- X86 memory segmentation
x86 memory segmentation refers to the implementation of
memory segmentationon the x86 architecture. Memory is divided into portions that may be addressed by a single index registerwithout changing a 16-bit segment selector. In real modeor V86 mode, a segment is always 64 kilobytes in size (using 16-bit offsets). In protected mode, a segment can have variable length.
In 16-bit real mode, enabling applications to make use of multiple memory segments (in order to access more memory than available in any one 64K-segment) was quite complex, but was viewed as a necessary evil for all but the smallest tools (which could do with less memory). The root of the problem was that no appropriate address-arithmetic instructions suitable for flat addressing of the entire memory range were available. Flat addressing is possible by applying multiple instructions, which however leads to slower programs.
In real mode, the 16-bit segment selector was interpreted as the first 16 bits of a linear 20-bit address, with the remaining four being all zeros. The segment selector is always added with a 16-bit offset to yield a
linear address. For instance, the segmented address 6EFh:1234h has a segment selector of 6EFh, which corresponds to the 20-bit linear address 6EF0h. To this we add the offset, yielding the linear address 6EF0h + 1234h = 8124h (cf. hexadecimal).
A single linear address can be mapped to many segmented addresses. For instance, the linear address above (8124h) can have the segmented addresses 6EFh:1234h, 812h:4h and 0h:8124h (and many more). This could be confusing to programmers accustomed to unique addressing schemes.
The effective 20-bit
address spaceof real mode limited the addressable memory to 220 bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes.
protected mode, segmentation is used as a virtual memorymechanism, providing memory isolation and contiguous addressing of non-contiguous physical memory.
On the 386 and later, programs issue logical (46-bit) addresses which go through the segmentation unit to be checked and translated into linear 32-bit addresses, before being sent to the
pagingunit (if enabled) which ultimately translates them into physical addresses (which are also 32-bit on the 386, but can be larger on more modern processors which support Physical Address Extension).
Detailed Segmentation Unit Workflow
A logical address consists of a 16-bit segment selector (supplying 13+1 address bits) and a 32-bit offset (16-bit on the 286). The segment selector must be located in one of the segment registers. That selector consists of a 2-bit Requested Privilege Level (RPL) where the lowest number is the highest privilege level, a 1-bit Table Indicator (TI), and a 13-bit index.
The processor accesses the 64-bit
segment descriptorstructure in the Global Descriptor Tableif TI is 0 or in the Local Descriptor Tableif TI is 1. It then performs the privilege check:
DPL < max (CPL,RPL)
where CPL is the current privilege level (lower 2 bits in CS), RPL is the requested privilege level from the segment selector, and DPL is the descriptor privilege level of the segment (found in the descriptor).
If the inequality is true, the processor generates a
general protection fault(GP). Otherwise, address translation continues. This privilege check is done only when the segment register is loaded because segment descriptorsare cached in hidden parts of the segment registers. The processor then takes the 32-bit or 16-bit offset and compares it against the segment limit specified in the segment descriptor. If it is larger, a GP fault is generated. Otherwise, the processor adds the segment base (32-bit or 24-bit, specified in descriptor) to the offset and this creates a linear address.
Logical addresses can be explicitly specified in
x86assembler language, e.g. (AT&T syntax):
movl $42, %fs:(%eax) ; Equivalent to M [fs:eax] <-42) in RTL
Usually, however, implied segments are used. All instruction fetches come from the
code segmentin the CS register. Most memory references come from data segmentin the DS register. Processor stack references, either implicitly (e.g. push and pop instructions) or explicitly (memory accesses using the ESP or (E)BP registers) use the stack segmentin the SS register. Finally, string instructions (e.g. stos, movs) also use the extra segmentES.
Segmentation cannot be turned off on x86 processors, so many operating systems use a
flat memory modelto make segmentation unnoticeable to programs. For instance, the Linuxkernel sets up only 4 segments:Fact|date=February 2007
* __KERNEL_CS (Kernel code segment, base=0, limit=4GB, DPL=0) * __KERNEL_DS (Kernel data segment, base=0, limit=4GB, DPL=0) * __USER_CS (User code segment, base=0, limit=4GB, DPL=3) * __USER_DS (User data segment, base=0, limit=4GB, DPL=3)
Since the base is set to 0 in all cases and the limit 4 GiB, the segmentation unit does not affect the addresses the program issues before they arrive at the
Segments can be defined to be either code, data, or system segments. Additional permission bits are present to make segments read only, read/write, execute, etc.
Note that code may always modify all segment registers "except" CS (the
code segment). This is because the current privilege level (CPL) of the processor is stored in the lower 2 bits of the CS register. The only way to raise the processor privilege level (and reload CS) is through the lcall (far call) and int (interrupt) instructions. Similarly, the only way to lower the privilege level (and reload CS) is through lret (far return) and iret (interrupt return).
For more about segmentation, see the
IA-32manuals freely available on the AMDor Intelwebsites.
THE multiprogramming system
* [http://www.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/index.htm Home of the IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developer's Manual]
* [http://mirror.href.com/thestarman/asm/debug/Segments.html The Segment:Offset Addressing Scheme]
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