- Sephardi Jews
akitía was subjected to pervasive, massive influence from Modern Standard Spanish and most Moroccan Jews now speak a colloquial, Andalusian form of Spanish, with only an occasional use of the old language as a sign of in-group solidarity, somewhat as American Jews may now use an occasional Yiddishism in colloquial speech. Except for certain younger individuals, who continue to practice Unicode|Ḥakitía as a matter of cultural pride, this splendid dialect—the most Arabized of the Romance languages—has essentially ceased to exist.
Eastern Judeo-Spanish has fared somewhat better, especially in Israel, where newspapers, radio broadcasts, and elementary school and university programs strive to keep the language alive. But the old regional variations (Bosnia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Turkey, for instance) are already either extinct or doomed to extinction. The best we can perhaps hope for is that a Judeo-Spanish koiné, now evolving in Israel—similar to that which developed among Sephardic immigrants to the United States early in the 20th century—may somehow prevail and survive into the next generation. [Samuel G. Armistead, "Oral Literature of the Sephardic Jews," [http://www.sephardifolklit.org/flsj/sjjs/orallit/Oral_Lit_Sephardic.html] ]
Judeo-Portuguese( Lusitanic) has been conserved by the crypto-Jewish marranos of Portugaland Braziland is still spoken by a few of them.Fact|date=February 2007 It is also spoken by Sephardim still remaining in Turkeyand amongst the Sephardi immigrants of Israel of Portuguese and Brazilian descent. Judeo-Portuguesehas also been used by Sephardim — especially among the Spanish and Portuguese Jewsof Western Europe. The pidgin forms of Portuguese spoken among slaves and their Sephardic owners were an influence in the development of Papiamentoand the Creole languages of Suriname.
Other Romance languages with Jewish forms, spoken historically by Sephardim, include
Judæo-Aragonese, and Catalanic(Judæo-Catalan).
Other languages associated with Sephardic Jews are mostly extinct, "i.e.", formerly spoken by some Sephardic communities in Italy.
Low German( Low Saxon), formerly used as the vernacular by Sephardim around Hamburgand Altonain Northern Germany, is also no longer in use as a specifically Jewish vernacular.
The precise origins of the Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula are unclear. There is fragmentary and inconclusive evidence of a Jewish presence on the Iberian Peninsula dating from pre-Roman times. More substantial references date from the period of Roman occupation.
Evidence which suggests Jewish connections with the Iberian Peninsula includes:
*References in the books of "Isaiah", "Jeremiah", "Ezekiel", "I Kings", and "Jonah" to the country of
Tarshish, which is thought by many to have been located in modern southern Spain (in ancient Tartessus).
*A signet ring found at
Cadiz, dating from the 8th- 7th century BCE. The inscription on the ring, generally accepted as Phoenician, has been interpreted by a few scholars to be "paleo-hebraic."
amphoradating from at least the first century CE found in Ibiza, which bears imprints of two Hebrew characters.
*Several early Jewish writers wrote that their families had lived in Spain since the destruction of the first temple. The famous Don
Isaac Abravanel(1407-1508) stated that the Abravanelfamily had lived on the Iberian Peninsulafor 2,000 years.
It is thought that substantial Jewish immigration probably occurred during the period of Roman occupation of
Hispania. The province came under Roman control with the fall of Carthageafter the Second Punic War(218-202 BCE). Exactly how soon after this time Jews made their way onto the scene in this context is a matter of speculation. It is within the realm of possibility that they went there under the Romans as free men to take advantage of its rich resources.
Although the spread of Jews into Europe is most commonly associated with the
Diasporawhich ensued from the Roman conquest of Judea, emigration from Judea into the greater Roman Mediterranean area antedated the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Romans under Titus. Any Jews already in Hispania at this time would have been joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans under Vespasianand Titus, and dispersed to the extreme west during the period of the Jewish Wars, and especially after the defeat of Judea in 70 CE One account placed the number carried off to Hispania at 80,000. Subsequent immigrations came into the area along both the northern African and southern European sides of the Mediterranean.
Among the earliest records which may refer specifically to Jews in the Iberian peninsula during the Roman period is Paul's
Epistle to the Romans. ManyWho|date=October 2007 have taken Paul's intention to go to Hispania to preach the gospel(Romans 15:24, 28) to indicate the presence of Jewish communities there, as well as the fact that Herod Antipas's banishment by Caligulain 39 CE may have been to Hispania. [Flavius Josephus, "Wars of the Jews", 2.9.6. However, the place of banishment is identified in Josephus's "Antiquities of the Jews" as Gaul; for discussion, see cite book |author=Emil Schürer |authorlink=Emil Schürer |others=revised and edited by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millarand Matthew Black |title=The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ: Volume I |edition=revised English edition |year=1973 |publisher=T&T Clark |location=Edinburgh |isbn=0-567-02242-0 |pages=352 n. 41 ]
Perhaps the most direct and substantial of early references are the several
decreesof the Council of Elvira, convened in the early fourth century, which address proper Christian behavior with regard to the Jews of Hispania.
As citizens of the Roman Empire, the Jews of Hispania engaged in a variety of occupations, including agriculture. Until the adoption of Christianity, Jews had close relations with non-Jewish populations, and played an active role in the social and economic life of the province. The
edictsof the Synod of Elvira, provide evidence of Jews who were integrated enough into the greater community to cause alarm among some: of the Council's 80 canonic decisions, all which pertain to Jews served to maintain a separation between the two communities. It seems that by this time the presence of Jews was of greater concern to christian authorities than the presence of pagans; Canon 16, which prohibited marriage of christians with Jews, was worded more strongly than canon 15, which prohibited marriage with pagans. Canon 78 threatens Christians who commit adultery with Jews with ostracism. Canon 48 forbade the blessing of christian crops by Jews, and canon 50 forbade the sharing of meals by Christians and Jews.
Yet in comparison to Jewish life in
Byzantiumand Italy, life for the early Jews in Hispania and the rest of western Europe was relatively tolerable. This is due in large measure to the difficulty which the Church had in establishing itself in its western frontier. In the west, Germanic tribessuch as the Suevi, the Vandals, and especially the Visigothshad more or less disrupted the political and ecclesiasticalsystems of the Roman empire, and for several centuries western Jews enjoyed a degree of peace which their brethren to the east did not.
Barbarian invasions brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under
Visigothicrule by the early fifth century. Other than in their contempt for Orthodox Christians, who reminded them of the Romans and also because they were Arians, the Visigoths did not generally take much of an interest in the religious creeds within their kingdom. It was not until 506, when Alaric II(484-507) published his "Brevarium Alaricianum" ( Breviary of Alaric) (wherein he adopted the laws of the ousted Romans), that a Visigothic king concerned himself with the Jews.
The situation of the Jews changed after the conversion of the Visigothic royal family under
Recaredfrom Arianism to Christianism in 587. In their desire to consolidate the realm under the new religion, the Visigoths adopted an aggressive policy towards Jews. As the king and the church acted in a single interest, the Jews' situation deteriorated. Under successive Visigothic kings and under ecclesiasticalauthority, many orders of expulsion, forced conversion, isolation, enslavement, execution, and other punitive measures were made. By 612 - 621 CE, the situation for Jews became intolerable and many left Spain for nearby northern Africa. In 711 CE, thousands of Jews from North Africa accompanied the Moslems who invaded Spain, subsuming Catholic Spain and turning much of it into an Arab state, Al-Andalus. (N.H.Finkelstein, p. 13, 14)
The Jews of Hispania had been utterly embittered and alienated by Catholic rule by the time of the Muslim invasion. To them, the
Moorswere perceived as, and indeed were, a liberating force. Wherever they went, the Muslims were greeted by Jews eager to aid them in administering the country. In many conquered towns the garrison was left in the hands of the Jews before the Muslims proceeded further north. Thus were initiated the two centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula which became known as the "Golden Age" of Sephardi Jewry.
ephardim under Islam
Al-Andalus; Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula; Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula
With the victory of
Tariq ibn Ziyadin 711, the lives of the Sephardim changed dramatically. In spite of the stigma attached to being " dhimmis" (non-Muslim members of monotheistic faiths), the coming of the Moors was by-and-large welcomed by the Jews of Iberia.
Both Muslim and Christian sources tell us that Jews provided valuable aid to the invaders. Once captured, the defense of Cordoba was left in the hands of Jews, and
Granada, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo were left to a mixed army of Jews and Moors. Although in some towns Jews may have been helpful to Muslim success, they were of limited impact overall. However it was frequently claimed by Christians in later centuries that the fall of Iberia was due in large part to Jewish perfidy.
In spite of the restrictions placed upon the Jews as "dhimmis", life under Muslim rule was one of great opportunity and Jews flourished as they did not under prior Christian Visigoths. Many Jews came to Iberia, seen as a land of tolerance and opportunity, from the Christian and Muslim worlds. Following initial Arab victories, and especially with the establishment of
Umayyadrule by Abd al-Rahman I in 755, the native Jewish community was joined by Jews from the rest of Europe, as well as from Arab lands, from Morocco to Babylon. Thus the Sephardim found themselves enriched culturally, intellectually, and religiously by the commingling of diverse Jewish traditions.
Arabic culture, of course, also made a lasting impact on Sephardic cultural development. General re-evaluation of
scripturewas prompted by Muslim anti-Jewish polemicsand the spread of rationalism, as well as the anti-Rabbanite polemics of Karaite sectarianism(which was inspired by various Muslim schismatic movements). The cultural and intellectual achievements of the Arabs, and much of the scientific and philosophical speculation of Ancient Greek culture, which had been best preserved by Arab scholars, was made available to the educated Jew. The meticulous regard which the Arabs had for grammar and style also had the effect of stimulating an interest in philological matters in general among Jews. Arabic came to be the main language of Sephardic science, philosophy, and everyday business, as had been the case with Babylonian " geonim". This thorough adoption of the Arabic language also greatly facilitated the assimilation of Jews into Moorish culture, and Jewish activity in a variety of professions, including medicine, commerce, finance, and agriculture increased.
By the ninth century, some members of the Sephardic community felt confident enough to take part in proselytizing amongst Christians. Most famous were the heated correspondences sent between Bodo Eleazar, a former Christian
deaconwho had converted to Judaism in 838, and the Bishopof Córdoba Paulus Albarus, who had converted from Judaism to Christianity. Each man, using such epithetsas "wretched compiler", tried to convince the other to return to his former faith, to no avail.
The Golden Age is most closely identified with the reign of
Abd al-Rahman III(882-942), the first independent Caliph of Cordoba, and in particular with the career of his Jewish councilor, Hasdai ibn Shaprut(882-942). Within this context of cultural patronage, studies in Hebrew, literature, and linguistics flourished.
Hasdai benefitted world Jewry not only indirectly by creating a favorable environment for scholarly pursuits within Iberia, but also by using his influence to intervene on behalf of foreign Jews: in his letter to Byzantine Princess Helena, he requested protection for the Jews under Byzantine rule, attesting to the fair treatment of the Christians of "al-Andalus", and perhaps indicating that such was contingent on the treatment of Jews abroad.
One notable contribution to Christian intellectualism is
Ibn Gabirol's neo-Platonic "Fons Vitae" ("The Source of Life;" "Mekor Hayyim"). Thought by many to have been written by a Christian, this work was admired by Christians and studied in monasteries throughout the Middle Ages, though the work of Solomon Munk in the 19th century proved that the author of "Fons Vitae" was the Jewish ibn Gabirol. [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?letter=I&artid=17]
In addition to contributions of original work, the Sephardim were active as translators. Texts were translated between Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin. In translating the great works of Arabic, Hebrew, and Greek into Latin, Iberian Jews were instrumental in bringing the fields of science and philosophy, which formed much of the basis of
Renaissancelearning, into the rest of Europe.
In the early
11th centurycentralized authority based at Cordoba broke down following the Berber invasion and the ousting of the Umayyads. In its stead arose the independent " taifa" principalities under the rule of local Arab, Berber, or Slavonic leaders. Rather than having a stifling effect, the disintegration of the caliphate expanded the opportunities to Jewish and other professionals. The services of Jewish scientists, doctors, traders, poets, and scholars were generally valued by Christian and Muslim rulers of regional centers, especially as order was restored in recently conquered towns. Rabbi Samuel ha-Nagid(ibn Naghrela) was the Vizier of Granada. He was succeeded by his son Joseph ibn Naghrelawho was slain by an incited mob along with most of the Jewish community. The remnant fled to Lucena.
The decline of the Golden Age began before the completion of the Christian "
Reconquista", with the penetration and influence of the Almoravides, and then the Almohads, from North Africa. These fundamentalist sects abhorred the liberality of the Islamic culture of "al-Andalus", including the position of authority which some "dhimmis" held over Muslims. When the Almohads gave the Jews a choice of either death or conversion to Islam, many Jews emigrated. Some, such the family of Maimonides, fled south and east to the more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.
Meanwhile the "Reconquista" continued in the north throughout the 12th century. As various Arab lands fell to the Christians, conditions for some Jews in the emerging Christian kingdoms became increasingly favorable. As had happened during the reconstruction of towns following the breakdown of authority under the Umayyads, the services of Jews were employed by the victorious Christian leaders. Sephardic knowledge of the language and culture of the enemy, their skills as diplomats and professionals, as well as their desire for relief from intolerable conditions - the very same reasons that they had proved useful to the Arabs in the early stages of the Muslim invasion - made their services very valuable.
However, the Jews from the Muslim south were not entirely secure in their northward migrations. Old prejudices were compounded by newer ones. Suspicions of complicity with the Muslims were alive and well as Jews immigrated, speaking Arabic. However, many of the newly-arrived Jews of the north prospered during the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries. The majority of Latin documentation regarding Jews during this period refers to their landed property, fields, and vineyards.
In many ways life had come full circle for the Sephardim of "al-Andalus". As conditions became more oppressive during the 12th and 13th centuries, Jews again looked to an outside culture for relief. Christian leaders of reconquered cities granted them extensive autonomy, and Jewish scholarship recovered somewhat and developed as communities grew in size and importance. However, the Reconquista Jews never reached the same heights as had those of the Golden Age.
Later history and culture
Among the Sephardim were many who were the descendants, or heads, of wealthy families and who, as "
Marranos", had occupied prominent positions in the countries they had left. Some had been state officials, others had held positions of dignity within the Church; many had been the heads of large banking-houses and mercantile establishments, and some were physicians or scholars who had officiated as teachers in high schools.Their Spanish or Portuguese was a lingua francathat enabled Sephardim from different countries to engage in commerce and diplomacy.
With their social equals they associated freely, without regard to
religionand more likely with regard to equivalent or comparative education, for they were generally well read [cite 1632|long=1|pp= various|] which became a tradition and expectation. They were received at the courts of sultans, kings, and princes, and often were employed as ambassadors, envoys, or agents. The number of Sephardim who have rendered important services to different countries is considerable, from Samuel Abravanel(or "Abrabanel" — financial councilor to the viceroy of Naples) to Benjamin Disraeli. Among other names mentioned are those of Belmonte, Nasi, Francisco Pacheco, Pedro de Herrera, Palache, Pimentel, Azevedo, Sasportas, Salvador, Costa, Curiel, Cansino, Schonenberg, Toledo, Toledano, Pereira and Teixeira.
The Sephardim have distinguished themselves as physicians and statesmen, and have won the favor of rulers and princes, in both the Christian and the Islamic world. That the Sephardim were selected for prominent positions in every country in which they settled was only in part due to the fact that Spanish had become a world-language through the expansion of Spain into the world spanning Spanish Empire—the cosmopolitan cultural background after long associations with Islamic scholars of the Sephardic families also made them extremely well educated for the times, even well into the European Enlightenment.
For a long time the Sephardim took an active part in
Spanish literature; they wrote in prose and in rhyme, and were the authors of theological, philosophical, (aesthetic rather than content based writing), pedagogic (teaching), and mathematical works. The rabbis, who, in common with all the Sephardim, emphasized a pure and euphonious pronunciation of Hebrew, delivered their sermons in Spanish or in Portuguese. Several of these sermons have appeared in print. Their thirst for knowledge, together with the fact that they associated freely with the outer world, led the Sephardim to establish new educational systems wherever they settled; they founded schools in which the Spanish languagewas the medium of instruction.Theatre in Istanbul was in Judæo-Spanish since it was forbidden to Muslims.
In Portugal the Sephardim were given important roles in the sociopolitical sphere and enjoyed a certain amount of protection from the Crown (e.g.
Yahia Ben Yahia, first "Rabino Maior" of Portugal and supervisor of the public revenue of the first King of Portugal, D. Afonso Henriques). Even with the increasing pressure from the Catholic Church this state of affairs remained more or less constant and the number of Jews in Portugal grew with those running from Spain. This changed with the marriage of D. Manuel I of Portugalwith the daughter of the Catholic Monarchsof the newly born Spain. In 1497 the Decree ordering the expulsion or forced conversion of all the Jews was passed, and the Sephardim either fled or went into secrecy under the guise of "Cristãos Novos", i.e. New Christians(this Decree was symbolically revoked in 1996 by the Portuguese Parliament). Those who fled to Genoawere only allowed to land provided they received baptism. Those who were fortunate enough to reach the Ottoman Empirehad a better fate: the Sultan Bayezid IIsarcastically sent his thanks to Ferdinand for sending him some of his best subjects, thus "impoverising his own lands while enriching his (Bayezid's)". Jews arriving in the Ottoman Empire were mostly resettled in and around Selanik("Thessaloniki" in Greek) and to some extent in Istanbuland İzmir. This was followed by a great massacre of Jews in the city of Lisbonin 1506 and the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisitionin 1536. This caused the flight of the Portuguese Jewish community, which continued until the extinction of the Courts of Inquisition in 1821; by then there were very few Jews in Portugal.
Amsterdam, where Jews were especially prominent in the seventeenth centuryon account of their number, wealth, education, and influence, they established poetical academies after Spanish models; two of these were the "Academia de los Sitibundos" and the "Academia de los Floridos". In the same city they also organized the first Jewish educational institution, with graduate classes in which, in addition to Talmudic studies, instruction was given in the Hebrew language. The most important synagogue, or Esnoga, as it is usually called amongst Spanish and Portuguese Jews, is the Amsterdam Esnoga— usually considered the "mother synagogue", and the historical centre of the Amsterdam minhag.
A sizable Sephardic community had settled in
Moroccoand other Northern African countries, which were colonized by Francein the 19th century. Jews in Algeria were given French citizenship in 1870 by the "décret Crémieux" (previously Jews and Muslims could apply for French citizenship, but had to renounce the use of traditional religious courts and laws, which many did not want to do). When France withdrew from Algeriain 1962, the local Jewish communities largely relocated to France. There are some tensions between some of those communities and the earlier French Jewish population (who were mostly Ashkenazi Jews), and with Arabic-Muslim communities.
Today, the Sephardim have preserved the romances and the ancient melodies and songs of Spain and Portugal, as well as a large number of old Portuguese and
Spanish proverbs. [For the largest online collection of Sephardic folk literature, visit [http://www.sephardifolklit.org Folk Literature of the Sephardic Jews.] ] A number of children's plays, like, for example, "El Castillo", are still popular among them, and they still manifest a fondness for the dishes peculiar to Iberia, such as the "pastel", or "pastelico", a sort of meat-pie, and the "pan de España", or "pan de León". At their festivals they follow the Spanish custom of distributing "dulces", or "dolces", a confection wrapped in paper bearing a picture of the " magen David" (six pointed star). Amada.
In Mexico, the Sephardim community numbers approximately 5,500 and they originated mainly from
Turkey, Greeceand Bulgaria. In 1942 the " Cologio Hebreo Tarbut" was founded in collaboration with the Ashkenazifamily and instruction was in Yiddish. In 1944 the Sephardim community established a separate "Colegio Hebreo Sefaradí Tarbut" with 90 students where instruction was in Hebrew and complemented with classes on Jewish customs. By 1950 there were 500 students. In 1968 a group of young Sephardim created the group "Tnuat Noar Jinujit Dor Jadash" in support for the creation of the state of Israel. In 1972 the "Majazike Tora" institute is created aiming to prepare young male Jews for their Bar Mitzva( [http://www.sefaradi.org.mx/PaginaWebCHS/Presentacion_Institucional/ComunidadSefaradi4.htm History of the Sephardim Community in Mexico] ).
While the majority of
American Jewstoday are Ashkenazim, in Colonial times Sephardim made up the majority of the Jewish population. For example, the 1654 Jews who arrived in New Amsterdamfled from the colony of Recife, Brazilafter the Portuguese seized it from the Dutch. Through most of the 18th Century, American synagogues conducted and recorded their business in Portuguese, even if their daily language was English. It was not until widespread German immigration to the United States in the 19th Century that the tables turned and Ashkenazim (initially from Germany but by the 20th Century from Eastern Europe) began to dominate the American Jewish landscape.
The Sephardim usually followed the general rules for
Spanish and Portuguese names. They generally bear Portuguese and Spanish names. Many of the names are associated with non-Jewish (Christian) families and individuals, and are by no means exclusive to Jews. After 1492, many marranoschanged their names to hide their Jewish origins and avoid persecution. It was common to choose the name of the Parish Church where they have been baptised into the Christian faith, such as Santa Cruz or the common name of the word "Messiah" ( Salvador), or adopted the name of their Christian godparents. [cite book|last=Roth|first=Cecil|title=A History of the Marranos|publisher=Schocken Books|ISBN=978-0805204636]
In contrast to Ashkenazic Jews, who do not name newborn children after living relatives, Sephardic Jews often name their children after the children's grandparents, even if they are still alive. The first son and daughter are traditionally named after the paternal grandparents, and then the maternal parent's names are next up in line for the remaining children. After that, additional children's names are "free", so to speak, meaning that one can choose whatever name, without any more "naming obligations." The only instance in which Sephardic Jews will not name after their own parents when one of the spouses shares a common first name with a mother/father-in-law (since Jews will not name their children after themselves.) There are times though when the "free" names are used to honor the memory of a deceased relative who died young or childless. These conflicting naming conventions can be troublesome when children are born into mixed Ashkenazic-Sephardic households.
A notable exception to the distinct Ashkenazi and Sephardi naming traditions is found among Dutch Jews, where Ashkenazim have for centuries followed the tradition otherwise attributed to Sephardim. See
Other Sephardic pedigrees
List of Jewish surnames, Spanish and Portuguese names, List of Sephardic People, List of Iberian Jews"
Great authority was given to the president of each congregation. He and the rabbinate of his congregation formed the "ma'amad," without whose approbation (often worded in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian) no book of religious content might be published. The president not only had the power to make authoritative resolutions with regard to congregational affairs and to decide communal questions, but he had also the right to observe the religious conduct of the individual and to punish anyone suspected of heresy or of trespassing against the laws.
Sephardic Chief Rabbis in Israel
:"(also styled Rishon Le-Zion)" :*
Ya'akov Meir: (23 Feb 1921 - 1939):* Benzion Meir Chai Uziel: (1939 - 1954):* Yitzhak Nissim: (1955 - 1972):* Ovadiah Yosef: (1972 - 1983):* Mordechai Eliyahu: (1983 - 1993):* Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron: (1993 - 3 Apr 2003):* She'ar-Yashuv Cohen(acting) : (3 Apr 2003 - 14 Apr 2003):* Shlomo Amar: (14 Apr 2003 - present)
There is a higher incidence of certain
hereditary diseases and inherited disorders in Sephardi Jews. The most important ones are:
Familial Mediterranean fever
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencyand Gilbert's Syndrome
Glycogen storage disease type III
See also [http://www.jewishgeneticscenter.org Jewish Genetics Center] about testing.
Jewish ethnic divisions
Spanish and Portuguese Jews;Languages
Cuisine of the Sephardic Jews
Trees Cry for Rain"
Island of Roses";History
Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula
History of the Jews in Portugal
History of the Jews in Spain
The Alhambra Decree
History of the Jews in the Netherlands
Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands
History of the Jews in Latin America
History of the Jews in England
History of the Marranos in England
History of the Jews in India
History of the Jews in Greece
History of the Jews in Turkey
History of the Jews in Morocco
Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan (West Africa);Famous People
Benjamin N. Cardozo
Garcia de Orta
Gracia Mendes Nasi
Isaac de Pinto
Judah Leon Abravanel
Menasseh Ben Israel
Uriel da Costa
* Ashtor, Eliyahu, "The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2", Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1979)
* Assis, Yom Tov, "The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion", Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem|The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1988)
* Baer, Yitzhak. "A History of the Jews of Christian Spain". 2 vols. Jewish Publication Society of America (1966).
* Bartlett, John R., "Jews in the Hellenistic World: Josephus, Aristeas, The Sibylline Oracles, Eupolemus", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1985)
* Bowers, W. P. "Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle" in Journal of Theological Studies" Vol. 26 Part 2, October 1975, pp. 395-402
* Dan, Joseph, "The Epic of a Millennium: Judeo-Spanish Culture's Confrontation" in "Judaism" Vol. 41, No. 2, Spring 1992
* Encyclopaedia Judaica Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, Ltd. (1971)
* Finkelstein, Norman H. "The Other 1492: Jewish Settlement in the New World." Beech Tree Books (1989)
* Gampel, Benjamin R., "Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Medieval Iberia: "Convivencia" through the Eyes of Sephardic Jews," in "Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain", ed. Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, New York: George Braziller, Inc. (1992)
* Graetz, Professor H. "History of the Jews, Vol. III" Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1894)
* Halkin, Abraham, "The Medieval Jewish Attitude toward Hebrew," in "Biblical and Other Studies", ed. Alexander Altmann, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1963)
* Kaplan, Yosef, "An Alternative Path to Modernity: The Sephardi Diaspora in Western Europe". Brill Publishers (2000). ISBN 9004117423
* Katz, Solomon, "Monographs of the Mediaeval Academy of America No. 12: The Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul", Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mediaeval Society of America (1937)
* Kedourie, Elie, editor. "Spain and the Jews: The Sephardi Experience 1492 and After". Thames & Hudson (1992).
* Lacy, W. K. and Wilson, B. W. J. G., trans., "Res Publica: Roman Politics and Society according to Cicero", Oxford: Oxford University Press (1970)
* Laeuchli, "Samuel Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira", Philadelphia: Temple University Press (1972)
* Leon, Harry J., "The Jews of Ancient Rome" Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1960)
* Mann, Jacob Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature I Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press (1931)
* Raphael, Chaim, The Sephardi Story: A Celebration of Jewish History London: Valentine Mitchell & Co. Ltd. (1991)
* Sarna, Nahum M., "Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain" in Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc. (1971)
* Sassoon, Solomon David, "The Spiritual Heritage of the Sephardim," in The Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc. (1971)
* Scherman, Rabbi Nosson and Zlotowitz, Rabbi Meir eds., "History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era", Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. (see ArtScroll) (1982)
* Stillman, Norman, "Aspects of Jewish Life in Islamic Spain" in Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages ed. Paul E. Szarmach, Albany: State University of New York Press (1979)
* Stillman, Norman. "The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book". Jewish Publication Society of America, (1979)
* Swetschinski, Daniel. "Reluctant Cosmopolitans: The Portuguese Jews of Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam". Litmann Library of Jewish Civilization, (2000)
* Whiston, A. M., trans., "The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus" Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company (19??)
* Zolitor, Jeff, "The Jews of Sepharad" Philadelphia: Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations (CSJO) (1997) (" [http://www.csjo.org/pages/essays/essaysephard.htm The Jews of Sepharad] " reprinted with permission on CSJO website.)
* [http://www.sefarad.org European Sephardic Institute]
* [http://www.isef.org/ International Sephardic Education Foundation ]
* [http://sephardicjournal.org International Sephardic Journal]
* [http://www.sephardiccouncil.org International Sephardic Leadership Council]
* [http://www.radiosefarad.com Radio Sefarad] an internet radio broadcasting from Madrid; includes Huellas, a weekly program for those looking for the origins of their Sephardic surnames
* [http://www.sephardim.org/ Sephardic Jews in Jamaica]
* [http://www.salom.com.tr/ Turkish Sephardi Şalom Newspaper]
* [http://www.pizmonim.org/ Sephardic Pizmonim Project]
* [http://www.sephardicdate.com/ Sephardic Dating Project]
* [http://www.meforum.org/article/707 Meyrav Wurmser: Post-Zionism and the Sephardi Question]
* [http://www.sephardim.com/html/translated_names.html Sephardic names translated into English]
* [http://www.toplumpostasi.net/index.php/cat/1/col/85/art/956/PageName/Ana_sayfa From Andalusian Orangeries to Anatolia]
* [http://www.americansephardifederation.org/PDF/sources/ASF_Timeline.pdf Sephardic Jewish History - Iberian Peninsula] (American Sephardi Federation)
* [http://www.downhomeradioshow.com/2006/11/songs-of-the-sephardic-jewish-women-of-morocco/ Songs of the Sephardic Jewish Women of Morocco] Internet Radio Show featuring field recordings of Sephardic Jewish Women in Tangier & Tetuan, 1954 w/ song texts translated into English.
* [http://www.radiojai.com.ar/OnLine/notiDetalle.asp?id_Noticia=28363 Pascua Marrana. Surname Rojas/Shajor/black sefardim]
* [http://faur.derushah.com/articlesbyhakhamjosefaur.html#sephardim Sepharadim in the Nineteenth Century: New Directions and Old Values] by Jose Faur, outlining the positive yet traditionalist responses to modernity typical of the Sepharadi Jewish community
* [http://faur.derushah.com/articlesbyhakhamjosefaur.html#enlightenment%22 Sepharadi Thought in the Presence of the European Enlightenment] by Jose Faur, identifying the difference in reaction to the European Enlightenment among Sepharadi and Ashkenazi communities
* [http://faur.derushah.com/articlesbyhakhamjosefaur.html#semitism Anti-Semitism in the Sepharadi Mind] by Jose Faur, describing the cultural response of Sepharadim to anti-Semitism
* [http://sefarad.revistas.csic.es Sefarad] , Journal on Hebraic, Sephardim and Middle East Studies, [http://www.filol.csic.es ILC] ,
CSIC(scientific articles in Spanish, English and other languages)
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