Infobox Ethnic group
group = Sorbs
poptime = |poptime=c. 40,000 Upper Sorbs
20,000 Lower Sorbs.
region1 = flag|Germany
pop1 = 60,000
langs = Sorbian (Upper Sorbian, Lower Sorbian), German
Serbs, Poles, Czechs, Slovaksand other West Slavs
Sorbs ( _hs. Serbja; _ds. Serby) also known as "
Wends", "Lusatian Sorbs" or "Lusatian Serbs", are a Slavic people settled in Lusatia, a region on the territory of Germanyand Poland.
Sorbs are divided into two groups:
*Upper Sorbs, who speak Upper Sorbian (about 40,000 people)
*Lower Sorbs, who speak Lower Sorbian (about 20,000 people).
The dialects spoken vary in intelligibility in different areas.
The name of the nation is probably connected with the Polish word “stepson” (Polish: pasierb) and originally meant tribesman (the one who sucked milk of the same mother). The question of kinship of Balkan Serbs and Lusatian Sorbs is not accidental. According to one of the hypotheses, in the 5th century, after leaving their proto-Slavonic homeland, common ancestors of all
Serbsand Sorbs divided into two groups. One of the groups (the ancestors of the Serbs), known as the White Serbs, reached the Balkansthrough the Carpathian Mountainsunder the leadership of the Unknown Archont, whilst the others settled in the middle part of the Elbeand become 'Sorbs'. The story depicted in Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos' De Administrando Imperiotells that a brother of the Archont had remained in what is today Lusatia with a part of the Serb people. It is unlikely that the name Serb developed in both of these two groups separately. The name Lusatia(German: Lausitz), originally meaning marshy ground probably derives from the Slavic word "ług" (grove, young forest), at the same time indicating that the regions surroundings were rich in forest. Sorbs call themselvs Serbs (Serbja, Serby), and Balkan Serbsare referred to as South Serbs. Serbs call Sorbs - Lusatian Serbs (Лужички Срби, Lužički Srbi).
Having settled by the
Elbe, Spree and Neisse in the 6th century, Sorbian tribes divided into two main groups, which have taken their names from the characteristics of the area where they had settled. Sorbs living on the swampy broads of the Lower Spreehave taken their name from the word "marsh". The Milceni(ancestors of Upper Sorbs) settled on fertile soil around Upper Spree, the name derives from the word měl’ (loess soil). Both groups were separated from each other by a wide and uninhabited forest range. The rest of the tribes settled themselves between the Elbeand Saale.
History of the Sorbs
During the 6th century A.D. Sorbs arrived in the area extending between the rivers in the East: the
Bober(Czech: Bobr, Polish: Bóbr), Kwisa and Oder(Polish: Odra) to rivers in the West: the Saaleand Elbe. In the North, the area of their settlement reached Berlin. In 631 A.D., for the first time, the Fredegar’s Chronicle described them as Surbi. Annales Regni Francym mentions that in 806 A.D., Miliduch (the Serbian King) fought against the Francs and was killed. In 932 Henry I conquered Lusatiaand Milsko. In 933 Lusatiawas again conquered by Gero II– the Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark, who in 939 cunningly murdered 30 Sorbian princes during the feast. As a result, there were many Sorbian uprisings against the Germans. From this early period there remained only a reconstructed castle- Raddusch in Lower Lusatia.During the reign of Boleslaw I of Poland(Polish: Bolesław Chrobry) in 1002-1018 A.D., three Polish-German wars were waged which caused Lusatiato come from one ruler to another. In 1018, on the strength of peace in Bautzen, Lusatiabecame a part of Poland; however, before 1031 it was returned to Germany. From 11th to 15th century, in Lusatian development of agriculture and intensification of colonization took place by Frankish, Flemish and Saxon settlers. In 1327 first prohibitions of using Sorbian in Altenburg, Zwickauand Leipzigappeared. Between 1376 - 1635 Lusatiaagain became a part of an Empire, in the rule of the Bohemian Luxembourgs (a component part of Saint Waclav’s Crown. At the beginning of 16th century the whole Sorbian tribes’ area, with the exception of Lusatia, underwent Germanization. From 1635 Lusatiabecame a feudality of Saxon electorates. The Thirty Years War and epidemic of the Black Deathled Lusatiato terrible devastation: almost half of Sorbs died. This led to further German colonization and Germanization. In 1667 the Prince of Brandenburg- Frederick Wilhelm ordered the immediate destruction of all Sorbian printed materials and banned saying masses in this language. At the same time the Evangelical Church supported printing Sorbian religious literature as a means of fighting with the Counterreformation. In 1706 Sorbian Seminary, the main quarter of educating Sorbian Catholicpriests, was founded in Prague. Evangelical students of theology formed Sorbian College of Ministers. The Congress of Viennain 1815 gave part of Upper Lusatiato Saxony, but most of Lusatiato Prussia. More and more bans limiting the use of Sorbian languagesappeared until 1835 in Saxonyand Prussia; emigration of the Sorbs mainly to Texas(to place called Serbin) and Australiaincreased. In 1848, 5000 Sorbs signed the petition to the Saxon Government, in which they demanded equality of the Sorbian language with the German one in churches, courts, schools and Government departments. From 1871 the whole territory/terrain of Lusatiabecame a part of united Germanyand was divided into three parts: Silesia, Prussiaand Saxony.
From 1871 the industrialization of the region and German immigration began; official
Germanizationintensified. Although the Weimar Republicguaranteed constitutional minority rights, it did not practice it. The Third Reichspread ruthless terror against the SorbsFact|date=August 2008. Heinrich Himmlerdevised a plan to displace the Slovians from Lusatiato PolandFact|date=August 2008. The NaziGovernment in Germanycaused the Sorbian nation heavy casualtiesFact|date=August 2008. It has been estimated that between 1933-1945 about 20,000 Lusatians were killedFact|date=August 2008. Furthermore, the fascist propaganda stated that the Sorbians were a German tribe and their national poet Handrij Zejlerwas German as well. Young Sorbians were enrolled in the Wehrmachtand sent to the front. Many young Sorbian activists were sent to concentration camps. For instance, father Jan Čyžwas a prisoner in the Dachau concentration camp, publicist Marja Grólmusecwas killed in the Ravensbrück concentration campand Alojs Andrickiwas murdered with an injection of phenol. Entangled lives of the Sorbs during World War IIare exemplified by life story of Mina Witkojc, Mĕrčin Nowak-Njechorńskior Jan Skala.
First Lusatian cities were captured in April 1945, when
the Red Armywith the Polish Second Armycrossed the river Queis (pol:Kwisa). Defeating Nazi Germanychanged the Sorbs’ situation considerably: those to the east of Neisse and Oder were expelled or assimilated by PolandFact|date=April 2008. The regions in East Germany(the German Democratic Republic) faced a large influx of expelled Germans and heavy industrialisation, which both forced Germanization. The East German authorities tried to counteract this development by creating a broad range of Sorbian institutions. The Sorbs were officially recognized as an ethnic minority, more than 100 Sorbian schools and several academic institutions were founded, the Domowina and its associated societies were reestablished and a Sorbian theatre was created. Owing to the oppression of the church and forced collectivization, however, these efforts were severely affected and consequently over time the number of people speaking Sorbian languages decreased by half.
Sorbian Slovians caused the communistic government of the
GDR(the German Democratic Republic) plenty of trouble, mainly because of the high levels of religiousness and resistance to the nationalizing of agriculture. During the campaign of compulsory collectivization, a great deal of unprecedented incidents were reported. Thus, throughout the Uprising of 1953 in East Germanyin Lusatia, violent clashes with militia were reported. An open uprising took place in three upper communes of Błot.
After another unification of
Germany, on October 3rd 1990, Lusatians made efforts for creating an autonomous administrative unit, however Helmut Kohl’s government did not agree to it. After 1989 the Sorbian movement revived, however it still does encounter many obstacles. Although Germanysupports national minorities, Sorbs’ aspirations are not sufficiently fulfilled. Postulates of uniting Lusatiainto one country were not taken into consideration. Upper Lusatiastill belongs to Saxonyand Lower Lusatiato Brandenburg. Liquidations of Sorbian schools even on the area mostly populated by Sorbs still happen, under the pretence of financial difficulties or demolition of whole villages to create quarries of lignite.
Today (2008) Sorbian institutions serving 60,000 Sorb people receive less money for preservation of their culture in face of Germanisation then one German theater's yearly budget in Berlin<"Serbowie liczą na pomoc Polski" Rzeczpospolita 25 March 2008 ] , an annual state grant of 15.6 million Euro by the Federal and the Saxon government [ [http://kulturportal.maerkischeallgemeine.de/cms/beitrag/11169069/5;] ] Faced with growing threat of cultural extincton the Domowina issued a memorandum in March 2008. [ [http://www.domowina.sorben.com/pm/memorandum08.htm DOMOWINA - Medijowe wozjewjenje | Pressemitteilung| Press release ] ] and called for "help and protection against the growing threat of their cultural extinction, since an ongoing conflict between the German government, Saxony and Brandenburg about the financial distribution of help blocks the financing of almost all Sorbian institutions". The memorandum also demands a reorganisation of competence by ceding responsibility from the Länder to the federal government and an expanded legal status. The call has been issued to all governments and heads of state of the
European Union[ [http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/international/Kulturhoheit;art123,2489719 Sorben bitten Europa um Hilfe ] ] .
Besides the memorandum Sorbs also called on Poland and Polish President Lech Kaczynski for protection and to represent them in talks with German state as unlike for example Danes have no state to help them against German authorities, as Jan Nuck stated "I think if Angela Merkel speaks about German minority rights in Poland to Lech Kaczynski, then Polish President should demand the same about us". Nuck also said that the rights of Sorb people are not respected in German "Federal government and land government don't respect them(rights)" [http://www.gazetawyborcza.pl/1,76842,4997211.html] Further appeal has been made to Polish Embassy in Berlin starting with "Help us. Do something for us. Our culture is dying. We are dying out. Slavs should help each other". Jan Nuck says it is difficult to judge if the situation comes from indifference of officials or if it is a concentrated effort aiming against existence of Sorb national identity in Germany.
On May 28, 2008, the Sorbian politician
Stanislaw Tillich, member of the governing Christian Democrats, was elected as Minister President of the State of Saxony.
Language and culture
The oldest known relic of Sorbian literature originated in about 1530 -
Bautzentownsmen’ oath. In 1548 Mikołaj Jakubica – Lower Sorbian vicar, from the village called Lubanice, wrote the first unprinted translation of the New Testamentinto Lower Sorbian.
In 1574 the first Sorbian book was printed: Albin Mollers’ songbook. In 1688 Jurij Kawštyn Swětlik translated
the Biblefor CatholicSorbs. In 1706-1709 the New Testamentwas printed in the Upper Sorbian translation was done by Michał Frencel and in Lower Sorbian by Jan Bogumił Fabricius (1681-1741). Jan Bjedrich Fryco (a.k.a.Johann Friedrich Fritze) (1747-1819), translated the Old Testamentfor the first time into Lower Sorbian, published in 1790.
Other Sorbian Bible translators include Jakub Buk (1825-1895), Michel Hornik (Michael Hornig) (1833-1894), Jurij Łušćanski (a.k.a. Georg Wuschanski) (1839-1905).
In 1709 for the short period of time, there was the first printed Sorbian newspaper. In 1767 Jurij Mjeń publishes the first secular Sorbian book. Between 1841 and 1843, Jan Arnošt Smoler and Leopold Haupt published two-volume collection of Wendish folk-songs in Upper and Lower
From 1842, the first Sorbian publishing companies started to appear: the poet Handrij Zejler set up a weekly magazine, the precursor of today’s Serbian News. In 1845 in
Bautzenthe first festival of Sorbian songs took place.
In 1875, Jakub Bart-Čišinski- the poet and classicist of Upper Sorbian literature and Karol Arnošt Muka created a movement of young Sorbians influencing Lusatian art, science and literature for the following 50 years. Similar movement in
Lower Lusatiawas organized around the most prominent Lower Lusatian poets Mato Kósyka and Bogumił Šwjela.
In 1904, mainly thanks to the Sorbs’ contribution, the most important Sorbian cultural centre (the Sorbian House) was built in
Bautzen. In 1912, the social and cultural organization of Lusatian Sorbs was created, the DomowinaInstitution - the union of Sorbian organizations. In 1919 it had 180,000 members. In 1920 Jan Skala set up a Sorbian party and in 1925 in Berlin, Skala started Kulturwille- the newspaper for the protection of national minorities in Germany. In 1920 the SokolMovement was founded (youth movement and gymnastic organization). From 1933 the Naziparty started to repress the Sorbs. At that time the Nazialso dissolved the SokolMovement and began to combat every sign of Sorbian culture. In 1937 activities of the DomowinaInstitution and other organizations were banned as anti-national. Sorbian clergymen and teachers were forcedly deported from Lusatia; The Third Reichconfiscated the Sorbian House, other buildings and crops.
On May 10th, in
Crostwitz, after The Red Army’s invasion, the DomowinaInstitution renewed its activity. In 1948 Landtagof Saxonypassed an Act guaranteeing protection to Sorbian Lusatians; in 1949 Brandenburgresolved a similar law. In the times of the GDR, Sorbian organizations were financially supported by the country, but at the same time the authorities encouraged Germanizationof Sorbian youth as a means of incorporating them into the system of “building Socialism”. Sorbian language and culture could only be publicly presented as long as they promoted Socialisticideology.
For over 1000 years the Sorbs were able to maintain and even develop their national culture, despite of escalating
Germanizationand Polonization, mainly due to the high level of religiousness, cultivating their tradition and strong families (until now a Sorbian family often has 5 children).
In the middle of the 20th century, the revival of the
Central Europeannations included some Sorbs, who became strong enough to twice attempt to regain their independence. After World War II, the Lusatian National Committee in Prague claimed the right to self-govern and separate from Germanyand create a Lusatian Free State or be attached to Czechoslovakia. The majority of the Sorbs was organized in the Domowina though and did not intend to split from Germany. Claims asserted by Lusatian National movement were postulates of joining Lusatiato Polandor Czechoslovakia. Between 1945 – 1947 they postulated about ten memorials to the UN, the USA, the USSR, Great Britain, France, Polandand Czechoslovakia, however, it did not bring any results. On April 30th 1946, the Lusatian National Committee also postulated a proper petition to the Polish Government, signed by Paweł Cyż – the minister and an official Sorbian delegate in Poland. There was also a project of proclaiming a Lusatian Free State, whose Prime Minister was supposed to be a Polish archaeologist of Lusatian origin- Wojciech Kóčka. The most radical postulates in this area were expressed by the Lusatian youth organization- Narodny Partyzan Łužica.
Czechoslovakia, where before the Potsdam Conferencein Prague, 300.000 people manifested for the independence of Lusatia. The endeavours to separate Lusatiafrom Germanydid not succeed because of the individual and geopolitical interests. After 1918, David Lloyd Georgedid not intend to impoverish Germanyand Stalin, after World War II, desired to conquer the whole of Germany.
The statistics might prove the progression of
Germanizationamong Sorbs: by the end of the 19th century, about 150,000 people spoke Sorbian languages. In 1920 almost all Sorbs mastered Sorbian and German at the same degree. The last Sorb who very slightly knew German died in Műschen village in 1954. Nowadays, in 2004, the number of people using Sorbian languages has been estimated to no more than 50,000.
Regions of Lusatia
There are 3 main regions of
Lusatiathat differ in the language, religion and customs.
Region of Catholic Lusatia
CatholicLusatia encompasses 85 towns in the districts of Bautzen, Kamenzand Hoyerswerda. This is where the Upper Sorbian Language, customs and tradition are still being cultivated. In some of the places (e.g. Radibor/ Radwor, Crostwitz/Chrósćicy, and Rosenthal/Róžant) Sorbs are the majority of the population, basically only in this region one can still hear children speaking Sorbian.
On Sundays, during holidays and weddings people wear women’s (and men’s) regional costumes (children and young people wear it as well) rich in decoration, embroidery and encrusted with pearls.
There are many traditions cultivated, such as: Bird Wedding (25th of January),
EasterCavalcade of Riders, Witch Burning (30th April), Maik, singing on Saint Martin’s Day(Nicolay), celebration of Saint Barbara’s Dayand Saint Nicolas’ Day.
Region of Hoyerswerda (Wojerecy) and Schleife (Slepo)
In this region (the area from
Hoyerswerdato Schleife) the dialect with characteristic features of both Upper and Lower Sorbian is still in use. This is a Protestant region, highly devastated by the brown coal mining industry, sparsely populated and to a great extend Germanized (Sorbian is only used by few people over 60 years old).
The region can be distinguished by many Slavic wooden architecture monuments (churches, houses), regional costumes’ diversity (mainly worn by older women) with white knitted and black cross-like embroidery and the tradition of playing
bagpipes. In several villages residents cultivate traditions such as: expelling of winter, "Maik", Easterand Great Fridaysinging, celebrating dźěćetko (disguised child or young girl giving Christmaspresents)
Region of Lower Lusatia
There are 60 towns from the area of
Cottbusbelonging to this region, where most of the older people (over 60), but few young people and children, can speak the Lower Sorbian language, often with many borrowings from the German language (when talking to young people, they generally use German). In the regione some primary schools still teach bilingual, and in Cottbus there is an important gymnasium who still have Lower Sorbian as the main language of education. This is a Protestant region, again highly devastated by the brown coal mining industry. The biggest tourist attraction of the region (and in the whole Lusatia) are the marshlands, with many Spreewald/Błóta canals, picturesque broads of the Spree.
Regional costumes are colourful and characteristic (worn mainly by older but on holydays by young woman as well). A big, rich in golden embroidering headscarf lapa is a part of regional costume that differs in every village.
In some villages following traditions are cultivated: Shrovetide, "Maik",
Easterbonfires, Roosters catching/hunting. In Jänschwalde (Sorbian: Janšojcach) so called Janšojki bog (disguised young girl) gives Christmaspresents.
in Lower Sorbian
::Rědna Łužyca::Rědna Łužyca,:spšawna, pśijazna,:mojich serbskich woścow kraj,:mojich glucnych myslow raj,:swěte su mě twoje strony.:::Cas ty pśichodny,:zakwiś radostny!:Och, gab muže stanuli,:za swoj narod źěłali,:godne nimjer wobspomnjeśa!
in Upper Sorbian
::Rjana Łužica:::Rjana Łužica,:sprawna přećelna,:mojich serbskich wótcow kraj,:mojich zbóžnych sonow raj,:swjate su mi twoje hona!:::Časo přichodny,:zakćěj radostny!:Ow, zo bychu z twojeho:klina wušli mužojo,:hódni wěčnoh wopomnjeća!
The Sorbs and Poland
One of the pioneers of the cooperation between the two nations was Polish historian Wilhelm Bogusławski who lived in the 19th century and wrote the first book on Polish-Sorbian history "Rys dziejów serbołużyckich" (Polish title), it was published in
Saint Petersburgin 1861. The book was expanded and published again in cooperation with Michał Hórnik in 1884 in Bautzen, under a new title "Historije serbskeho naroda". Alfons Parczewski was another friend of Sorbs, who from 1875 was involved in Sorbs' rights protection, participating in Sorbian meetings in Bautzen. It was thanks to him, among others, that Józef Ignacy Kraszewskifounded a scholarship for Sorbian students. An association of friends of Sorbian Nation was established at the University of Warsawin 1936 (Polish full name: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Narodu Serbo-Łużyckiego). It gathered people not only from the university. Its president was Professor Stanisław Słoński, and the deputy president was Julia Wieleżyńska. The association was a legal entity. There were 3 individual organizations devoted to Sorbian matters. Prołuż founded in Krotoszyn, expanded to all Poland (3000 members). It was biggest noncommunist organization that dealt with foreign affairs. This youth organization was created during the soviet occupation and its motto was “Polish guard over Lusatia” (pl. Nad Łużycami polska straż). Its highest activity was in Greater Poland(Polish: Wielkopolska, a district of western Poland). After the creation of East Germany, Prołuż was dissolved, and its president historian from Poznań Alojzy Stanisław Matyniak was arrestedFact|date=March 2007.
* Filip Gańczak "Mniejszość w czasach popkultury", Newsweek, nr 22/2007, 03.06.2007.
* "W kręgu Krabata. Szkice o Juriju Brězanie, literaturze, kulturze i językach łużyckich", pod red. J.Zarka, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice, 2002.
* Mirosław Cygański, Rafał Leszczyński "Zarys dziejów narodowościowych Łużyczan" PIN, Instytut Śląski, Opole 1997.
* "Die Sorben in Deutschland", pod red. M.Schiemann, Stiftung für das sorbische Volk, Görlitz 1997.
* "Mały informator o Serbołużyczanach w Niemczech", pod red. J.Pětrowej, Załožba za serbski lud, 1997.
* "Dolnoserbske nałogi/Obyczaje Dolnych Łużyc", pod red. M.Stock, Załožba za serbski lud, 1997.
* "Rys dziejów serbołużyckich" Wilhelm Bogusławski Piotrogród 1861
* "Prołuż Akademicki Związek Przyjaciół Łużyc" Jakub Brodacki. Polska Grupa Marketingowa 2006 ISBN 83-60151-00-8.
* "Polska wobec Łużyc w drugiej połowie XX wieku. Wybrane problemy", Mieczkowska Małgorzata, Szczecin 2006 ISBN 83-7241-487-4.
List of Sorbs
* [http://www.sorben-wenden.de/ Sorbian Portal]
* [http://www.internecy.de/ Sorbian Cybervillage]
* [http://www.sorben.com/ski/ Sorbian Cultural Information]
* [http://www.domowina.sorben.com/index.htm The Domowina Institution]
* [http://www.wendisches-museum.de/index.htm Sorbian Museum in Cottbus]
* [http://www.serbske-nowiny.de/ SERBSKE NOWINY - Sorbian Newspaper]
* [http://www.internecy.de/ Internecy - serbska cyberwjeska]
* [http://www.serbski-institut.de/ SERBSKI INSTYTUT - Sorbian history and culture]
* [http://www.slawenburg-raddusch.de/burg.html Raddusch - restored Sorbian castle from 1000 ago]
* [http://www.wendische-volkspartei.de/ Sorbian Party in Germany]
* [http://www.wudwor.de/ WUDWOR - Sorbian Folk Music and Dance Troupe]
* [http://www.runjewonline.info/ - independent Sorbian internet magazine]
* [http://hsb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hłowna_strona Wikipedia in Upper Sorbian] (hsb)
* [http://wendishheritage.org.au/ Sorbian emigration into Australia]
* [http://www.rastko.org.yu/rastko-lu/o/index_l.html Project Rastko - Lusatia] , Electronic Library of Sorbian-Serbian Ties
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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