Ångström


Ångström

unit of length
m= 0.0000000001
accuracy=5
An ångström or angstrom (symbol Å) (pronEng|ˈɔːŋstrəm; Swedish: IPA2|ˈɔ̀ŋstrœm) is an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length equal to 0.1 nanometre or 1e|−10 metres. It is sometimes used in expressing the sizes of atoms, lengths of chemical bonds and visible-light spectra, and dimensions of parts of integrated circuits. It is commonly applied in structural biology. It is named after Anders Jonas Ångström.

History

The ångström is named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), one of the founders of spectroscopy who is known also for studies of astrophysics, heat transfer, terrestrial magnetism, and the aurora borealis.

In 1868, Ångström created a spectrum chart of solar radiation that expresses the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum in multiples of one ten-millionth of a millimetre, or 1e|−10 meters. This unit of length became known as the "Ångström unit", and later simply as the "ångström".

The visual sensitivity of a human being is from about 4,000 ångströms (violet) to 7,000 ångströms (dark red) so the use of the ångström as a unit provided a fair amount of discrimination without resort to fractional units. Because of its closeness to the scale of atomic and molecular structures it also became popular in chemistry and crystallography.

Although intended to correspond to 1e|−10 metres, for precise spectral analysis the ångström needed to be defined more accurately than the metre which until 1960 was still defined based on the length of a bar of metal held in Paris. In 1907 the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström by making the wavelength of the red line of cadmium in air equal to 6438.46963 international ångströms, and this definition was endorsed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in 1927. From 1927 to 1960, the ångström remained a secondary unit of length for use in spectroscopy, defined separately from the metre, but in 1960, the metre itself was redefined in spectroscopic terms, thus aligning the ångström as a submultiple of the metre.

Today, the use of the ångström as a unit is less popular than it used to be and the nanometre (nm) is often used instead (with the ångström being officially discouraged by both the International Committee for Weights and Measures and the American National Standard for Metric Practice).

Unicode symbol

Unicode includes the "angstrom sign" at U+212B (Å). However, the "angstrom sign" is normalized into U+00C5 (Å), and is thereby seen as a (pre-existing) encoding mistake, and it is better to use U+00C5 (Å) directly. [cite book |title=The Unicode Standard |url=http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.0.0/ |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-06 |edition=Version 5.0 |isbn=0-321-48091-0 |pages=493 |chapter=Symbols |chapterurl=http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.0.0/ch15.pdf |author=the Unicode Consortium. Ed. by Julie D. Allen ... |year=2006 |publisher=Addison-Wesley |location=Upper Saddle River, NJ [etc.] |oclc=145867322 ]

ee also

* Conversion of units
* 1 E-10 m

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Angstrom — Ångström Pour les articles homonymes, voir Å et Ångström (homonymie). Un ångström, parfois également orthographié angström, aangström ou angstrœm (symbole Å, prononcé …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Angström — Ångström Pour les articles homonymes, voir Å et Ångström (homonymie). Un ångström, parfois également orthographié angström, aangström ou angstrœm (symbole Å, prononcé …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Angstrom — Ångström ist der Familienname von: Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), schwedischen Physiker Knut Johann Ångström (1857–1910), Physiker und Erfinder des Kompensationspyrheliometer sowie der Name von: Ångström (Einheit), nach Anders Jonas Ångström… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Angström — Ångström ist der Familienname von: Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), schwedischen Physiker Knut Johann Ångström (1857–1910), Physiker und Erfinder des Kompensationspyrheliometer sowie der Name von: Ångström (Einheit), nach Anders Jonas Ångström… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ängström — Ångström ist der Familienname von: Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), schwedischen Physiker Knut Johann Ångström (1857–1910), Physiker und Erfinder des Kompensationspyrheliometer sowie der Name von: Ångström (Einheit), nach Anders Jonas Ångström… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • angström — [ ɑ̃gstrøm ] n. m. • 1906; nom d un physicien suédois ♦ Phys. Unité de longueur employée en microphysique, valant un dix millième de micromètre, soit 10 10 mètre (symb. Å). ● angström nom masculin (de Ångström, nom propre) Ancienne unité de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ångström — ist der Familienname von: Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), schwedischer Physiker Knut Johann Ångström (1857–1910), Physiker und Erfinder des Kompensationspyrheliometers sowie der Name von: Ångström (Einheit), nach Anders Jonas Ångström benannte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ångström — distribution Ångström с GPE 2.7 Разработчик Команда Ångström distribution Семейство ОС Linux Последняя версия 2007.12 Декабрь 2007 Т …   Википедия

  • angstrom — ÁNGSTROM, angstromi, s.m. (fiz.) Unitate de măsură pentru lungimi de undă egală cu a zecea milioana parte dintr un milimetru. – Din fr. angstrœm. Trimis de ana zecheru, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  ángstrom s. m. (sil. ang ), pl. ángstromi; simb.… …   Dicționar Român

  • angstrom — (also ångström) ► NOUN Physics ▪ a unit of length equal to one hundred millionth of a centimetre, 10 10 metre. ORIGIN named after the Swedish physicist A. J. Ångström (1814 74) …   English terms dictionary

  • angstrom — [aŋ′strəm] n. [after ÅNGSTRÖM Anders Jonas] one hundred millionth of a centimeter: a unit used in measuring the length of light waves: symbol, Å: also angstrom unit …   English World dictionary


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