Zhang Sanfeng


Zhang Sanfeng
Statue of Zhang Sanfeng at Wudang Mountain
Part of the series on
Chinese martial arts
Shaolinsi.JPG
List of Chinese martial arts
Terms
Historical places
Historical people
Legendary figures
Related
This box: view · talk · edit

Zhang Sanfeng (simplified Chinese: 张三丰; traditional Chinese: 張三丰; pinyin: Zhāng Sānfēng; Wade–Giles: Chang1 San1-feng1) was a semi-legendary Chinese Taoist priest who is believed by some to have achieved immortality, said variously to date from either the late Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty or Ming Dynasty. His name is said to have been Zhang Junbao 張君寶 before he became a Taoist.

Zhang's legend is that of indifference to fame and wealth. After declining official position and dispatching his property to his clan, he traveled around China to live the life of an ascetic. Zhang spent several years at Hua Mountain before settling in Wu Tang Mountain.[1]

Contents

Legacy

A legendary culture hero, Zhang Sanfeng is credited by modern practitioners as having originated the concepts of neijia (內家); soft, internal martial arts, specifically T'ai Chi Ch'uan, as a result of a Neo-Confucian syncretism of Chán Buddhist Shaolin martial arts with his mastery of Taoist Tao Yin (neigong) principles. It is said that on one occasion Zhang Sanfeng observed a bird attacking a snake on Wudang Mountain and was greatly inspired by the snake's defensive tactics. It remained still and alert in face of the birds onslaught until it made a lunge and fatally bit its attacker. This battle inspired him to create a 72-movement T'ai Chi Ch'uan“set.”[2] He is also associated in legend with the Taoist monasteries at Wudang Mountains in Hubei province.

Huang Zongxi's Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan (1669) gives him credit for the development of a Taoist "internal martial arts" style, as opposed to the "external" style of the Buddhist martial arts tradition of Shaolin. Stanley Henning's article, "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan" is critical of the myth that Zhang San Feng created Tai Chi Chuan, and asserts that it is very likely that Zhang never existed.[3]

Zhang Sanfeng is also said to have been versed in Shaolin Gung Fu, an expert in the White Crane and Snake styles of Chinese martial arts, as well as in the use of the Chinese straight sword or jian.[citation needed] According to relatively late (19th century) documents preserved within the Yang and Wu family's archives,[citation needed] the name of Zhang Sanfeng's master was Xu Xuanping (許宣平), said to be a Tang dynasty hermit poet and Taoist Tao Yin expert.

The Tai Chi Chuan families who ascribe the foundation of their art to Zhang traditionally celebrate his birthdate as the 9th day of the 3rd Chinese lunar month.

Traditional folktales

Much of the written material about him is mythical, contradictory, or otherwise suspect. For instance, he is reported by different people to have been born either in 960, 1247, or in 1279. He has at times been described as being seven-feet tall, with the bones of a crane and the posture of a pine tree, having whiskers shaped like a spear, and being able to cover 1000 li in a day (roughly 580 km or 350 miles). He is reputed to have worn a straw hat, and is usually depicted with one slung on his back, but two villages are reported in the 19th century Wu-yang Gazeteer (Wu-yang hsien-chih) to have believed that his hat was actually a cymbal, which only residents of the villages (famous for manufacturing cymbals) had permission to sound upon meeting him.

Some sources record two Chinese emperors sending missions to Zhang Sanfeng to ask for his advice, although neither mission is reported to have found him.

Owing to his legendary status, his name frequently appears in Chinese novels and Wuxia films of swordsmen as a spiritual teacher and master of martial arts. One of the films is Tai Chi Master starring Jet Li and portrayed by him.

Today, Chinese readers and general public are most acquainted with Jin Yong's version of Zhang Sanfeng, thanks to the popularity of his Wuxia novels. Zhang's popularity also attributes to his personal characters. He has a personality mixed with Confucianism and Taoism that make him very endearing to most of the Chinese people.[4]In Jin Yong'z book The Heavenly Sword and Dragon Saber, Zhang Sanfeng was a former Shaolin disciple in the late Song Dynasty, and born on April 9, 1247 at midnight (Day 9 of month 3 in Chinese calendar). He later left Shaolin Temple and established the Taoist monasteries in Wudang Mountains. In the book he had seven disciples, and was alive at least until the late Yuan Dynasty. According to many regional gazettes, Zhang Sanfeng was seen at the end year of Tianshun reign (1457–1464), having lived for more than 200 years.

Lineage tree

This lineage tree is not comprehensive.

Legendary Figures

Zhang Sanfeng*
c. 12th century
NEIJIA
 
 
 
 
Wang Zongyue*
T'AI CHI CH'UAN

Note: These are legendary or semi-legendary figures in the lineage, which means their involvement in the lineage, while accepted by most of the major schools, isn't independently verifiable from known historical records.

Five major classical family styles

Chen Wangting
1580–1660
9th generation Chen
CHEN STYLE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chen Changxing
1771–1853
14th generation Chen
Chen Old Frame
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chen Youben
c. 1800s
14th generation Chen
Chen New Frame
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Lu-ch'an
1799–1872
YANG STYLE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chen Qingping
1795–1868
Chen Small Frame, Zhaobao Frame
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Pan-hou
1837–1892
Yang Small Frame
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Chien-hou
1839–1917
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Yu-hsiang
1812–1880
WU/HAO STYLE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Ch'uan-yu
1834–1902
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Shao-hou
1862–1930
Yang Small Frame
 
Yang Chengfu
1883–1936
Yang Big Frame
 
Li I-yu
1832–1892
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Chien-ch'uan
1870–1942
WU STYLE
108 Form
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Shou-chung
1910–85
 
Hao Wei-chen
1849–1920
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Kung-i
1900–1970
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sun Lu-t'ang
1861–1932
SUN STYLE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Ta-k'uei
1923–1972
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sun Xingyi
1891–1929


References

  1. ^ Albert Liu, Nei Jia Quan: Internal Martial Arts, North Atlantic Books, 2004
  2. ^ Mount Wudang -- Abode of Immortals and a Martial Monk, by staff reporter HUO JIANYING (front page)
  3. ^ Henning, Stanley (Autumn/Winter 1994). "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan" (PDF). Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii 2 (3): 1–7. http://seinenkai.com/articles/henning/il&t.pdf. 
  4. ^ Zhang Sanfeng
  • Wile, Douglas Lost T'ai-chi Classics from the late Ch'ing Dynasty (1996) State University of New York Press, Albany. ISBN 0-7914-2653-X
  • Albert Liu, Nei Jia Quan: Internal Martial Arts, North Atlantic Books, 2004
  • Journal of Asian Martial Arts Volume 16, No. 4, 2007. Via Media Publishing, Santa Fe, New Mexico USA. ISSN 1057-8358

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zhang Sanfeng — (chinois simplifié : 张三丰; chinois traditionnel : 張三丰 ; variante 張三豐 ; pinyin : Zhāng Sānfēng ; Wade Giles : Chang San feng) est un taoïste errant partiellement légendaire, spécialiste des arts martiaux internes… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zhang Sanfeng — Zhang Sanfeng. Zhang San Feng (en chino: 張三丰, pinyin: Zhāng Sānfēng, Wade Giles: Chang San Feng) fue un famoso maestro filósofo taoísta chino experto en artes marciales y acupuntura, nació alrededor del 1270 durante la dinastía Song …   Wikipedia Español

  • Zhang Sanfeng — Statue von Zhang Sanfeng auf dem Berge Wudang Zhang Sanfeng (chinesisch 张三丰 Zhāng Sānfēng, W. G. Chang San Feng) ist eine legendäre Heldengestalt in China. Er ist auch bekannt unter den Namen Jumbao …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang Wuji — Created by Jin Yong Novel appearances The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber Information Alias(es) Xie Wuji (謝無忌) Zeng A niu (曾阿牛) …   Wikipedia

  • Sanfeng — Zhang Sanfeng (chin. 张三丰, Zhāng Sānfēng, W. G. Chang San Feng) ist eine legendäre Heldengestalt in China. Er ist auch bekannt unter den Namen Jumbao oder Dangchu Zhenren ( der wahre Mensch aus der Höhle ). Um die Gestalt des Zhang Sanfeng ranken… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang Sangfen — Zhang Sanfeng (chin. 张三丰, Zhāng Sānfēng, W. G. Chang San Feng) ist eine legendäre Heldengestalt in China. Er ist auch bekannt unter den Namen Jumbao oder Dangchu Zhenren ( der wahre Mensch aus der Höhle ). Um die Gestalt des Zhang Sanfeng ranken… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang (surname) — Zhang Family name Meaning (张) expansive bow, bowmaker (章) State of Zhang Zhang (traditional Chinese: 張; simplified Chinese: 张; …   Wikipedia

  • Zhang — (chinesisch 張 / 张 Zhāng) gehört zu den häufigsten chinesischen Nachnamen. In der 1990er Ausgabe des Guinness Buchs der Rekorde wird der Name als häufigster Nachname der Welt bezeichnet, den weltweit über 100 Millionen Menschen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ba Gua Zhang — (八卦掌) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chang Sang-Feng — Zhang Sanfeng (chin. 张三丰, Zhāng Sānfēng, W. G. Chang San Feng) ist eine legendäre Heldengestalt in China. Er ist auch bekannt unter den Namen Jumbao oder Dangchu Zhenren ( der wahre Mensch aus der Höhle ). Um die Gestalt des Zhang Sanfeng ranken… …   Deutsch Wikipedia