Battle of Millarapue

Battle of Millarapue

conflict=Battle of Millarapue
partof=Arauco War
date=November 30, 1557
place=Vicinity of Millarapue, Arauco, Chile
result= Spanish Victory
commander2= had been before him.]
strength1= more than 600 Spaniards [ Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV. ]
strength2= more than 20,000 Mapuche [ Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV. According to Marmolejo, Historia, Cap. XXVI, only 10,000 Mapuche in two divisions were actually engaged, a third division marching to attack the Spanish rear did not arrive in time. ]
casualties1= Some wounded and many horses dead [ Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV. ] .
casualties2= 3,000 killed, 800 captured most badly injured [ Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV. ] .|

The Battle of Millarapue that occurred November 30, 1557 was intended by the Toqui Caupolicán as a Mapuche ambush of the Spanish army of Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza that resulted in a Spanish victory when the ambush failed. After the victory of the Spanish arms in the Battle of Lagunillas, Mendoza went into the hostile territory of Arauco looking for a decisive battle. The Spanish royal forces encamped at Millarapue on November 29th. The Mapuche army under Caupolicán tried an ambush at dawn on November 30th, attempting to surprise the enemy camp. That day was the day of San Andres celebrated among the Spaniards and a celebratory morning call of trumpets was interpreted by the Araucanians as an alarm. Believing their ambush detected Caupolicán ordered his army to advance to the attack. Leading some Mapuche warriors from the front was Galvarino, with his handless arms urging on his comrades. The battle was brutal and fierce. The Battle of Millarapue lasted from dawn to early afternoon. Finally the Mapuches were defeated lossing 3,000 dead and 800 captured. Captured leaders were hung and Galvarino, captured again, was thrown to the dogs [ Vivar, Crónica, Capítulo CXXXIII ] . Following the victory the Spanish advanced to Tucapel and settled down to build the fort of Cañete, not very far from where Valdivia's old fort of Tucapel had been located.



* Jerónimo de Vivar, [ Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reinos de Chile (Chronicle and abundant and true relation of the kingdoms of Chile)] ARTEHISTORIA REVISTA DIGITAL; Crónicas de América (on line in Spanish)
** Capítulo CXXXIII Que trata de la salida del gobernador de la provincia de Arauco para la de Tucapel y lo que en este camino le sucedió
* de Góngora Marmolejo, Alonso, [ Historia de Todas las Cosas que han Acaecido en el Reino de Chile y de los que lo han gobernado (1536-1575) (History of All the Things that Have happened in the Kingdom of Chile and of they that have governed it (1536-1575))] , Edición digital a partir de Crónicas del Reino de Chile, Madrid, Atlas, 1960, pp.75-224, (Biblioteca de Autores Españoles ; 565-568).
** [ XXVI. De como salio el campo de Arauco para ir a Tucapel y de la batalla que le dieron los indios en Millarapue.]
* Mariño de Lobera, Pedro, [ Crónica del Reino de Chile , escrita por el capitán Pedro Mariño de Lobera....reducido a nuevo método y estilo por el Padre Bartolomé de Escobar. Edición digital a partir de Crónicas del Reino de Chile Madrid, Atlas, 1960, pp. 227-562, (Biblioteca de Autores Españoles ; 569-575).] Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (on line in Spanish)
** Libro 2, Capítulo IV. De la entrada que el gobernador, don García de Mendoza, hizo en los estados de Arauco y la memorable batalla que tuvo con los indios en Millapoa
* Diego de Rosales, “Historia General del Reino de Chile”, Flandes Indiano, 3 tomos. Valparaíso 1877 - 1878.
** [ Historia general de el Reyno de Chile: Flandes Indiano, Tomo II] (1554-1625)
*** [,M1 Capitulo XIV. Batalla que tubo Don Garcia con Caupolican y Turcupichun y insigne Victoria que alcanzó.]

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