- Anders Jonas Ångström
name = Anders Jonas Ångström
|Anders Jonas Ångström
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caption = Anders Jonas Ångström
August 13, 1814
June 21, 1874
Anders Jonas Ångström (
August 13, 1814– June 21, 1874) was a physicistin Sweden, one of the founders of the science of spectroscopy.
Medelpad, he moved to and was educated at Uppsala University, where in 1839 he became docentin physics. In 1842 he went to the Stockholm Observatoryin order to gain experience in practical astronomical work, and in the following year he was appointed keeper of the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory.
Becoming interested in terrestrial
magnetismhe made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugénie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
In 1858 he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg in the chair of physics at Uppsala. His most important work was concerned with the conduction of
heatand with spectroscopy. In his optical researches, "Optiska Undersökningar", presented to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciencesin 1853, he not only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed spectra, one from the metal of the electrode and the other from the gas in which it passes, but deduced from Leonhard Euler's theory of resonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the same refrangibility as those which it can absorb. This statement, as Sir Edward Sabineremarked when awarding him the Rumford medalof the Royal Societyin 1872, contains a fundamental principle of spectrum analysis, and though overlooked for a number of years it entitles him to rank as one of the founders of spectroscopy.
From 1861 onwards he paid special attention to the solar spectrum. His combination of the
spectroscopewith photographyfor the study of the solar systemresulted in proving that the sun's atmosphere contains hydrogen, among other elements (1862), and in 1868 he published his great map of the normal solar spectrum in "Recherches sur le spectre solaire", including detailed measurements of more than 1000 spectral lines, which long remained authoritative in questions of wave-length, although his measurements were inexact to the extent of one part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his standard having been slightly too short.
He was the first, in 1867, to examine the spectrum of the
aurora borealis, and detected and measured the characteristic bright line in its yellow green region; but he was mistaken in supposing that this same line, which is often called by his name, is also to be seen in the zodiacal light.
He died at Uppsala on
June 21 1874.
ångströmunits with which the wavelength of light is measured are named for him. The units are used in crystallographyas well as spectroscopy.
The Ångström crater on the
Moonwas named in his honour.
Knut Ångströmwas known for his research at Uppsala Universityon solar radiation, the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere. For his research, he devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infraredspectrum in 1895.
* cite encyclopedia
last = Maier
first = C.L.
title = Ångström, Anders Jonas
Dictionary of Scientific Biography
volume = 1
pages = 166-167
publisher = Charles Scribner's Sons
location = New York
date = 1970
isbn = 0684101149
NAME = Ångström, Anders Jonas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Swedish physicist and spectroscopist
DATE OF BIRTH =
August 13, 1814
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH =
June 21, 1874
PLACE OF DEATH =
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Anders Jonas Ångström — (1814 1874). Físico sueco, profesor en la universidad de Uppsala desde 1858. Padre de Knut Ångström … Enciclopedia Universal
Anders Jonas Ångström — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ångström (homonymie). Anders Jonas Ångström Anders Jonas Ångström. Naissance 13 août 1814 … Wikipédia en Français
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Angström, Anders Jonas — ► (1814 74) Físico sueco. Creó la unidad de medida que lleva su nombre para las longitudes de onda de la luz, radiaciones ultravioleta y rayos X. * * * (13 ago. 1814, Lögdö, Suecia–21 jun. 1874, Uppsala). Físico sueco. Desde 1839 enseñó en la… … Enciclopedia Universal