to the bay and is one of Michigan’s top-ten fishieres, with more than 36 miles (58 km) of its 179 miles (288 km) designated as a Blue Ribbon trout fishery. It is also a state-designated "Natural River".[14]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.7 square miles (22.5 km2), of which, 8.4 square miles (21.8 km2) of it is land and 0.3 square miles (0.8 km2) of it (3.45%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 14,532 people, 6,443 households, and 3,485 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,728.7 per square mile (667.2/km²). There were 6,842 housing units at an average density of 813.9 per square mile (314.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.00% White, 0.65% African American, 0.98% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.67% of the population.

White Black Other
96.00% 0.65% 3.35%

There were 6,443 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.9% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.82.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,330, and the median income for a family was $46,912. Males had a median income of $31,587 versus $22,512 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,247. About 4.8% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Traverse City is a home rule charter city under the Home Rule Cities Act, incorporated on May 18, 1895. The city is governed by six commissioners and a mayor, elected at-large. Together they comprise a seven-member legislative body. The commission appoints a city manager who serves as chief executive for city operations.

Education

Tourism

Much of Traverse City's economy is based on tourism. As part of the 2011 tourism advertising campaign the Traverse City Visitors Bureau, Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport and many local businesses sponosored a video to be played on all Delta flights in the month of June 2011.[16]

Media

Print

The Traverse City Record-Eagle is northwest lower Michigan's daily newspaper. It is circulated in the thirteen counties surrounding the city. In December 2006 it was sold by Ottaway Newspapers Inc., the community newspaper subsidiary of Dow Jones & Company to Community Newspaper Holdings, Inc. (CNHI). It is the newspaper of record for Grand Traverse County. Daily editions of the Detroit Free Press, Detroit News, and Grand Rapids Press also are available on news stands throughout the region. Other local publications include Traverse City magazine NM3 Magazine a local lifestyle and entertainment publication, "Grand Traverse Insider", a local weekly community newspaper. , Northern Express Weekly, Traverse City Business News, and Grand Traverse Woman Magazine.

At least seven national magazines are published in Traverse City, including Thirdeye Magazine. Village Press Inc. is based in Traverse City. It publishes the Home Shop Machinist, Live Steam and Outdoor Railroading, Machinists' Workshop, Just Labs, Pointing Dog Journal, Retriever Journal and Twin and Turbine Magazines.

Television

Traverse City is the largest city in the Traverse City-Cadillac-Sault Ste. Marie Designated Market Area, the largest television market in area east of the Mississippi River. Accordingly, most stations in this vast region are broadcast simultaneously on widely-spaced transmitters on separate channels.

Traverse City has two television stations licensed directly to the city:

  • Channel 7: WPBN-TV "TV 7&4" (NBC) (simulcast on channel 4, Cheboygan)
  • Channel 29: WGTU "ABC 29&8" (ABC) (simulcast on channel 8, Goetzville)

Additionally, WGTU operates a CW Plus station on its second digital subchannel and Northern Michigan cable television systems:

  • Channel 61: WGTU-DT2 "Northern Michigan's CW" (The CW) *** The CW 61 channel is no longer in operation in Traverse City (as of June 2009)

The city also has a low power rebroadcast transmitter of Mount Pleasant's PBS affiliate, WCMU-TV, operating on channel 46 (W46AD).

Stations licensed to nearby Cadillac are considered local to Traverse City:

  • Channel 9: WWTV "9 & 10 News" (CBS) (simulcast on channel 10, Goetzville, MI in the eastern U.P.)
  • Channel 32: WFQX-TV "Fox 32" (Fox)

Fox's sister network, MyNetworkTV, did not have an affiliate in the region when it launched back in September 2006. That changed at some point in 2008 when WLLZ-LP channel 12 added the network. This station also airs programming from America One and RTV.

Cable television service is provided within Traverse City and many outlying communities by Charter Communications. Public-access television cable TV programming is provided on channel 2.

Radio

The Grand Traverse region is the primary hub for all of Northern Michigan's radio media. Traverse City is the home of Northern Michigan talk radio station WTCM News/Talk 580 AM. Other talk stations available in the Traverse City area include WJML, WMKT, WSRT, and WLDR. AM 1310 ESPN Radio (operated by WCCW) broadcasts national ESPN content along with Detroit Pistons, Tigers, Red Wings and Lions games. MSU Football and Basketball can also be heard on 1310. There are 16 [17] Commercial radio stations in a variety of typical commercial radio formats. WNMC 90.7 FM is a community public radio station that is committed to a wide variety of musical genres and local events.

Traverse City has 2 Religious radio stations; W201CM (a Translator at 88.1) and WLJN AM/FM 89.9FM and 1400AM

Interlochen Center for the Arts's NPR member station Interlochen Public Radio.[18] it serves a large portion of Northwest Lower Michigan via two stations:[19]

There is also WLDR Sunny Country 101.9 a station serving the Grand Traverse area and surrounding counties. They are the first to broadcast in HD radio in Michigan and play a mix of today's Country hits and the legends. They have been the sponsor for several major events in Traverse City, including The Beach Bum Games, Horses by the Bay, the Make-A-Wish Motorcycle Tour, and the Traverse City Easter Egg Hunt.

Recreation

The National Cherry Festival, held during the first full week of July every year, is a draw for tourists to Traverse City. The festival features parades, fireworks, an air show, election of festival royalty, live music, a pie-eating contest and cherries. It is estimated that the Grand Traverse region produces up to 360,000,000 pounds (163,000,000 kg) of cherries annually. The largest variety of cherry produced locally is the Montmorency cherry, or the "pie cherry". Other cherries grown in the region include the Ulster, or sweet cherry, and the Balaton (from Lake Balaton in Hungary), a cherry situated between the Montmorency and Ulster in terms of color and taste.

The locale and topography is conducive for bicycling.[20] A map with routes, different trips, advice and local knowledge is available.[21] Lake Michigan presents a location for sailing, fishing, and kayaking.[22]

The Traverse City State Park, with about 250 campsites, is located three miles (4.8 km) east of downtown on 47 acres (19 ha) including a quarter mile beach on the East Bay arm of Grand Traverse Bay.

The sandy soil is conducive to viticulture, and there are over 50 wineries in the Traverse City area.[1] Most offer free wine tasting. Traverse city is located at the base of the Old Mission Peninsula wine region

Shopping

Traverse City's central business district is located along Front Street downtown. Another major shopping district is on US 31 southwest of town, where several big box stores are located, as well as two shopping malls: the Grand Traverse Mall, anchored by Target, JCPenney, Macy's, and the Preferred Outlets, a factory outlet center. Another mall, Cherryland Center, is located on Garfield Avenue on the south end of town; this mall features Kmart, Younkers, and Sears.

Professional sports

Traverse City is home to a professional baseball team and a semi-professional football team. The Traverse City Beach Bums are a minor league baseball team who play their home games at Wuerfel Park in nearby Blair Township, Michigan. The Beach Bums are a member of the independent Frontier League.

The Traverse City North Stars are Junior "A" level hockey club (member of the North American Hockey League), and they play at the Centre I.C.E. hockey arena. Traverse City also hosts the training camp for the Detroit Red Wings NHL hockey team. The city also hosts the Traverse City Prospects Tournament, an annual tournament displaying young NHL prospects from select NHL teams.

The Traverse City Wolves were a semi-professional football team who played their home games at Thirlby Field. The Wolves were a member of the North American Football League in the Great Lakes region of the Northern Conference.

Arts and culture

The State Theater at the 2009 Traverse City Film Festival

The Traverse City Film Festival, founded by filmmaker and activist Michael Moore, takes place every summer. The six-day event presents independent films and documentaries, as well as discussion boards with directors, actors and others involved with the film industry. In 2007, the film festival acquired the historic State Theater for year round screenings.

The Festival of the Senses, a city-wide festival with events designed to stimulate all five of the senses, occurs in the fall. The festival features art exhibitions, music and theater.[23]

The City Opera House, located in downtown Traverse City features plays, movies, and other performances.

The Dennos Museum Center, located on the campus of Northwestern Michigan College, is home to a collection of Inuit art including sculpture, drawing and prints. The center is also home to a children’s museum, as well as various ongoing exhibitions in their large exhibition space.

Two major arts groups are active in Traverse City. The Artcenter Traverse City offers art classes, a summer arts workshop series, exhibition space, and year-round art gallery exhibits. The Traverse City Art Works Alliance is a member-based arts group, founded by local artist Charly Hansen in 2005 with the goal to organize events and shows which feature the region’s artists.

The city was also home to Clover, a Christian dance music festival, in August 2006[citation needed].

Northwestern Michigan College also hosts NMAcon, a local anime convention, during August.[citation needed]

Historical markers

Historic postcard of Building 50, circa 1930

There are thirteen recognized Michigan historical markers in Traverse City.[24] They are:

Surrounding Wineries

View from entrance of Chateau Chantal

Traverse City was named by USA Today among the Top Ten Places for Local Wine.[25] There are seven wineries on the Old Mission Peninsula and eighteen wineries on the Leelanau Peninsula[26], both just a few minutes drive from downtown Traverse City. Both peninsulas sit close to the 45th parallel, a latitude known for growing prestigious grapes. The two Grand Traverse Bays provide the ideal maritime climate and the rich glacial soil does the rest. Northern Michigan specializes in growing white grapes and is known for its Rieslings which grow well in the summer months and late fall which Traverse City is known for. Every October the wineries host a harvest fest. Some Riesling grapes are spared being picked in the fall to be picked when they freeze, from which Ice Wine is made. The wineries along the Old Mission Peninsula are 2 Lads Winery, Black Star Farms, Bowers Harbor Vineyards, Brys Estate Vineyard & Winery, Chateau Chantal Winery And Inn, Chateau Grand Traverse, and Peninsula Cellars. The wineries along the Leelanau Peninsula are Leelenau Cellars, Silver Leaf Vineyard and Winery, Gill's Pier Vineyard and Winery, Raftshol Vineyards, Circa Estate Winery, Forty-Five North Vineyard and Winery, Good Harbor Vineyards, Chateau Fontaine, Boskydel Vineyards, Black Star Farms, L. Mawby Vineyards, Ciccone Vineyard and Winery, Willow Vineyards, Chateau de Leelanau Vineyard and Winery, Shady Lane Cellars, Cherry Republic Winery, Longview Winery, and Bel Lago Winery.[27]

Transportation

Taxicab

Taxi service in the Traverse City Region is served by Cherry Capital Cab and Chippewa Cab companies.

Planes

With a new terminal completed in 2004, Cherry Capital Airport provides regularly scheduled passenger airline service to Chicago, Detroit, Minneapolis and seasonally to New York, Cincinnati, Atlanta and Denver as well as to smaller Michigan destinations to the north.

Ships and boats

  • Adjacent to the airport is Coast Guard Air Station Traverse City , responsible for both maritime and land-based search and rescue operations in the northern Great Lakes region. On April 7, 2010, the USCG designated Traverse City a Coast Guard City. Traverse City is the second city in Michigan and tenth in the country to receive this honor.[28]
  • Located in the harbor of the Great Lakes Maritime Academy is the T/S State of Michigan, a 224-foot (68 m) former Navy submarine surveillance vessel. The vessel is used as a classroom and laboratory while cadets of the Academy are underway and shore side.
  • A tall ship, the Schooner Manitou is berthed at Traverse City, and offers passages to the public.[29]
  • Near Traverse City are two other tall ships, the Schooner Madeline and the 55-foot (17 m) long replica of the sloop Welcome, an 18th century British warship sloop, which was built for the 1976 Bicentennial of the American Revolution. They are the only two boats recognized by the State of Michigan for their historic significance. From May through October, trained volunteers conduct tours (when in port), and give a history of the boats and Great Lakes sailing. The Madeline is berthed at Elmwood Township "Coal Dock" (Heritage Harbor) - West Bayshore, just south of the Elmwood Township Marina[30] Both are maintained by the Maritime Heritage Alliance.[31][32]
  • The Nauti-Cat, a 43 passenger catamaran books passages on Grand Traverse bay. The Nauti-Cat is the largest commercial sailing catamaran on the Great Lakes at 47-foot (14 m) long, 29-foot (8.8 m) wide and has a 63-foot (19 m) mast. They offer cruises 7 days a week, 4 times a day.[33]

Public transportation

Traverse City also has a public transportation system, the Bay Area Transportation Authority (BATA) which serves most of the Grand Traverse region with dial-a-ride services and a fixed route bus service, called the Cherriot, serves Traverse City and the urbanized areas of Garfield Township. BATA recently revealed its first hybrid bus in December, 2005. BATA recently completed a downtown bus transfer terminal on Hall Street, which opened July 21, 2006. The terminal is used to transfer riders to different buses on different routes.[34]

Major highways

US 31.svg
US 31 runs for 356 miles (573 km) in a northerly direction from the Indiana–Michigan state line southwest of Niles to its terminus at I-75 south of Mackinaw City. From Traverse City, it runs west across the base of the Leelanau peninsula to Benzonia before continuing south to Muskegon and other points on the Lake Michigan shore. Northwards, it continues along the east shore of Grand Traverse Bay to Charlevoix and Petoskey, ending just before reaching Mackinaw City and the Mackinac Bridge.
M-22.svg
M-22 follows the Lake Michigan shoreline around the Leelanau Peninsula, providing a scenic drive.
M-37.svg
M-37 runs almost due south through the Manistee National Forest to Grand Rapids. It continues north up Old Mission Peninsula to end at Old Mission Point in the middle of Grand Traverse Bay.
M-72.svg
M-72 passes east-west through the city and is one of three true highways that crosses the lower peninsula from Lake Michigan to Lake Huron. M-72 connects with Empire and the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore 22 miles (35 km) west and with US 131, 25 miles (40 km) east in Kalkaska.

Bus

The area is served by Indian Trails Bus service and the bus station is located at 107 Hall Street.

Railroads

The Great Lakes Central (GLC) provides freight rail service to the Traverse City area on track owned by the state of Michigan. The tracks were once owned by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (ex-Pere Marquette Railway) and the Pennsylvania Railroad (ex-Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad) but were purchased by the state in the late 1970s and early 1980s to preserve rail service in the area. Current freight traffic includes fruit/perishables, scrap metal, and lumber.

Regular intercity passenger train service ended on October 29, 1966, after the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) discontinued Grand Rapids – Traverse City – Bay View service. Since then, excursion passengers trains have operated in and out of Traverse City on an irregular basis. Recently, Lake Central Rail Tours has operated a summer excursion during the Cherry Festival. On May 11, 1996, the Grand Traverse Dinner Train began year round service from the Traverse City depot to Williamsburg and to Walton Junction. Dinner train service was suspended in 2004 after a contract dispute with the Tuscola and Saginaw Bay Railway and additional difficulties. The train itself was removed to Owosso in mid-July 2006.[citation needed]

Religion

Traverse City, and the surrounding Grand Traverse region, hosts a large religious population with both historical and recently constructed or established gathering places throughout the community. With the majority consisting of various Protestant, Catholic, Mormon, and non-denominational branches of Christianity, the city is also home to Jewish, Universalist, and a number of various populations as well.[citation needed]

Traverse City is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gaylord.[35]

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. ^ "Grand Traverse County Election Results". Traverse City Record-Eagle. November 4, 2009. http://record-eagle.com/2009election/x546324465/Grand-Traverse-County-Election-Results. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  5. ^ "Cherry Production" (PDF). National Agricultural Statistics Service. June 17, 2010. http://www.usda.gov/nass/PUBS/TODAYRPT/cher0610.pdf. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ "National Cherry Festival". Local Legacies: Celebrating Community Roots. Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/legacies/MI/200003176.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Traverse City Wineries". Michigan Economic Development Corporation. http://www.michigan.org/Things-to-Do/Attractions/Wineries/Default.aspx?city=G3602. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Things to Do in Traverse City". TripAdvisor. http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attractions-g42758-Activities-Traverse_City_Michigan.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Top 10 Charming Small Towns". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. June 19, 2010. http://www.jsonline.com/features/travel/96676699.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Grand Traverse Bay". Michigan Historical Markers. http://www.michmarkers.com/pages/S0042.htm. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Traverse City Climate Narrative". Antrim County: Michigan State Climatologist's Office. http://www.antrimcounty.org/erpr/narrative.html. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Gaylord, MI Weather Forecast Office". National Weather Service. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/apx/. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Historical Weather for Traverse City, Michigan". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=090637&refer=. Retrieved March 7, 2008. 
  14. ^ "The River". The Boardman River Dams Project. Boardman River Dams Committee. http://theboardman.org/river/. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  15. ^ TCAPS, Traverse City Area Public Schools
  16. ^ http://www.theticker.tc//story/traverse-city-video-on-all-delta-flights-worldwide?autoplay=true
  17. ^ "Commercial Radio Stations in Traverse City, MI". http://radiolocator.info/cgi-bin/locate?select=city&city=49684&x=0&y=0&sid=. Retrieved April 9, 2009. 
  18. ^ "NPR Stations in Traverse City, MI". Find a Station. National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/stations/stations_results.php?sForm=city. Retrieved March 27, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Coverage Area". Interlochen Public Radio. http://www.interlochen.org/ipr/about_ipr/coverage_area. Retrieved March 27, 2006. 
  20. ^ Mansnerus, Laura (June 6, 1993). "Bicycling in Western Michigan". New York Times: p. 3. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE1DA1E3EF935A35755C0A965958260&sec=&spon=. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Club Map". Cherry Capital Cycling Club. http://www.cherrycapitalcyclingclub.org/content.aspx?page_id=22&club_id=87045&module_id=19676. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Old Mission Peninsula: Traverse City Michigan Sea Kayak Tours". Trails.com. http://www.trails.com/tcatalog_trail.asp?trailid=CGM024-024. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Festival of the Senses". http://www.festivalofthesenses.org/. 
  24. ^ "Grand Traverse County". Michigan Historical Markers. http://www.michmarkers.com/countymap.asp?county=Grand%20Traverse. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  25. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/travel/destinations/10great/2010-10-07-local-wines_N.htm
  26. ^ http://www.michiganwines.com/page.php?menu_id=109
  27. ^ http://www.michiganwines.com/page.php?menu_id=109
  28. ^ "Coast Guard Cities". US Coast Guard. April 7, 2010. http://www.uscg.mil/community/Coast_Guard_Cities.asp. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Tall Ship Manitou". Traverse Tall Ship Co.. http://www.tallshipsailing.com/manitou.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Greilickville - Elmwood Township Marina". Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment. May 14, 2009. http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10365_10884_18317-44294--,00.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Schooner Madeline". Maritime Heritage Alliance. http://www.mhatc.net/madeline_mha_boats.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Armed Sloop HMAS Welcome". Maritime Heritage Alliance. http://www.mhatc.net/welcome_mha_boats.html. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Weclome to Nauti-Cat Cruises". Nauti-Cat Cruises. http://www.nauti-cat.com/. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  34. ^ Bay Area Transportation Authority (June 2010). Cherriot/Traverse Express Bus System Map (Map). http://bata.net/ridebata_cherriotshome_sysmap.htm. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  35. ^ Diocese of Gaylord. Counties & Vicariate Maps (Map). http://www.dioceseofgaylord.org/inside/counties--vicariate-maps-61/. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  36. ^ Northern Express, Grand Fund Railroad.

Further reading

  • Bogue, Margaret. (1985). Around the Shores of Lake Michigan: A Guide to Historic Sites. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0299100049. 
  • Reed, Earl H. (2010) [Original publication in 1916]. The Dune Country. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1144119681. 
  • Ruchhoft, Robert H. (1991). Exploring North Manitou, South Manitou, High and Garden Islands of the Lake Michigan Archipelago. Cincinnati, OH: Pucelle Press. ISBN 978-0940029026. 
  • Wood, Mable C. (1962). Scooterville, U.S.A.. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 

External links


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