- Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV Portrait of Charles IV by Goya King of Spain Reign 14 December 1788–19 March 1808
( 19 years, 96 days)
Predecessor Charles III Successor Ferdinand VII Spouse Maria Luisa of Parma Issue Charlotte, Queen of Portugal
Maria Louisa, Queen of Etruria
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Infante Charles, Count of Molina
Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies
Infante Francisco de Paula
Full name Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno Jose Januario Serafin Diego House House of Bourbon Father Charles III of Spain Mother Maria Amalia of Saxony Born 11 November 1748
Palace of Portici, Portici, Italy
Died 20 January 1819(aged 70)
Burial El Escorial Religion Roman Catholicism
Charles IV (Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno Jose Januario Serafin Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788 until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife Maria Amalia of Saxony. He was born at Naples(11 of November, 1748), while his father was king of the Two Sicilies. His elder brother Don Felipe was passed over for the two thrones as mentally retarded and epileptic. In Naples and Sicily he was styled as the Prince of Taranto.
Charles had inherited a great frame and immense physical strength from the Saxon line of his mother, granddaughter of August the Strong. When young he was fond of wrestling with the strongest countrymen he could find. While he was considered by many to be intellectually sluggish and quite credulous he was also known for his acts of kindness.
In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. Even though he had a profound belief in the sanctity of his office and kept up the appearance of an absolute, powerful monarch, he never took more than a passive part in the direction of his own government, occupying himself with hunting. The affairs of government he left to his wife and his prime minister. In 1792, Maria Luisa finally succeeded in ousting the Count of Floridablanca from office and had him replaced with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda, the chief of the Aragonese party. However, in the wake of the war against Republican France, the liberal-leaning Count of Aranda was replaced by Manuel de Godoy, a favourite of the Queen and allegedly her lover, who thenceforth enjoyed the lasting favour of the King.
Godoy continued Aranda's policy of neutrality towards France but after Spain protested against the execution of the deposed king in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration of war against Spain, Portugal and Spain signed a treaty of mutual protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to conclude an alliance and declare war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar. However, After Napoleon's victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side. This switching back and forth devalued Charles' position as a trustworthy ally while the return to the French alliance increased Godoy's unpopularity and strengthened partido fernandista, the supporters of Crown Prince Ferdinand, who favoured a close relationship with the United Kingdom.
When King Charles was told that his son Ferdinand was appealing to Napoleon against Godoy, he took the side of the minister. When the populace rose at Aranjuez in 1808 he abdicated on 19 March, in favour of his son, to save the minister who had been taken prisoner. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon who had 100,000 soldiers in Spain by that time.
Charles IV found refuge in France, and became a prisoner of Napoleon: the latter, posing as arbiter, summoned both Charles IV and his son to Bayonne in April and coaxed Charles (who had a difficult time restraining himself from assaulting his son) to retract his earlier abdication and abdicate, on 5 May 1808, in favour of Napoleon. Napoleon then made his brother Joseph Bonaparte king in Spain.
Charles was then interned in Talleyrand's castle in Valençay. He accepted a pension from the French Emperor and spent the rest of his life between his wife and Godoy, staying briefly in Compiègne and longer in Marseille.
In 1812, he finally settled in Rome in the Palazzo Barberini. His wife, the former Queen, died on 2 January 1819. He died, reportedly of overwhelming despair and heartbreak because of the death of his wife, on 20 January 1819.
Marriage and children
Charles IV married his first cousin Maria Louisa, the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma, in 1765. The couple had fourteen children, six of whom survived into adulthood:
- Charles Clement (Carlos Clemente) (19 September 1771 – 7 March 1774)
- Charlotte Joaquina (Carlota Joaquina) (25 April 1775 – 7 January 1830), married Prince John of Portugal, later King John VI
- Maria Louisa (Maria Luisa) (11 September 1777 – 2 July 1782)
- Maria Amalia (9 January 1779 – 22 July 1798), married her uncle Infante Antonio Pascual of Spain in 1795, no issue.
- Charles Dominic (Carlos Domingo) (5 March 1780 – 11 June 1783)
- Maria Louisa (Maria Luisa) (6 July 1782 – 13 March 1824), married Louis, heir of Bourbon-Parma and became Queen consort of Etruria and Duchess of Lucca
- Charles Francis (Carlos Francisco) (5 September 1783 – 11 November 1784)
- Philip Francis (Felipe Francisco) (5 September 1783 – 18 October 1784)
- Ferdinand (Fernando) (14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833), succeeded his father as King of Spain
- Charles (Carlos), Count of Molina (29 March 1788 – 10 March 1855), later the first Carlist pretender
- Maria Isabella (6 June 1789 – 13 September 1848), married Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies
- Maria Teresa (16 February 1791 – 2 November 1794)
- Felipe Maria (28 March 1792 – 1 March 1794)
- Francisco Antonio de Paula, Duke of Cadiz (10 March 1794 – 13 August 1865)
Maria Luisa was widely considered a vicious and coarse woman who thoroughly dominated the king. During the lifetime of Charles IV, she led her husband into court intrigues against the prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca.
16. Louis XIV of France 8. Louis, Dauphin of France 17. Maria Theresa of Spain 4. Philip V of Spain 18. Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria 9. Maria Anna of Bavaria 19. Henriette Adelaide of Savoy 2. Charles III of Spain 20. Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma 10. Odoardo II Farnese 21. Isabella of Modena 5. Elisabeth of Parma 22. Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine 11. Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg 23. Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt 1. Charles IV of Spain 24. John George III, Elector of Saxony 12. Augustus II the Strong 25. Anne Sophie of Denmark 6. Augustus III of Poland 26. Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 13. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 27. Sophie Luise of Württemberg 3. Maria Amalia of Saxony 28. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 14. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor 29. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg 7. Maria Josepha of Austria 30. John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 15. Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick 31. 'Benedicta-Henrietta of Simmern
Titles and styles
- 11 November 1748 – 10 August 1759 His Royal Highness the Prince of Taranto
- 10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788 His Royal Highness the Prince of the Asturias
- 14 December 1788 – 19 March 1808 His Majesty the King
- 19 March 1808 – 20 January 1819 His Majesty King Carlos
- ^ Almanach royal, p 34
- ^ Supplemeto á Collecção dos tratados, convenções, contratos e actos. V4. pg 10-17
- ^ Articles: Period of Imperial Crisis (revised) - Historical Text Archive
- ^ Gazeta de Madrid de 20 de mayo páginas 483 and 484.
- ^ Napoleon I: Blockade and the peninsular campaign - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ http://pcombal.club.fr/bioanglaise.html — “The Spanish affair&rqduo;
- ^ http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV_d%27Espagne
- ^ Manuel de Godoy#Exile
- ^ Worldroots.com
- ^ The Royal Favorite: Manuel Francisco Domingo de Godoy, Prince of the Peace
Charles IV of SpainCadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 11 November 1748 Died: 20 January 1819
- Historia del Reinado de Carlos IV, by General Gomez de Arteche (5 vols.), in the Historia General de España de la Real Academia de la Historia (Madrid, 1892, etc.).
- Historiaantiqua. Isabel II; (Spanish) (2008)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Spain
VacantTitle last held byPrince Ferdinand
Prince of the Asturias
Infantes of SpainThe generations indicate descent from Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante had been largely used in the different realms. 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone*title granted by Royal Decree
**consort to an Infanta who was naturalized as a Spanish Infante
Princes of Asturias
Infante Felipe (1977–present)Infante Alfonso (1907–1931) · Infanta Mercedes (1880–1904) · Infanta Isabella (1875–1880) · Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy (1871–1873) · Infante Alfonso (1857–1868) · Infanta Isabella (1851–1857) · Infanta Isabella (1830–1833) · Infante Ferdinand (1788–1808) · Infante Charles (1759–1788) · Infante Ferdinand (1724–1746) · Infante Louis (1709–1724) · Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria (1698–1699) · Infante Charles (1661–1665) · Infante Philip Prospero (1657–1661) · Infante Balthasar Charles (1629–1646) · Philip IV (1605–1621) · Infante Philip (1582–1598) · Infante Diego (1578–1582) · Infante Ferdinand (1571–1578) · Infante Charles (1556–1568) · Philip II (1527–1556) · Infante Charles (1504–1516) · Infanta Joanna (1502–1504) · Infante Michael of Portugal (1498–1500) · Infanta Isabella (1497–1498) · Infante John (1478–1497) · Infanta Isabella (1470–1478) · Infanta Isabella (1468–1470) · Infante Alfonso (1464–1468) · Infanta Joanna (1462–1464) · Infante Henry (1425–1454) · Infanta Eleanor (1424–1425) · Infanta Catherine (1423–1424) · Infante John (1405–1406) · Infanta Maria (1402–1405) · Infante Henry (1388–1390)
Monarchs of Spain House of Trastámara (1479–1555) House of Habsburg (1516–1700) House of Bourbon (1700–1808) House of Bonaparte (1808–1813) House of Bourbon (1813–1868) House of Savoy (1868–1873) House of Bourbon (1874–1931) House of Bourbon (since 1975)
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