Erlitou culture


Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture (simplified Chinese: 二里头文化 traditional Chinese: 二里頭文化 pinyin: èrlǐtóu wénhuà) (2100 BC to 1800 BC [Fairbank, 35.] or 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age urban society that existed in China. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan Province. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi Province, and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei Province. Most Chinese archaeologistsFact|date=February 2008 identify the Erlitou culture as the site of the Xia Dynasty, while most Western archaeologists remain unconvinced of the connection between the Erlitou culture and the Xia Dynasty since there are no extant written records linking Erlitou with the official history.

Discovered in 1959, Erlitou is the largest site associated with the Erlitou culture at 3 km². Erlitou monopolized the production of ritual bronze vessels.Fact|date=February 2008 After the rise of the Shang Dynasty, the site at Erlitou greatly diminished in size, but remained inhabited during the early phase of the Shang Dynasty.

The Erlitou culture may have evolved from the Longshan culture. Originally centered around Henan and Shanxi Province, the culture later spread to Shaanxi and Hubei Province.

ee also

*Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project
*Erligang culture
*Three August Ones and Five Emperors
*Xia Dynasty

Notes

References

*Fairbank, John King and Merle Goldman (1992). "China: A New History; Second Enlarged Edition" (2006). Cambridge: MA; London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01828-1
*Liu, Li. "The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States", ISBN 0-521-81184-8
*http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/chbro_bron.shtm The Golden Age of Chinese Archaeology
* Allan, Sarah, "Erlitou and the Formation of Chinese Civilization: Toward a New Paradigm", The Journal of Asian Studies, 66:461-496 Cambridge University Press, 2007
* Liu, L. & Xiu, H., "Rethinking Erlitou: legend, history and Chinese archaeology", Antiquity, Volume: 81 Number: 314 Page: 886–901, 2007


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