- Fold mountain
Fold mountains are
mountains formed due mainly to the effects of folding on layers within the upper part of the Earth's crust. In the time before either Plate tectonictheory developed, or the internal architecture of thrust belts became well understood, the term was used for most mountain belts, such as the Himalayas. The term is still prevalent in physical geographyliterature but has otherwise generally fallen out of use except as described below. The forces responsible for formation of the fold mountains are called Orogenicmovements. The term "orogenic" is derived from a greek word meaning mountain building. These forces act at tangent to the surface of the earth and are primarily involved in plate tectonics.
Fold mountains are generally formed in the less-deformed areas peripheral to areas strongly affected by
thrust tectonics. Typically they are found in the foreland region where a major mechanically weak decollementhorizon is present. The frontal thrust (or thrusts) propagate(s) a long distance along this horizon and subsequent movement on the thrust can give rise to a sequence of folds as the hanging wall of the thrust effectively crumples. The anticlinal crests may be high enough to form mountains. Most fold mountains are likely to be relatively young in geological terms as they will start to be eroded as soon as they are formed.
Jura mountains- A series of sub-parallel mountainous ridges formed by folding over a Triassic evaporitedecollement due to thrust movements in the foreland of the Alps.
Zagrosmountains - A series of elongated anticlinal domes, mostly formed as fault bend folds over underlying thrusts in the foreland of the Zagros collisional belt
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