- Lord's Resistance Army
Lord's Resistance Army Participant in the Lord's Resistance Army insurgency,
First Sudanese Civil War and Second Sudanese Civil War
Flag of Lord's Resistance Army
Active 1987–present Ideology Christianity
Traditional African religion
Groups Lord's Resistance Army Leaders Joseph Kony
Raska Lukwiya †
Odong Latek †
Headquarters Northern Uganda Area of
Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), South Sudan, Uganda Strength 500-9,000 Originated as Holy Spirit Movement
Uganda People's Democratic Army
Allies Sudan (1994–2002) Opponents Uganda People's Defence Force
Sudan People's Liberation Army
Military of DR Congo
United States Army
The Lord's Resistance Army (also Lord's Resistance Movement or Lakwena Part Two) is a militant group with a syncretic Christian and traditional African religious ideology. The group operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central Africa. The group used to operate mainly in northern Uganda and also in parts of South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the DRC.
The LRA was formed in 1987 and until about 2007 it was engaged in an armed rebellion against the Ugandan government. It is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the "spokesperson" of God and a spirit medium, primarily of the Holy Spirit, which the group believes can represent itself in many manifestations.
The group is based on a number of different beliefs including local religious rituals, mysticism, traditional religion, Acholi nationalism and Christianity and claims to be establishing a theocratic state based on the Ten Commandments and local Acholi tradition. The LRA is accused of widespread human rights violations, including murder, abduction, mutilation, sexual enslavement of women and children and forcing children to participate in hostilities.
The LRA has been known also as the Lord's Resistance Movement/Army (LRM/A or LRA/M). Some academics have included the LRA under the rubric Lakwena Part Two. For simplicity's sake, this article refers to all of these various manifestations as the "Lord's Resistance Army".
In the 1800s Great Britain colonized Uganda. While the people of the South were treated fairly, the people of the North, or the Acholi, were treated as slaves. Well after Britain left, the Acholi still suffered, blaming their woes on the government of Uganda. In 1988, Alice Lakwena established the Holy Spirit Movement, a resistance movement claimed to be inspired by the Holy Spirit of God. She portrayed herself as a prophet who received messages from the Holy Spirit of God. She expressed the belief that the Acholi could defeat the government run by Yoweri Museveni by casting off witchcraft and spiritualism embedded in their culture. According to her messages from God, her followers should cover their bodies with shea nut oil as protection from bullets, never take cover or retreat in battle, and never kill snakes or bees.
Joseph Kony would later preach a similar superstition encouraging soldiers to use oil to draw a cross on their chest as a protection from bullets. During an interview with Jimmie Briggs, Alice Lakwena distanced herself from Kony, claiming that the spirit doesn’t want them to kill civilians or prisoners of war. Meanwhile, Kony gained a reputation as having been possessed by spirits. He became a spiritual figure or a medium. Lakwena scored several key victories on the battlefield and began a march towards Kampala.[when?] Kony seized this opportunity to recruit members of the Ugandan People's Democratic Army (UPDA) and Holy Spirit remnants. In 1988, when Lakwena was defeated in Jinja and fled to Kenya, Kony became the leader of the Holy Spirit Mobile Force II some years later.
In January, 1997 the LRA attacked Lamwo, in northern Uganda. More than 400 people were killed, and approximately 100,000 people were displaced.
On December 25, 2008, the LRA massacred 189 people and abducted 120 children during a concert celebration sponsored by the Catholic church in Faradje, DRC, continuing the attack on December 26. Shortly afterwards, the LRA struck three additional communities: 75 people killed in a church north of Dungu, and the church burned; 48 people killed in Bangadi, and 213 people in Gurba. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimated the death toll as 189 in Faradje, Doruma and Gurba. However, Caritas International estimated the number of victims to be about 500.
On December 28, 2008, the Ugandan army published details of the Doruma attack, accusing LRA rebels of hacking to death 45 people in a church there. An aid official speaking to AFP on condition of anonymity confirmed the December 26 massacre, saying the killings took place in a Catholic church in the Doruma area, around 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the Sudanese border. "There are body parts everywhere. Inside the church, the entrance and in the church compound," the aid official said. "We got information the rebels cut 45 people into pieces," added army spokesman Captain Chris Magezi.
Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon stated that he "condemns in the strongest possible terms the appalling atrocities reportedly committed by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in recent days". Caritas International said that it was "shocked by its staff reports" of the massacres.
Congo's army, along with armed forces from Uganda]] and Sudan, launched raids against LRA rebels in December 2008 intended to disarm the LRA and end its rebellion. The raids were unsuccessful.
Efforts by the Ugandan army in early 2009 ('Operation Lightning Thunder') to inflict a final military defeat on the LRA were not fully successful. Rather, the US-supported operation resulted in brutal revenge attacks by the LRA, with over 1,000 people killed in Congo and Sudan. The military action in the DRC did not result in the capture or killing of Kony, who remained elusive.
In August the Lord's Resistance army attacked the Our Lady Queen of Peace church in Ezo on the Feast of the Assumption while worshippers were at prayer. They proceeded to desecrate first the Eucharist then the altar itself, after which they abducted seventeen people of ages ranging from teens to twenties. One was tied to a tree and murdered soon after the initial attack. This event caused Sudanese Archbishop John Baptist Odama to call on the international community for help in finding a peaceful solution to the crisis.
In December, 2009, the LRA massacred "at least" 321 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to a BBC investigation published in March, 2010 (see Makombo massacre). The deaths were verified by the Red Cross and Human Rights Watch. Victims were hacked or battered to death, and survivors were made to carry loads for their attackers. At least eighty children of both sexes were captured, the boys as fighters, the girls to be sex slaves for the LRA members. The sixty-mile (95 km) round-trip series of attacks began December 13, 2009, in Mabanga Ya Talo, and continued until December 18, traveling southeast down to the village of Tapili and back northwest again to the point of origin — a crossing over to the LRA camps on the north side of the Uele River near Mavanzonguda.
In May 2010 it was reported that an investigation was being undertaken by a senior UN official over the massacre of over 100 people in February 2010. The massacre is said to have been carried out by Ugandan rebels in Kpanga, near DR Congo's border with the Central African Republic and Sudan.
The LRA's ideology is disputed amongst academics. Although the LRA has been regarded primarily as a Christian militia, the LRA reportedly evokes Acholi nationalism on occasion, but many observers doubt the sincerity of this behaviour and the loyalty of Kony to either ideology.
Robert Gersony, in a report funded by United States Embassy in Kampala in 1997, concluded that "the LRA has no political program or ideology, at least none that the local population has heard or can understand." The International Crisis Group has stated that "the LRA is not motivated by any identifiable political agenda, and its military strategy and tactics reflect this."
IRIN comments that "the LRA remains one of the least understood rebel movements in the world, and its ideology, as far as it has one, is difficult to understand." UPDF Lt. Col. Shaban Bantariza has said that "you can't tell whether they want political power. Its only aim is to terrorize and brutalize the civilian population and to loot their homes."
During an interview with IRIN, Vincent Otti was asked about the LRA's vision of an ideal government, to which he responded,
"Lord’s Resistance Army is just the name of the movement, because we are fighting in the name of God. God is the one helping us in the bush. That’s why we created this name, Lord’s Resistance Army. And people always ask us, are we fighting for the [biblical] Ten Commandments of God. That is true – because the Ten Commandments of God is the constitution that God has given to the people of the world. All people. If you go to the constitution, nobody will accept people who steal, nobody could accept to go and take somebody’s wife, nobody could accept to innocently kill, or whatever. The Ten Commandments carries all this.
In a speech delivered by James Alfred Obita, former Secretary For External Affairs And Mobilisation, and Leader of Delegation of the Lord's Resistance Army, he adamantly denied that the LRA was "just an Acholi thing" and stated that claims made by the media and Museveni administration asserting that the LRA is a "group of Christian fundamentalists with bizarre beliefs whose aim is to topple the Museveni regime and replace it with governance based on the Bible's ten commandments" were false.
In the same speech, Obita also stated that the LRA's objectives are:
- To fight for the immediate restoration of competitive multi-party democracy in Uganda.
- To see an end to gross violation of human rights and dignity of Ugandans.
- To ensure the restoration of peace and security in Uganda.
- To ensure unity, sovereignty and economic prosperity beneficial to all Ugandans
- To bring to an end to the repressive policy of deliberate marginalization of groups of people who may not agree with the National Resistance Army's ideology.
However, many would believe that the ideologies of the LRA are nothing but rubbish. According to the California based organization, Invisible Children, the LRA is no more than a terrorist group disguising themselves as Christian based. The LRA uses tactics of physical and emotional intimidation to seduce children into joining their forces.
The government of Uganda claims that the LRA has only 500 or 1,000 soldiers in total, but other sources estimate that there could be as many as 3,000 soldiers, along with about 1,500 women and children. The bulk of the soldiers fighting for the LRA are children. According to Livingstone Sewanyana, executive director of the Foundation for Human Rights Initiative, Yoweri Museveni was the first to use child soldiers in this conflict. Since the LRA first started fighting in 1987 they may have forced well over 10,000 boys and girls into combat, often killing family, neighbors and school teachers in the process.
Many of these children were put on the front lines so the casualty rate for these children has been high. They have often used children to fight because they are easy to replace by raiding schools or villages. The soldiers are organized into independent squads of 10 or 20 soldiers. Sudan has provided military assistance to the LRA, in response to Uganda lending military support to the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
ICC arrest warrants
Lord's Resistance Army
The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants on 8 July and 27 September 2005 against Joseph Kony, his deputy Vincent Otti, and LRA commanders Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odhiambo and Dominic Ongwen. The five LRA leaders were charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape, sexual slavery, and enlisting of children as combatants. The warrants were filed under seal; public redacted versions were released on 13 October 2005.
These were the first warrants issued by the ICC since it was established in 2002. Details of the warrants were sent to the three countries where the LRA is active: Uganda, Sudan (the LRA was active in what is now South Sudan), and the DRC. The LRA leadership has long stated that they would never surrender unless they were granted immunity from prosecution; so the ICC order to arrest them raised concerns that the insurgency would not have a negotiated end.
On 30 November 2005 LRA deputy commander, Vincent Otti, contacted the BBC announcing a renewed desire among the LRA leadership to hold peace talks with the Ugandan government. The government expressed skepticism regarding the overture but stated their openness to peaceful resolution of the conflict.
On 2 June 2006, Interpol issued five wanted person red notices to 184 countries on behalf of the ICC, which has no police of its own. Kony had been previously reported to have met Vice President of Southern Sudan Riek Machar. The next day, Human Rights Watch reported that the regional Government of Southern Sudan had ignored previous ICC warrants for the arrest of four of LRA's top leaders, and instead supplied the LRA with cash and food as an incentive to stop them from attacking southern Sudanese citizens.
In 2006, the United Nations mounted a covert operation to capture or kill Joseph Kony. A squad of U.S.-trained Guatemalan Special Ops soldiers set out into Congo's Garamba National Park, a longtime LRA refuge and the scene of the 2008–2009 Garamba offensive. Trained in jungle warfare and accustomed to surviving in the bush for long stretches, the Guatemalans were equipped with M-16s and the latest special-operations technology. Five LRA soldiers were killed and none of the Special Ops soldiers survived. According to one account, the commander of the Special Ops soldiers was beheaded. The battle, which lasted for several hours, included hand to hand combat. Reports put the U.N. dead at eight to forty. The LRA left the corpses in the jungle but took the weapons—including heavy machine guns and grenade launchers.
In July 2011, South Sudan seceded from Sudan, cutting the LRA off geopolitically from its former allies in Khartoum.
United States congressional action
In May 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama signed into law the Lord's Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act, legislation aimed at stopping Joseph Kony and the LRA. The bill passed unanimously in the Senate on March 11, 2010 with 65 senators as cosponsors, then passed unanimously in the House of Representatives on May 13, 2010 with 202 representatives as cosponsors.
Since the United States diplomatic cables leak began on 28 November 2010, when the website WikiLeaks started to publish classified documents of detailed correspondence between the U.S. State Department and its diplomatic missions around the world we have learned that, "Sudan's neighbor, Uganda, blames Khartoum for paying and harboring Ugandan rebel Joseph Kony, leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a brutal rebel group that has waged the longest-running insurgency in Africa. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni told U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Jendayi Frazer in September 2007 that 'Sudan, Sudan, Sudan, Sudan' was behind the rebellion's longevity. '[Museveni] said that even if the Khartoum Government could not supply the LRA at previous levels, he believed it was in constant touch with the LRA and smuggling supplies.'"
On October 14, 2011, President Obama announced that he had ordered the deployment of 100 U.S. military advisors (with a mandate to train, assist and provide intelligence) to help combat the Lord's Resistance Army. It has been reported that the bulk of the troops are from the Army Special Forces. Obama said that the deployment did not need explicit approval from Congress, as the 2010 Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act already authorized "increased, comprehensive U.S. efforts to help mitigate and eliminate the threat posed by the LRA to civilians and regional stability". The military advisors will be armed, and will provide assistance and advice, but "will not themselves engage LRA forces unless necessary for self-defense". The advisers will operate in South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, subject to approval by those states. The military advisors will not operate independently of the host states. Human Rights Watch welcomed the deployment, which they had previously advocated for. General Carter Ham, the head of US Africa Command, said last week that his best estimate was that Joseph Kony was probably in the Central African Republic, not located in Uganda.
In popular culture
- The 2011 feature film Machine Gun Preacher is the story of Sam Childers, a biker preacher who leads a struggle in collaboration with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) against the atrocities of the LRA.
- On October 14, 2011, Rush Limbaugh, a political commentator, originally questioned the U.S. move against the LRA on the grounds that "Lord's Resistance Army are Christians. They are fighting the Muslims in Sudan. And Obama has sent troops, United States troops to remove them from the battlefield, which means kill them." "So that’s a new war, a hundred troops to wipe out Christians in Sudan, Uganda." Later, Limbaugh stated that he would research the group as he was made aware of accusations of their atrocities. Contrary to this assertion, however, he later allowed the show's written transcript to be posted on his website under the title "Obama Invades Uganda, Targets Christians".
- ^ a b c IRIN (2 June 2007). UGAND-SUDAN: Ri-Kwangba: meeting point . Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ "Guatemalan blue helmet deaths stir Congo debate". http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/ABES-6LKL3W?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ "US troops to help Uganda fight rebels". Al Jazeera English. 2011-10-04. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/20111014174712102972.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ "Terrorist Organization Profile: Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, University of Maryland. http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=3513. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- ^ a b Doom, Ruddy; Vlassenroot, Koen (1999-01-01). "The Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda". Afraf.oxfordjournals.org. http://afraf.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/390/5. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ a b "Christian Cult Killing, Ravaging In New Uganda"
- ^ a b Ten Commandments of God: Mass Suicide in Uganda
- ^ a b Lamb, Christina (2008-03-02). "The Wizard of the Nile The Hunt for Africas Most Wanted by Matthew Green". The Times (London). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/non-fiction/article3449276.ece.
- ^ a b McKinley Jr, James C. (1997-03-05). "Christian Rebels Wage a War of Terror in Uganda". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/05/world/christian-rebels-wage-a-war-of-terror-in-uganda.html.
- ^ a b McGreal, Chris (2008-03-13). "Museveni refuses to hand over rebel leaders to war crimes court". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/13/uganda.internationalcrime.
- ^ a b Boustany, Nora (2008-03-19). "Ugandan Rebel Reaches Out to International Court". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/18/AR2008031803054.html.
- ^ Haynes, Jeffrey (2002). Politics in the developing world. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 121. ISBN 978-0631225560.
- ^ McLaughlin, Abraham (2004-12-31). "The End of Uganda's Mystic Rebel?". Christian Science Monitor. Global Policy Forum. http://www.globalpolicy.org/intljustice/wanted/2004/1231mystic.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- ^ Muth, Rachel (2008-05-08). "Child Soldiers in the Lord’s Resistance Army: Factors in the Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process". George Mason University: 23. http://hdl.handle.net/1920/3005. Retrieved 2009-03-04. [dead link]
- ^ Ruddy Doom and Koen Vlassenroot (1999). Kony's message: A new Koine? The Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda. 98. Oxford Journals / Royal African Society. pp. 5–36.
- ^ Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-1412927222.
- ^ "Interview with Vincent Otti, LRA second in command" and " A leadership based on claims of divine revelations" in IRIN In Depth, June 2007
- ^ International Criminal Court (14 October 2005). Warrant of Arrest unsealed against five LRA Commanders. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ugandan
- ^ Briggs, Jimmie, Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War, 2005, p. 113.
- ^ a b c d "UGANDA: Nature, structure and ideology of the LRA". IRIN. http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=23&ReportId=65772. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ a b c d e "DR Congo rebel massacre of hundreds is uncovered" by Martin Plaut
- ^ a b Mukasa, Henry (2008-12-30). "Uganda: Kony Rebels Kill 400 Congo Villagers". allAfrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/200812310002.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- ^ a b BBC News (29 December 2008). Ugandan LRA 'in church massacre'.
- ^ Ugandan rebels kill 400 in DR Congo: charity[dead link], Yahoo, 30-12-2008
- ^ "Congo-Kinshasa: Caritas Reports Christmas Day Massacre by Ugandan rebels". allAfrica.com. 2008-12-30. http://allafrica.com/stories/200812310101.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- ^ "Uganda to continue Congo LRA hunt". BBC. March 5, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7926173.stm.
- ^ a b "Christians are ‘crucified’ in guerrilla raids". Catholic Herald. http://www.archive.catholicherald.co.uk/articles/a0000648.shtml. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
- ^ "LRA: Ugandan bishop urges negotiated settlement". BBC. 2011-01-19. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12226701. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
- ^ a b Fessy, Thomas (2010-05-02). "'Fresh LRA massacre' in DR Congo". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8656634.stm.
- ^ "Meeting Report: Day 3". Africa, 2007 Consultation. Kibuye, Rwanda: Quaker Network for the Prevention of Violent Conflict. 2007-03-29. http://www.quaker.org/peace-network/eighth1.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ Fraser, Ben (2008-10-14). "Uganda's aggressive peace". Eureka Street 18 (21): 41–42. http://www.eurekastreet.com.au/article.aspx?aeid=8936. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ Chatlani, Hema. "Uganda: A Nation In Crisis" (PDF). California Western International Law Journal 37: 284. http://californiawestern.edu/content/journals/Chatlani.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ Ghana, C. (2002-08-09). "Don't Praise The Lord". Africa Confidential 43 (16).
- ^ "Uganda: Demystifying Kony". ACR (Institute for War & Peace Reporting) (69). 2006-07-03. http://iwpr.net/report-news/uganda-demystifying-kony. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
- ^ Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos (Summer 2008). "Conversion to Islam and Modernity in Nigeria: A View from the Underworld". Africa Today 54 (4). doi:10.1353/at.0.0014.
- ^ Frank Van Acker (2004). "Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army: The New Order No One Ordered". African Affairs 103 (412): 335–357. doi:10.1093/afraf/adh044.
- ^ Gersony, Robert (August 1997). "Results of a field-based assessment of the civil conflicts in northern Uganda" (PDF). The anguish of northern Uganda. Kampala, Uganda: USAID. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACC245.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ "Northern Uganda: Understanding and solving the conflict". ICG Africa Report N°77. Nairobi/Brussels: International Crisis Group. 2004-04-14. http://www.up.ligi.ubc.ca/ICGreport.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ Obita, James. "The Official presentation of the Lord's Resistance Movement/Army (LRA/M)". A Case for National Reconciliation, Peace, Democracy and Economic Prosperity for All Ugandans. Kacoke Madit. http://www.km-net.org.uk/conferences/KM97/papers_htm/casefor.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
- ^ http://www.invisiblechildren.com/history-of-the-war
- ^ Briggs, Jimmie, Innocents Lost: When Child soldiers Go to war, 2005, p. 109-110.
- ^ Singer, Peter W., Children at War, 2006, p. 20. Peter Singer puts the number over 14,000 children; Jimmie Briggs cites only 10,000 + children.
- ^ Briggs, Jimmie, Innocents Lost: When Child soldiers Go to war, 2005, p. 105-144.
- ^ Otunnu, Ogenga (August 1998). "The Path to Genocide in Northern Uganda". Refuge 17 (3): 7. https://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/refuge/issue/view/980. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- ^ Situation in Uganda[dead link], International Criminal Court
- ^ Court moves against Uganda rebels, BBC, 7 October 2005
- ^ Ugandans welcome rebel overture, BBC, 30 November 2005
- ^ "Journeyman Pictures : short films : Meeting Joseph Kony". Journeyman.tv. http://www.journeyman.tv/56380/short-films/meeting-joseph-kony.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ Interpol push for Uganda arrests, BBC News, 2 June 2006
- ^ Regional Government Pays Ugandan Rebels Not to Attack, Human Rights News, 3 June 2006
- ^ International Criminal Court (7 November 2006). PDF. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ BBC News (23 January 2008). Uganda's LRA confirm Otti death. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ BBC News (14 April 2008). Ugandan LRA rebel deputy 'killed' . Retrieved 10 June 2008.
- ^ Scott Johnson (2009-05-16). "Hard Target". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/197885/page/2.
- ^ "LRA Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act of 2009". Resolve. http://www.theresolve.org/lra-disarmament-and-northern-uganda-recovery-act-of-2009. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ Kavanagh, Michael J. (2010-11-25). "Obama Administration Asks for Funds to Boost Uganda's Fight Against Rebels". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-25/obama-administration-asks-fpr-funds-to-boost-uganda-s-fight-against-rebels.html. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- ^ Elizabeth Dickinson. "WikiFailed States". Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/12/13/wikifailed?page=full. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- ^ a b "Obama orders U.S. troops to help chase down African 'army' leader". CNN.com. October 14, 2011. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-10-14/africa/world_africa_africa-obama-troops_1_obama-orders-south-sudan-central-african-republic?_s=PM:AFRICA. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- ^ "Obama sends 100 military advisers to fight Africa rebels". Today News. October 15, 2011. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/44906278/ns/today-today_news/t/obama-sends-us-military-advisers-uganda/#.TpnNKd4r2sr. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- ^ "Obama Sending 100 Armed Advisers to Africa to Help Fight Renegade Group". New York Times. 2011-10-14. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/world/africa/barack-obama-sending-100-armed-advisers-to-africa-to-help-fight-lords-resistance-army.html. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
- ^ a b "Obama Invades Uganda, Targets Christians". The Rush Limbaugh Show. October 14, 2011. http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2011/10/14/obama_invades_uganda_targets_christians. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- ^ Krepel, Terry (October 14, 2011). "Limbaugh's Latest Smear: Obama Is "Targeting Christians" In Uganda". Media Matters for America. http://mediamatters.org/blog/201110140018. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- ^ Hounshell, Blake (October 15, 2011). "Rush Limbaugh on Lord's Resistance Army: "Obama Invades Uganda, Targets Christians"". Foreign Policy. http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/10/15/rush_limbaugh_on_lords_resistance_army_obama_invades_uganda_targets_christians. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- Briggs, Jimmie (2005). Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00798-1.
- Green, Matthew (2008). The Wizard of the Nile: The Hunt for Africa's Most Wanted. Portobello Books. ISBN 978-1846270307.
- Singer, Peter W. (2006). Children at War. University of California Press.
- Allen, Tim; Vlassenroot, Koen (2010). The Lord's Resistance Army: Myth and Reality. Zed Books Ltd..
- , Invisible Children
- Population surveys in Northern Uganda during and after the LRA, UC Berkeley and Tulane University
- Girl Soldiers – The cost of war in Northern Uganda, Women News Network – WNN
- Lord's Resistance Army, GlobalSecurity.org
- "A Case for National Reconciliation, Peace, Democracy and Economic Prosperity for All Ugandans", outlines and defends the LRA's political views.
- Invisible Children, advocacy group and documentary about LRA's child soldiers
- Uganda page, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
- Human Security in Northern Uganda project, University of British Columbia (extensive links from before mid-2004)
- Survey of War Affected Youth (SWAY): Research & Programs for Youth in Armed Conflict in Uganda
- Radio France Internationale, LRA Dossier (in English)
- Crisis briefing on the LRA and violence in Uganda from Reuters AlertNet
- Operation Lightning Thunder
- Research at UC Berkeley's Human Rights Center Initiative for Vulnerable Populations
- CandaceScharsu.com, Candace Scharsu photographs the victims of Joseph Kony's LRA
- "Stop Joseph Kony," song meant to increase awareness of the conflict
- "Mapping Evil - A GIS Based Analysis of Activities of the LRA, 2009-2011," A Geospatial Analysis of the Tri-Border Region of Northern Uganda, Central African Republic, South Sudan and DRC
Armed groups in the First and Second Congo Wars National armiesPro-governmentAnti-government Militias and
rebel groupsRwanda-alignedAlliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL, Rwanda-Uganda backed alliance) • Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) • RCD–Goma • Banyamulenge (ethnic Tutsis in South Kivu) • RCD-Congo (faction of RCD-Goma created in 2002)Uganda-alignedMovement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC, created in 1998) • RCD-Kisangani/Mouvement de Libération (RCD-K/ML or "RCD-Wamba", created 1999) • RCD-National (RCD-N, split from RCD-K/ML) • Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) • Front de Libération du Congo (FLC, formed from the MLC, RCD-N and RCD-ML from 2000 to 2001)Anti-government,
otherAnti-RwandaAnti-UgandaAnti-BurundiNational Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) • National Liberation Front (FLN/FROLINA)Government-aligned,
United Nations Alliances sometimes changed dramatically over the course of the wars. Some groups may be associated with multiple, ostensibly opposed factions.
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Look at other dictionaries:
Lord's Resistance Army — Flagge der paramilitärischen LRA Die Lord’s Resistance Army, LRA („Widerstandsarmee des Herrn“) wurde 1987 gegründet und ist eine paramilitärische Gruppe unter der Führung von Joseph Kony, die im Norden Ugandas gegen die Regierung Musevenis und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lord’s Resistance Army — Flagge der paramilitärischen LRA Die Lord’s Resistance Army, LRA („Widerstandsarmee des Herrn“) wurde 1987 gegründet und ist eine paramilitärische Gruppe unter der Führung von Joseph Kony, die im Norden Ugandas gegen die Regierung Musevenis und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lord's Resistance Army — Armée de résistance du Seigneur Zone de l Ouganda touchée par la guerrilla de la LRA L Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA pour Lord s Resistance Army) est un mouvement en rébellion contre le gouvernement de l Ouganda, créé en 1988, deux ans… … Wikipédia en Français
Lord's Resistance Army — noun a quasi religious rebel group in Uganda that terrorized and raped women and kidnapped children who were forced to serve in the army • Topics: ↑terrorism, ↑act of terrorism, ↑terrorist act • Regions: ↑Uganda, ↑Republic of Uganda • In … Useful english dictionary
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency — Date 1987–present Location Northern Uganda, South Sudan, Eastern DR Congo, Central African Republic Status The LRA have been militarily defeated … Wikipedia
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (2002–2005) — Soldier in Labuje IDP camp, Kitgum The period from 2000 to 2006 of the Lord s Resistance Army insurgency in northern Uganda begins with the assault of the Uganda People s Defence Force (UPDF) upon LRA strongholds in South Sudan. This in turn led… … Wikipedia
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1994–2002) — The start of the period 1994 to 2002 of the Lord s Resistance Army insurgency in northern Uganda saw the conflict intensifying due to Sudanese support to the rebels. There was a peak of bloodshed in the mid 1990s and then a gradual subsiding of… … Wikipedia
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–1994) — The period from 1986 to 1994 of the Lord s Resistance Army insurgency is the early history of the ongoing insurgency of the Lord s Resistance Army (LRA) rebel group in Uganda, which has been described as one of the most under reported… … Wikipedia
Lord Resistance Army — Flagge der paramilitärischen LRA Die Lord’s Resistance Army, LRA („Widerstandsarmee des Herrn“) wurde 1987 gegründet und ist eine paramilitärische Gruppe unter der Führung von Joseph Kony, die im Norden Ugandas gegen die Regierung Musevenis und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lord Resistance Army — Armée de résistance du Seigneur Zone de l Ouganda touchée par la guerrilla de la LRA L Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA pour Lord s Resistance Army) est un mouvement en rébellion contre le gouvernement de l Ouganda, créé en 1988, deux ans… … Wikipédia en Français