Torbjörn Caspersson


Torbjörn Caspersson

Infobox Scientist
name = Torbjörn Caspersson
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image_size =150px
caption = Torbjörn Caspersson
birth_date = October 15, 1910
birth_place = Motala
death_date = December 7, 1997
death_place =
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = Swedish
ethnicity =
field = cytologist geneticist.
work_institutions =
alma_mater = University of Stockholm,
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = nucleic acids
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author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes = Balzan Foundation
religion =
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Professor Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson (October 15, 1910 – December 7, 1997) was a Swedish cytologist and geneticist. He was born in Motala and attended the University of Stockholm, where he studied medicine and biophysics.

Caspersson made several key contributions to biology.
* In the 1934 he and Einar Hammersten showed that DNA was a polymer. Previous theories suggested that each molecule was only ten nucleotides long.
* He provided William Astbury with well prepared samples of DNA for Astbury's pioneering structural measurements.
* In 1936 he first studied genetic material inside a cell with an ultraviolet microscope to determine the nucleic acid content of cellular structures such as the nucleus and nucleolus using the Feulgen reaction to stain the DNA
* He worked with Jack Schultz from 1937-1939 on protein synthesis is cells and published the work in 1939 with Jean Brachet finding that cells making proteins are rich in ribonucleic acids RNA, implying that RNA is required to make proteins. This was summarised in his book 'Cell Growth and Cell Function' (1950)
* He was the first study the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae.
* He studied the role of the nucleolus in protein synthesis
* He examined the relationship between the quantity of heterochromatin (chromosomes with few genes) and the rate of growth of cancer cells.
* In 1969 when working at the Karolinska Institute, he (with Lore Zech) found that a stain (quinacrine mustard) caused chromosomes to show light and dark lateral bands along their length. This banding method permits the accurate identification of all 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. This technique highlighted slight structural abnormalities and specific identification of the extra chromosomes involved in conditions such as Down's syndrome (see also cytogenetics).

In 1977 he became head of the medical cell research and genetics department at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm

In 1979 Caspersson was awarded the Balzan prize for biology from the Balzan Foundation [http://www.balzan.com/en/preistraeger/index.cfm] .

References

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Hagemann
first=Rudolf
authorlink=
year=2007|month=.
title= [The Watson-Crick model of the DNA doublehelix. The history of the discovery and the role of the protein paradigm]
journal=Acta historica Leopoldina
volume=
issue=48
pages=113–58
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 18447191
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Klein
first=George
authorlink=
coauthors=Klein Eva
year=2003|month=Mar.
title=Torbjörn Caspersson, 15 October 1910 - 7 December 1997
journal=Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
volume=147
issue=1
pages=73–5
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 12962132
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Reichard
first=Peter
authorlink=
year=2002|month=Apr.
title=Osvald T. Avery and the Nobel Prize in medicine
journal=J. Biol. Chem.
volume=277
issue=16
pages=13355–62
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 11872756
doi = 10.1074/jbc.R200002200
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Zelenin
first=A V
authorlink=
coauthors=Zoshchuk N V
year=|month=.
title= [The history of modern chromosome analysis. The founding contribution of the works of Caspersson]
journal=Ontogenez
volume=31
issue=2
pages=152–60
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 10776643
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Gustavson
first=K H
authorlink=
year=1999|month=Dec.
title= [New milestones in the history of genetics. Successful gene therapy can soon be a reality]
journal=Lakartidningen
volume=96
issue=51-52
pages=5764–8
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 10643263
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Ruddle
first=F H
authorlink=
year=1989|month=Apr.
title=Tribute to Torbjörn Caspersson
journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet.
volume=44
issue=4
pages=439–40
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 2648818
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Klein
first=G
authorlink=
coauthors=Klein E
year=1984|month=Jul.
title=Torbjörn Caspersson: some personal perspectives
journal=Cytometry
volume=5
issue=4
pages=318
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6380993
doi = 10.1002/cyto.990050405
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Mayall
first=B H
authorlink=
year=1984|month=Jul.
title=Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson: curriculum vitae and selected publications
journal=Cytometry
volume=5
issue=4
pages=314–7
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6380992
doi = 10.1002/cyto.990050404
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Bahr
first=G F
authorlink=
year=1984|month=Jun.
title=Torbjörn Oscar Caspersson, M.D., F.I.A.C.: 75 years
journal=Analytical and quantitative cytology
volume=6
issue=2
pages=71–3
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6380366
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Kempe
first=C
authorlink=
year=1980|month=Feb.
title= [The Balzan-Prize: Detailed studies of chromosomes--a diagnostic revolution]
journal=Lakartidningen
volume=77
issue=7
pages=503–4
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 6990136
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Müller
first=J H
authorlink=
year=|month=.
title= [Laudation of the prize winners of the Paul-Ehrlich and Ludwig-Darmstaedter award 1977 Torbjörn Caspersson and Jean Bertrand Gurdon]
journal=Arbeiten aus dem Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, dem Georg-Speyer-Haus und dem Ferdinand-Blum-Institut zu Frankfurt a.M
volume=
issue=72
pages=23–6
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 802159
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

External links

* [http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/guides/kay/Second.htm Kay Guide at amphilsoc.org]
* [http://www.balzan.com/en/preistraeger/index.cfm Balzan prize]


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