Óscar Carmona


Óscar Carmona
Óscar Carmona
Óscar Carmona by Henrique Medina
11th President of Portugal
(3rd of the Ditadura Nacional)
(1st of the Estado Novo)
In office
9 July 1926 – 18 April 1951
Prime Minister Himself
José Vicente de Freitas
Artur Ivens Ferraz
Domingos Oliveira
António de Oliveira Salazar
Preceded by Manuel Gomes da Costa
Succeeded by António de Oliveira Salazar (interim)
Francisco Craveiro Lopes (effective)
97th Prime Minister of Portugal
(43rd of the Republic)
(3rd of the Ditadura Nacional)
In office
9 July 1926 – 18 April 1928
President Himself
Preceded by Manuel Gomes da Costa
Succeeded by José Vicente de Freitas
Minister for Foreign Affairs
In office
3 June 1926 – 6 July 1926
Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas (3 June 1926–19 June 1926)
Manuel Gomes da Costa (19 June 1926–6 July 1926)
Preceded by Armando Humberto da Gama Ochoa
Succeeded by Martinho Nobre de Melo
Minister for War
In office
15 November 1923 – 18 December 1923
Prime Minister António Ginestal Machado
Preceded by António Maria da Silva (interim)
Fernando Augusto Freiria (effective)
Succeeded by António Germano Ribeiro de Carvalho
In office
9 July 1926 – 16 November 1926
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Manuel Gomes da Costa
Succeeded by Abílio Passos e Sousa
Personal details
Born 24 November 1869(1869-11-24)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 18 April 1951(1951-04-18) (aged 81)
Lisbon, Portuguese Republic
Political party Independent
National Union from 1932
Spouse(s) Maria do Carmo Ferreira da Silva
Children Cesaltina Amélia, António Adérito and Maria Inês
Occupation Military officer (Marshal)

António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ˈɔʃkaɾ fɾɐˈɡozu kaɾˈmonɐ]; Lisbon, 24 November 1869-Lisbon, 18 April 1951) was the 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951), having been Minister of War in 1923.

Contents

Political Origin

Carmona was a republican and a freemason and was a quick aderent to the proclamation of the republic, on 5 October 1910. He was however never a sympathizer of the democratic form of government and, as he later would confess in a interview to António Ferro, he only voted for the first time at the National Plebiscite of 1933. During the First Republic he was briefly War Minister in the Ministry of António Ginestal Machado in 1923. Unlike the popular marshall Gomes da Costa, Carmona had not fought in World War I.

In January 1914 he married Maria do Carmo Ferreira da Silva (Chaves, 28 September 1878 - 13 March 1956), daughter of Germano da Silva and wife Engrácia de Jesus. With this marriage he legitimized their three children.

Presidency

1945 stamp of Carmona

Carmona was very active in the 28th May revolution of 1926 that overthrew the First Republic. The first Council President, commandant José Mendes Cabeçadas, of democratic tendency, was succeeded in June by Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa, also a supporter of parliamentary democracy. Carmona, who had been the Minister for Foreign Affairs between 3 June and 6 July, was the leader of the most conservative and anti-democratic wing of the military regime. On 9 July, Carmona led a countercoup and named himself President. He was formally elected to the office in 1928 as the only candidate.

In 1928 Carmona appointed António de Oliveira Salazar as Minister of Finances. Impressed by Salazar's charisma and qualities Carmona nominated Salazar as President of the Council in 1932. In 1933, with a new constitution, the "Estado Novo" was finally officially established.

Although Carmona was nominally vested with near-dictatorial powers, in practice he was little more than a figurehead; Salazar held the real power. He was reelected without opposition in 1935 and 1942 for seven year terms. In 1935 he signed the law that forbade Freemasonary in Portugal, with dismay due to his freemason past.

He was unfriendly with the Democratic Opposition movement that came into legality in 1945, after World War II, assuring that he didn't wanted to intervene in the government decision of not delaying the legislative elections, as was demanded by them.

However there were widespread rumours that Carmona supported the failed military uprising in 1948, which was led by general José Marques Godinho, to overthrow Salazar, with the condition that he would remain as President of the Republic. Probably to end these rumours Carmona finally accepted the title of marshall.

In 1949, Carmona, aged 79 years old, was a candidate for the Presidency of the Republic for the fourth time, facing the opposition of general José Norton de Matos. However, after the regime refused to grant Matos freedom to actually run a campaign, he pulled out of the race on February 12, handing and Carmona another term.

Carmona died two years later, in 1951, after 24 years in the Presidency of the Republic. He was buried in the Church of Santa Engrácia, National Pantheon, in Lisbon.

Publications

Carmona wrote a book of rules for the Cavalry School in 1913.

Trivia

The town of Uíge, Angola was called Carmona after him.[1] It had this name until 1975 when the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola become independent.

He is the grand-uncle of the former Mayor of Lisbon Carmona Rodrigues (2004–2007).

References

  1. ^ Angola-Carmona (Viagem ao Passado)-Kandando Angola, a film of Carmona, Portuguese Angola (before 1975)
Political offices
Preceded by
Manuel Gomes da Costa
Prime Minister of Portugal
1926–1928
Succeeded by
José Vicente de Freitas
Preceded by
Gomes da Costa
President of Portugal
1926–1951
Succeeded by
António de Oliveira Salazar (interim)
Francisco Craveiro Lopes (effective)



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