- Hammar Marshes
The Hammar Marshes were a large complex of
wetlandsin Iraqthat were part of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, along with the Huwaizah and Central Marshes. The Hammar Marshes formerly covered an area of 2,800 square kilometres of permanent wetland, extending to over 4,500 square kilometres in certain seasons, but were almost totally destroyed during the 1990s by drainage projects, and have only recently seen some recovery.
The Hammar Marshes stretched between
Nasiriyahand Basraand were located south of the EuphratesRiver, which formed their principal source. Their main feature was the large brackish lake Haur al-Hammar, the largest water body in the lower Euphrates. [http://www.edenagain.org/publications/pdfs/physicalcharreport.pdf The Physical Characteristics of the Mesopotamian Marshlands] , edenagain.org] Additional water from the Tigrisreached the system through overflow from the Central Marshes.
With a wide variety of habitats, the Hammar Marshes and the Haur al-Hammar supported large populations of birds, notably
pelicansand ducks, with the Haur Aluwez in the south-east being especially significant for these species. [http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMDetails.asp&sid=8059&m=0 Haur al-Hammar] , birdlife.org]
The area was formerly populated by the
Marsh Arabsor Ma'dan.
During the late 1970s, it was reported that some draining of the marshes was taking place; parts of the Haur Aluwez had been closed off by embankments and drained in order to facilitate oil exploration.Scott, D. [http://www.earthscape.org/r1/ES15056/scd01i.html A Directory of Wetlands in the Middle East] , earthscape.org] Subsequently, much of the northern and western end of the Haur al-Hammar was drained for development of the
West Qurnah Oilfield. In the Iran–Iraq War, the southern part of the Haur al-Hammar was connected to the Al-Basrah Canaland thence to the Persian Gulf, directly increasing the salinity of the wetlands.Scott, D. [http://www.earthscape.org/r1/ES15056/scd01i.html A Directory of Wetlands in the Middle East] , earthscape.org]
The greatest damage occurred in the early 1990s, when the government of Iraq undertook a series of major drainage projects, at least partly in retribution for the 1991 uprisings. Reports suggested that the flow of the Euphrates had been diverted into the
Third River, a huge drainage canal. [http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMDetails.asp&sid=8059&m=0 Haur al-Hammar] , birdlife.org] By 2002, the Hammar Marshes and the Haur al-Hammar had entirely disappeared.
2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, embankments and drainage works were broken open, and the marshes began to reflood. By the following year there was a significant regrowth of vegetation in the western part of the Hammar Marshes, and refilling of the eastern parts. [http://www.iraqmarshes.org/Documents/Activities/Marsh%20Management/GIS%20imagery%20of%20reflooding%2010.24.04.pdf Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program] , iraqmarshes.org] Recovery of the marshland habitat has been significantly greater than expected, though there are still long-term risks to the habitat's viability due to pollution and water abstraction from the Euphrates.
* [http://www.edenagain.org/photogal11.html Hawr al-Hammar Gallery] , edenagain.org
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