Kundalini (IAST|kuṇḍalinī _sa. कुण्डलिनी)
Sanskrit, literally "coiled". In Indian yoga, a "corporeal energy" [For kundalini as "corporeal energy" see: Flood (1996), p. 96.] - an unconscious, instinctive or libidinal force or Shakti, envisioned either as a goddess or else as a sleeping serpent coiled at the base of the spine, [Flood (1996), p. 99.] [Harper et.al (2002), p. 94] [McDaniel (2004), p. 103] hence a number of English renderings of the term such as 'serpent power'. Kundalini is considered a part of the subtle bodyalong with chakras (energy centres) and nadis (channels). The overall concept has many points in common with Chinese acupuncture.
Tantrapropose that this energy may be "awakened" by such means as austerities, breath and other physical exercises, visualization and chanting. It may then rise up a subtle channel at the spine (called "Sushumna") to the head, bringing psychological illumination. Each chakra is said to contain special characteristics. [Scotton (1996), p. 261-262.] Yogis tend to attempt this alone, Tantrics in couples, both usually under the instruction of a guru.
Shaktiis conceived as a goddess, then, when it rises to the head, it unites itself with the Supreme Being ( Lord Shiva). The aspirant becomes engrossed in deep meditation and infinite bliss. "Kundalini Yoga:"http://www.siddhashram.org/kundalini.shtml ] "Kundalini Yoga from Swami Sivanandha:" http://www.experiencefestival.com/kundalini ]
A number of models of this esoteric subtle anatomy occur in the class of texts known as Āgamas or
Tantras, a large body of scriptures, rejected by many orthodox brahmins. [Flood (1996), p. 122.] In early texts there are various systems of chakras and nadis, with varying connections between them. Over time a system of six or seven chakras up the spine was adopted by most schools. This particular system, which may have originated in about the 11th century AD, rapidly became widely popular. [Flood (1996), p. 99.] This is the conventional arrangement cited by Monier-Williams, where the chakras are defined as "6 in number, one above the other". [Monier-Williams, Monier. "A Sanskrit-English Dictionary". p. 380. (Motilal-Banardidass: Delhi). Cf. [http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks/mw/0400/mw__0413.html] ]
The most famous of the Yoga Upanishads, the "
Yogatattva", mentions four kinds of yoga, one of which, "laya-yoga", involves Kundalini. [Flood (1996), p. 96.] Another source text for the concept is the " Hatha Yoga Pradipika" written by Swami Svatmarama (English translation, 1992) somewhere between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. [Svatmarama, page citation needed.] Fact|date=May 2007
Sir John Woodroffe(pen name Arthur Avalon) was one of the first to bring the notion of Kundalini to the West. A High Court Judge in Calcutta, he became interested in Shaktismand Hindu Tantra. His translation of and commentary on two key texts was published as "The Serpent Power". Woodroffe rendered Kundalini as "Serpent Power".
Western awareness of the idea of Kundalini was strengthened by the
Theosophical Societyand the interest of the psychoanalyst Carl Jung(1875-1961) [http://www.sol.com.au/kor/12_02.htm] . "Jung's seminar on Kundalini yoga, presented to the Psychological Club in Zurich in 1932, has been widely regarded as a milestone in the psychological understanding of Eastern thought. Kundalini yoga presented Jung with a model for the development of higher consciousness, and he interpreted its symbols in terms of the process of individuation".]
In the early '30s two Italian scholars,
Tommaso Palamidessiand Julius Evola, published several books with the intent of re-interpreting alchemy with reference to yoga. [ Palamidessi Tommaso, "Alchimia come via allo Spirito", ed. EGO, 1948 Turin] Those works had an impact on modern interpretations of Alchemyas a mystical science. In those works, Kundalini is called an "Igneous Power" or "Serpentine Fire".
Another popularizer of the concept of Kundalini among Western readers was
Gopi Krishna. His autobiography is entitled "Kundalini—The Evolutionary Energy in Man". Krishna, Gopi (1971) Kundalini: the evolutionary energy in man. Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala] According to June McDaniel, his writings have influenced Western interest in kundalini yoga. [For quotation "Western interest at the popular level in kundalini yoga was probably most influenced by the writings of Gopi Krishna, in which kundalini was redefined as chaotic and spontaneous religious experience." see: McDaniel, p. 280.] Swami Sivanandaproduced an English language manual of Kundalini Yogamethods. Other well-known spiritual teachers who have made use of the idea of kundalini include Osho, George Gurdjieff, Paramahansa Yogananda, Rudi (Swami Rudrananda), Yogi Bhajanand Nirmala Srivastava.
Kundalini references may commonly be found at present in a wide variety of derivative "New Age" presentations.
Stuart Sovatskywarns that the popularization of the term within new religious movementshas not always contributed to a mature understanding of the concept. [Sovatsky, pg. 161]
Recently, there has been a growing interest within the medical community to study the physiological effects of
meditation, and some of these studies have applied the discipline of Kundalini Yoga to their clinical settings.Lazar, Sara W.; Bush, George; Gollub, Randy L.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Khalsa, Gurucharan; Benson, Herbert (2000) "Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation [Autonomic Nervous System] NeuroReport": Volume 11(7) 15 May 2000p 1581–1585 PubMedAbstract PMID 10841380] Cromie, William J. "Research: Meditation changes temperatures: Mind controls body in extreme experiments", Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Gazette, 18 April 2002] Their findings are not all positive. Researchers in the fields of Humanistic psychology, [ Lukoff et.al (1998) ] Transpersonal psychology, [Scotton (1996)] and Near-death studies[Kason (2000)] [ Greyson (2000)] describe a complex pattern of sensory, motor, mental and affective symptoms associated with the concept of Kundalini, sometimes called the Kundalini Syndrome. [ Greyson (2000))]
Lukoff, Lu & Turner [Lukoff, et al. (1998), page reference needed.] Fact|date=June 2007 notes that a number of psychological difficulties might be associated with Asian spiritual practices, and that Asian traditions recognize a number of pitfalls associated with intensive meditation practice. Transpersonal literature [ Grof & Grof (1989), p. 15 ] also notes that kundalini practice is not without dangers. Anxiety, dissociation, depersonalization, altered perceptions, agitation, and muscular tension have been observed in western meditation practitioners [ Lukoff, et al (1998) ] and psychological literature is now addressing the occurrence of meditation-related problems in Western contemplative life. [ Lukoff et.al (1998)] Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto & Holmes, Jeremy (2000) "Meditation: Concepts, Effects And Uses In Therapy". International Journal of Psychotherapy, March, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p49, 10p]
Some modern experimental research [Rudra, "Kundalini" (1993 in German)] seeks to establish links between Kundalini practice and the ideas of
Wilhelm Reichand his followers.
Taoist sexual practices
*Flood, Gavin. "An Introduction to Hinduism". (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996). ISBN 0-521-43878-0
* Grabovac, Andrea & Ganesan, Soma. "Spirituality and Religion in Canadian Psychiatric Residency Training". Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry, Vol 48, No 3, April 2003
* Greyson, Bruce (2000) "Some Neuropsychological Correlates Of The Physio-Kundalini Syndrome". The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol.32, No. 2
*Grof, Stanislav & Grof, Christina (eds). (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When Personal Transformation Becomes a Crisis (New Consciousness Reader) Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher
*Grof, Stanislav & Grof, Christina. (1992) The Stormy Search for the Self, New York: Perigee Books, ISBN 0-87477-649-X
*cite book |last=Harper |first=Katherine Anne |authorlink= |coauthors=Brown, Robert L. |title=The Roots of Tantra |year=2002 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany, New York |isbn=0-7914-5306-5
* Herrick, Karen, "Finding Our Own Substance: New DSM-IV Code 62.89, Religious or Spiritual Problem". Poster Presentation Abstract at Toward a Science of Consciousness 1996, sponsored by the University of Arizona 8 April–13, 1996, Tucson Convention Center.
*Kason, Yvonne (2000) "Farther Shores: Exploring How Near-Death, Kundalini and Mystical Experiences Can Transform Ordinary Lives". Toronto: Harper Collins Publishers, Revised edition, ISBN 0-00-638624-5
*Krishna, Gopi (1971) "Kundalini: the evolutionary energy in man". Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala
* Le Fanu, James (2002) "A clutch of new syndromes?" Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; Vol. 95:118-125, March 2002
* Lukoff, David; Lu, Francis G. & Turner, Robert P. (1998) "From Spiritual Emergency to Spiritual Problem: The Transpersonal Roots of the New DSM-IV Category". Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 38(2), 21-50
*cite book |last=McDaniel |first=June |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal |year=2004 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= |isbn=0195167902
*Palamidessi, Tommaso (1948) "Alchimia come via allo spirito", ed. EGO, Turin
* Rudra (1993), " Kundalini die Energie der Natur die Natur der Energie im Menschen", Wild Dragon Connections, Worpswede, Germany, ISBN 3-9802560-1-4
*Scotton, Bruce (1996) "The phenomenology and treatment of kundalini", in Chinen, Scotton and Battista (Editors) (1996) Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology. (pp.261-270). New York, NY, US: Basic Books, Inc.
*cite book |last=Selig| first=Zachary |authorlink= |coauthors= Selby, Jon |title=Kundalini Awakening, a Gentle Guide to Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth |year=1992 |publisher=Random House |location=New York |isbn=978-0-553-35330-3 (0-553-35330-6)
*cite book |last=Sovatsky |first=Stuart |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Words from the Soul: Time, East/West Spirituality, and Psychotherapeutic Narrative |year=1998 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=New York |isbn=0-7914-3950-X Suny Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology
*Svatmarama, Swami (1992) Hatha Yoga Pradipika. London: The Aquarian Press, An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers. Translated by Elsy Becherer, foreword by B K S Iyengar, commentary by Hans Ulrich Rieker
* Thalbourne, Michael A. (2001) "Measures of the Sheep-Goat variable, Transliminality, and Their Correlates". Psychological Reports, 88: 339-50
* Turner, Robert P.; Lukoff, David; Barnhouse, Ruth Tiffany & Lu Francis G. (1995) "Religious or Spiritual Problem. A Culturally Sensitive Diagnostic Category in the DSM-IV". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,Vol.183, No. 7 435-444
*Tweedie, I., Daughter of Fire: A Diary of a Spiritual Training with a Sufi Master, 1995, The Golden Sufi Center, ISBN 0-9634574-5-4
*White, J, edt. (1990) Kundalini. Evolution and enlightenment. New York: Paragon House
*Bentov, Itzhak: "Stalking the Wild Pendulum: On the Mechanics of Consciousness", Destiny Books (1988), United States, (ISBN 0-8928-1202-8)
*Collie, El: [http://www.elcollie.com/st/st.html "Branded by the Spirit"]
*Kieffer, Gene (1988): "Kundalini for the New Age - Selected Writings of Gopi Krishna", (ISBN 0-533-34433-1)
*Narayanananda, Swami (1979): "The Primal Power in Man or the Kundalini Shakti", N.U. Yoga Trust, Denmark, (ISBN 87-87571-60-9) (6th rev. ed., (1st ed. 1950))
*Sannella, Lee (1987): "The Kundalini Experience", Integral Publishing, California, United States, (ISBN 0-9412-5529-9)
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