The Joint Nordic database for runic inscriptions (Swedish: "Samnordisk runtextdatabas") is a project started on January 1, 1993 at Uppsala University in Uppsala, Sweden. The project's goal is to comprehensively catalog runic inscriptions in a machine-readable way for future research. In the current edition, published September 18, 2004, there are over 6000 inscriptions in the database.

The project's database is freely available for [ download] via the Internet with a client program, called Rundata, for Microsoft Windows and ASCII text files for other operating systems.

Format of entries

Each entry includes the original text, its format, location, English and Swedish translations, information about the stone itself, et cetera. The stones are identified with a code which consists of up to three parts.

The first part describes the origin of the inscription. For Swedish inscriptions this contains a code for the province, and, for Extra-Nordic inscriptions, a code for the country (not ISO 3166).

Province code:
*Bo - Bohuslän
*D - Dalarna
*G - Gotland
*Gs - Gästrikland
*Hs - Hälsingland
*J - Jämtland
*Lp - Lappland
*M - Medelpad
*Nä - Närke
*Sm - Småland
*Sö - Södermanland
*U - Uppland
*Vg - Västergötland
*Vr - Värmland
*Vs - Västmanland
*Ög - Östergötland
*Öl - Öland

Country code:
*BR - British Islands
*DR - Denmark
*FR - Faroe Islands
*GR - Greenland
*IR - Ireland
*IS - Iceland
*N - Norway

The second part of the code consists of a serial number or a previous method of cataloging.

The third part of the code is a character which indicates the age (Proto-Norse, Viking Age, or Middle Ages) and whether the inscription is lost or retranslated.

*# - inscription lost, later replaced with †
*$ - newly retranslated
*M - inscription from the Middle Ages
*U - inscription in Proto-Norse, i.e. before ca 800.
* [inscription from the Viking Age, if M or U are not present]

As such, "U 88" would mean that the stone is from Uppland and that it is the 88th to be catalogued. This system has its origin in the book "Sveriges runinskrifter" (English: "Runic Inscriptions of Sweden")

Dating of runic inscriptions in Rundata

Most of the time, the "Period/Datering" information in Rundata just gives the date as "V", meaning Viking Age, which is very broad. For some Danish inscriptions from Jacobsen & Moltke a more precise sub-period is given. The periods used are:

* Helnæs-Gørlev -- ca. 800 (or 750-ca. 900)
* för-Jelling (pre-Jelling) -- ca. 900
* Jelling (Jelling) -- 10th c. and into the 11th c.
* efter-Jelling (post-Jelling) -- ca. 1000–1050
* kristen efter-Jelling (Christian, post-Jelling) -- 1st half 11th c.

Many of the inscriptions in Rundata also include a field called "Stilgruppering". This refers to date bands determined by the style of ornamentation on the stone as proposed by Gräslund:

The date bands are:

* RAK -- ca. 990-1010 AD
* FP -- ca. 1010-1050 AD
* Pr1 -- ca. 1010-1040 AD
* Pr2 -- ca. 1020-1050 AD
* Pr3 -- ca. 1050 - a generation forward (en generation framåt)
* Pr4 -- ca. 1060-1100 AD
* Pr5 -- ca. 1100-1130 AD

Original reference works

The catalog numbers refer to a variety of reference works and scholarly publications. Some of the more notable of these include:

* "Sveriges runinskrifter", various volumes.
* cite book
coauthors=Erik Moltke
title=Danmarks runeindskrifter
publisher=Ejnar Munksgaards Forlag

* cite journal
quotes =
last = Gräslund
first = A-S.
year = 1991
title = Runstenar – om ornamentik och datering
journal = TOR
volume = 23
pages = 113–140

* cite journal
quotes =
last = Gräslund
first = A-S.
year = 1992
title = Runstenar – om ornamentik och datering II
journal = TOR
volume = 24
pages = 177–201

Other bibliography information is available inside the Rundata client program by pressing F4.

ee also

*Runic alphabet

External links

* [ Samnordisk runtextdatabas] sv icon

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