Miller


Miller
A man dressed as a medieval miller at a festival in Monselice.
For other uses, see: Miller (disambiguation)

A miller usually refers to a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour. Milling is among the oldest of human occupations. "Miller", "Milne" and other variants are common surnames, as are their equivalents in other languages around the world ("Müller" or "Mueller" in German, "Molinari" in Italian etc.). Milling existed in hunter gatherer communities, and later millers were important to the development of agriculture.

The materials ground by millers are often foodstuffs and particularly grain. The physical grinding of the food allows for the easier digestion of its nutrients and saves wear on the teeth. Non-food substances needed in a fine, powdered form, such as building materials, may be processed by a miller.

A bedstone and rind. Dalgarven Mill, Scotland.

The most basic tool for a miller was the quern-stone - simply a large, fixed stone as a base and another movable stone operated by hand, similar to a mortar and pestle. As technology and millstones (the bedstone and rynd) improved, more elaborate machines such as watermills and windmills were developed to do the grinding work. These mills harnessed available energy sources including animal, water, wind and electrical power. Mills are some of the oldest factories in human history, so factories making other items are sometimes known as mills, for example, cotton mills and steel mills. These factory workers are also called millers.

The rynd in pre-reformation Scotland was often carved on millers' gravestones as a symbol of their trade.

In a traditional rural society, a miller is often wealthier than ordinary peasants, which can lead to jealousy and to millers being targeted in bread riots at times of famine. Conversely, millers might be in a stronger position vis-a-vis feudal land owners than are ordinary peasants.

The traditional carnival held annually in the city of Ivrea, Italy commemorates a spirited "Mugnaia" (miller's daughter) who supposedly refused to let a local duke exercise his right of the first night, and proceeded to chop the duke's head off and spark a revolution. Whatever the historical validity of the story, it is significant it was the daughter of a miller to whom folk tradition assigned this rebellious role.

References


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  • Miller — es un apellido inglés que significa molinero. Puede tener diversos orígenes, por ejemplo, escocés o alemán (por asimilación de Müller en países de habla inglesa). Puede hacer referencia a: Personas Ann Miller, actriz y bailarina; …   Wikipedia Español

  • MILLER (H.) — Miller a longtemps été considéré comme le principal instigateur de la révolution sexuelle qui a bouleversé l’Amérique et du même coup le monde occidental. Idée que l’auteur a récusée presque totalement. Il est certain qu’il a toujours combattu le …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Miller — bezeichnet: einen Familiennamen, siehe Miller (Familienname) einen englischen Brauereinkonzern, siehe SABMiller eine US amerikanische Brauerei, siehe Miller Brewing Company einen US amerikanischen Motorradhersteller, siehe Miller… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Miller — Miller, Arthur Miller, George A. Miller, Glenn Miller, Henry Miller, índices de * * * (as used in expressions) Mary Boykin Miller Hemingway, Ernest (Miller) Miller, Arthur Miller, George A(rmitage) Miller, (Alton) Glenn Miller, Henry (Valentine)… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • MILLER (W.) — MILLER WILLIAM (1782 1849) Le prédicateur William Miller est à l’origine des mouvements adventistes. Agriculteur dans le Massachusetts, il se convertit en 1816 et entreprend alors une étude des livres bibliques, en particulier de Daniel et de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Miller — Miller, MO U.S. city in Missouri Population (2000): 754 Housing Units (2000): 378 Land area (2000): 0.757193 sq. miles (1.961122 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.757193 sq. miles (1.961122 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Miller — Miller, Arthur (1915 ) a US writer of plays that deal with political or moral problems. His most famous plays include The Crucible, about the ↑Salem Witchcraft Trials in 17th century America, and ↑Death of a Salesman. He is also famous for having …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Miller — Mill er (m[i^]l [ e]r), n. 1. One who keeps or attends a flour mill or gristmill. [1913 Webster] 2. A milling machine. [1913 Webster] 3. (Zo[ o]l.) (a) A moth or lepidopterous insect; so called because the wings appear as if covered with white… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Miller's — may refer to: Miller s UK publishing company established by William Miller Miller s, Nevada a ghost town located in Esmeralda County, Nevada This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal lin …   Wikipedia

  • MILLER (A.) — MILLER ARTHUR (1915 ) Dramaturge réaliste, influencé par Ibsen, et parfois tenté par l’expressionnisme, Arthur Miller bâtit ses pièces autour de quelques grands thèmes: les rapports entre père et fils, les conflits ou les cassures entre… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • MILLER S L — En 1963 MILLER demostró que si se sometía a descargas eléctricas o radiación ultravioleta durante varias semanas a una mezcla de metano, amoníaco, hidrógeno y vapor de agua, se generaba una mezcla de moléculas orgánicas sencillas (ilustración… …   Diccionario médico


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