Arain


Arain

The Arain ( _ur. آرائین) are an agricultural ["...but also among the so-called agriculturist castes, so designated by the British... ...Chauhan, Arain, Gaud...", "An Alternative to the "Sati" Model: Perceptions of a Social Reality in Folklore", Prem Chowdhry, pp. 259-274, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1990, http://www.jstor.org/view/03852342/ap040052/04a00070/0.] caste ["Behind them an angry farmer brandished a bamboo pole. He was a market-gardener, Arain by caste, growing vegetables and flowers for Umballa city, and well Kim knew the breed.", "Kim", Rudyard Kipling.] settled mainly in the Punjab ["...communities: 1. Acharaj. 2. Ad-Dharmi. 3. Aheri. 4. Ahir. 5. Ahluwalia. 6. Arain. 7. Arora. 8. Bahurupia...", "The land of the five rivers was known as panchanad in the ancient period, and as Punjab in the medieval period.", "People of India: Punjab: Volume XXXVII", edited I J S. Bansal and Swaran Singh, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7304-123-7, https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no34962.htm.] [http://ncbc.nic.in/backward-classes/punjab.html] (Pakistan and India), with significant numbers also in the Sindh [See Arain population distribution on http://www.joshuaproject.net/index.php.] (Pakistan). They are chiefly associated with farming ["The Arain were small peasant-proprietors...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] ["Behind them an angry farmer brandished a bamboo pole. He was a market-gardener, Arain by caste, growing vegetables and flowers for Umballa city, and well Kim knew the breed." (Kim, Rudyard Kipling).] , traditionally being small landowners or "zamindar"s ["...from other "zamindar" (landowning) categories: Arain (5), Jat (2), Gujar (2), ...", "Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis", Alison Shaw, Brunel University (http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/1467-9655.00065).] ["The Arain were small peasant-proprietors...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki (http://www.jstor.org/view/00044687/di014466/01p0206e/2?frame=noframe&userID=a301f288@ox.ac.uk/01cce4405f00501b38b9c&dpi=3&config=jstor).] .

Origin

Arains are the descendants of Arab invaders to sub-continent. They came from Areha (Jehrico, Syria) which is now in Palistine. Muhammad Hayat Madni held as a commander in the Mian Family of Baghbanpura. Reference to their linage is made by Akbar Shah Khan Najeebabadi who declared that they enter India through Debal Sindh with Muhammad Bin Qasim. He declared that they are Areehai from Areha which was a Punjabized nasal sound to Arain and the claim Arab descent ["Additionally, the Arain group, to which I belong, claims Arab extraction.", "There is many a slip betwixt cup and lip", Ishtiaq Ahmed, Daily Times, Pakistan, 18/04/2006 (http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C04%5C18%5Cstory_18-4-2006_pg3_2).] , doubtless based upon the demographic that nearly all Arain are, and have been, Sunni Muslim, as were the early Arabs of Muhammad bin Qasim's expedition ["The strongest argument in favour of this claim is that Arains are always Muslims and almost entirely Sunnis as were the early Arabs who came with Muhammad bin Qasim.", "There is many a slip betwixt cup and lip", Ishtiaq Ahmed, Daily Times, Pakistan, 18/04/2006.] .

The Arain during the British Raj

The Arain land holders should not be confused with the more gentrified "zamindar"s such as the feudal Rajput landlords of vast holdings. Polo, partridge shoots and tea parties were therefore not associated attributes. Neither were the more negative and profligate practises such as "...dancing girls, drunken evenings listening to poetry, or numerous marriages..." ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] . When the British wanted land developed in the Punjab after its annexation, Arain were brought in to cultivate lands around the cities, forming irrigated colonies ["When the British opened new lands in Punjab, they brought in the Arains to cultivate...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] . The Arain were so favoured for their "hard work, frugality and sense of discipline" ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] . Subsequent development of towns and cities and increasing urbanisation resulted in the value of the land settled by Arain to rise significantly, and Arain families thus flourished ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] . Education was prioritised with the new found wealth ["...the Arain families put their money into education and reaped quick rewards.", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] and the Arain came to dominate the legal profession amongst urban Punjabi Muslims. Many used law to enter politics ["Soon they came to dominate the legal profession... ...and... ...spring into politics.", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] .

The Arain were classified as a "non-martial race" by the British ["The army was an unusual career for an Arain youngster; the British had not regarded the community as one of India's "martial races"...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] , a classification deemed arbitrary and based on prejudices prevalent at the time (see "martial race").

Prominent Arain

Muhammad Hayat Madni (Commander in Muhammad Bin Qasim's Army)

General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the sixth President of Pakistan (and Chief of Staff of the Pakistani Army) was an Arain from Jalandhar ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] .

Chaudhry Mohammad Ali, a Civil Servant from Jalandhar, became Pakistan's second Finance Minister (1951-1956) and Pakistan's fourth Prime Minister (1956-1957) ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] .

Mian Sir [http://www.harappa.com/amjad_ali/amjadali_interview_mian_fazli.html] Fazli Husain, the first Chief Minister of the Punjab ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] . Chaudry Muhammad Mansoor Majeed ArainFact|date=February 2007.

Mian Amiruddin, mayor of Lahore at the time of the Partition ["Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] .

Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, an influential politician of the Punjab in the 1920s ["Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, a prominent and influential politician of Punjab in the 1920s, was an Arain as was Mian Iftikharuddin...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&docId=98917428)] . Mian Iftikharuddin ["Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, a prominent and influential politician of Punjab in the 1920s, was an Arain as was Mian Iftikharuddin...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] , a politician [http://www.chowk.com/show_article.cgi?aid=00003445&channel=civic%20center&start=0&end=9&chapter=1&page=1] , landlord and founder of the "Imroze" and "Pakistan Times" newspapersFact|date=February 2007 (later to be nationalized by the Ayub government). He was to play an important role in turning the Muslim community of urban Punjab towards favouring an independent Pakistan ["...who was to play an...", "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988", Shahid Javed Burki.] .

References

http://arain.com.pk/downloads.htm


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