- Khyber Pass
Infobox Mountain Pass
Name = Khyber Pass
Photo = KhyberPassPakistan.jpg
Caption =Looking back towards
Pakistan, on the Pakistan side of the Khyber Pass
Elevation = FORMATNUM:1070 m
Range = Safed Koh
Transversed by =
The Khyber Pass, (also spelled Khaiber or Khaybar) ( _ur. درہ خیبر) (altitude: FORMATNUM:1070 m , FORMATNUM:3510 ft) is the
mountain passthat links Pakistanand Afghanistan.
Throughout history it has been an important trade route between
Central Asiaand South Asiaand a strategic military location. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 kminside Pakistan at Landi Kotaland it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Kohmountains which themselves are a far southeastern extension of the Hindu Kushrange.
As with many passes, the start and finish are ill-defined. Many definitions state that the Khyber Pass starts from near Jamrud, Pakistan (FORMATNUM:491 m - FORMATNUM:1611 ft), 15 km west of
Peshawarand ends west of Torkham, Afghanistan, a winding road of 48 km which passes Fort Maudeand Ali Masjidto reach a narrowest point of just 15 metrewide between canyon walls. The summit at Landi Kotalat coord|34|5|35|N|71|8|45|E|display=inline,title is followed by a steep decline to Michni Kandao, Landi Khanaand the Afghan border at Torkham. Here the gradient becomes easier as the pass exits at Haft Chahopening onto the Dakkaplain. The road/highway was built by the British in 1879 and the railway from Jamrud to Landi Khana was built over six years by Victor Bayleyand completed in 1925.
From Dakka, the
Kabul Riverflows to Peshawarthrough the Loe Shilman Gorge, a less direct and more difficult route to travel, chosen by Alexander the Greatwhen he crossed into South Asiain 326 BCin an attempt to conquer the Indus Valley.
In some versions of the Aryan migration theory, the
Indo-Aryansmigrated to India via the Khyber Pass. Recorded invasions through the Khyber begin with the conquests of Alexander the Greatand also include later Musliminvasions of South Asia, culminating with the establishment of the Mughul Empirefrom 1526. From India, the British invaded Afghanistanand fought three Afghan Wars in 1839-42, 1878-80, and 1919. George Molesworth, a member of the British force of 1919, summarised: "Every stone in the Khyber has been soaked in blood." Rudyard Kiplingcalled it "a sword cut through the mountains."
To the north of the Khyber Pass lies the country of the
Mullagoris. To the south is Afridi Tirah, while the inhabitants of villages in the Pass itself are Afridiclansmen. Throughout the centuries the Pashtunclans, particularly the Afridis and the Afghan Shinwaris, have regarded the Pass as their own preserve and have levied a toll on travellers for safe conduct. Since this has long been their main source of income, resistance to challenges to the Shinwaris' authority has often been fierce.
The pass became widely known to thousands of Westerners and Japanese who traveled it in the days of the
Hippie trail, taking a public or private bus or car from Kabulor the Afghan border, on the Pakistani side. People were advised not to wander away from the road; a quick daylight passage was then made. Monuments left by British Army units, as well as hillside forts, could be viewed from the highway.
The area of the Khyber Pass has been connected with a counterfeit arms industry, making
AK-47s and Martini-Henry rifles, among others including pistols and submachine guns using local steel and blacksmiths' forges.
Torkham Gate is a major trade route between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
*Molesworth, Lt-Gen. G.N., "Afghanistan 1919" (Asia Publishing House, 1962). Describes in detail the author's passage through the Khyber Pass, when he was Adjutant of the 2/Somerset Light Infantry.
* Victor Bayley CIE CBE. "Permanent Way through the Khyber", Jarrolds 1934. Illustrated with photos, the author describes the construction of the railway.
* V. Bayley. (as above). 'Adventures through the Khyber' . In a breach of copyright this was published in 1998 by Gyan Publishing House, India. it uses the same text and illustrations as the first mentioned (the copyright holder lives in London) .
North-West Frontier Province
*Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Pakistan Standard Time
Carry On... Up the Khyber
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Look at other dictionaries:
Khyber Pass — [kī′bər] mountain pass in a range of the Hindu Kush, between Afghanistan & Pakistan: c. 33 mi (53 km) long … English World dictionary
Khyber Pass — the arse … Dictionary of Australian slang
Khyber Pass — the chief mountain pass between Pakistan and Afghanistan, W of Peshawar. 33 mi. (53 km) long; 6825 ft. (2080 m) high. Also, Khaibar Pass. * * * Pass in the Spīn Ghār (Safīd Kūh) Range on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. About 33 mi… … Universalium
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khyber pass — I Australian Slang Khyber Pass the arse II Cockney Rhyming Slang Arse Stick it up your khyber … English dialects glossary
Khyber Pass — Khy|ber Pass the Khyber Pass a steep road that goes through mountains and joins Pakistan and Afghanistan. For centuries it was the main road to India from the West … Dictionary of contemporary English
Khyber Pass — Passe de Khyber Passe de Khyber Altitude 1072 m Massif … Wikipédia en Français
Khyber Pass — noun a mountain pass of great strategic and commercial value in the Hindu Kush on the border between northern Pakistan and western Afghanistan; a route by which invaders entered India • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pass, ↑mountain pass, ↑notch • Part… … Useful english dictionary
Khyber Pass — Khy′ber Pass′ [[t]ˈkaɪ bər[/t]] n. geg the chief mountain pass between Pakistan and Afghanistan, W of Peshawar. 33 mi. (53 km) long; 6825 ft. (2080 m) high … From formal English to slang
Khyber Pass — /kaɪbə ˈpas/ (say kuybuh pahs) noun the chief mountain pass between Pakistan and Afghanistan. 53 km long; 2080 m high. Also, Khaibar Pass … Australian English dictionary