- Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry of the Don Grand Prince of Moscow Reign 13 November 1359 – 19 May 1389
( 29 years, 187 days)
Predecessor Ivan II Successor Vasiliy I Consort Eudoxia Dmitriyevna Issue Daniil Dmitriyevich
Full name Dmitry Ivanovich Dynasty Rurik Father Ivan II Mother Alexandra Vasilyevna Velyaminova Born 12 October 1350
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Died 19 May 1389(aged 38)
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й,also known as Dimitrii), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to as Dmitry I (12 October 1350, Moscow – 19 May 1389, Moscow), son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow (1326 – 1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in Russia. His nickname, Donskoy (i.e., "of the Don"), alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380) which took place on the Don River. He is venerated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church with his feast day on May 19.
Dmitry ascended the throne of Principality of Moscow at the age of 9. During his minority, the government was actually run by Metropolitan Aleksey of Russia. In 1360 the highest dignity among Russian princes, that of Grand Prince of Vladimir, was transferred by a Khan of the Golden Horde upon Dmitry Konstantinovich of Nizhniy Novgorod. In 1363, when that prince had been deposed, Dmitry Ivanovich was finally crowned at Vladimir. Three years later, he made peace with Dmitriy Konstantinovich and married his daughter Eudoxia. In 1376, their joined armies ravaged Volga Bulgaria.
The most important event during the early years of Dmitry's reign was construction of the first stone Moscow Kremlin, completed in 1367. The new fortress allowed the city to withstand two sieges by Algirdas of Lithuania, in 1368 and 1370. Attempt for the third siege in 1372 ended in Treaty of Lyubutsk. In 1375, Dmitry managed to settle his conflict with Mikhail II of Tver over Vladimir in his favour. Other princes of Northern Russia also acknowledged his authority and contributed their troops to his impending struggle against the Horde. By the end of his reign, Dmitry more than doubled territory of Moscow principality.
Struggle against Mamai
Dmitry's thirty-year reign saw the beginning of the end for Mongol domination of parts of what is now Russia. The Golden Horde was severely weakened by civil war and dynastic rivalries. Dmitry took advantage of this lapse in Mongol authority to openly challenge the Tatars.
While he kept the Khan's patent to collect taxes for all of Russia, Dmitry is also famous for leading the first Russian military victory over the Mongols. Mamai, a Mongol general and claimant to the throne, tried to punish Dmitry for attempting to increase his power. In 1378 Mamai sent a Mongol army, but it was defeated by Dmitry's forces in the Battle of Vozha River Two years later Mamai personally led a large force against Moscow. Dmitry met and defeated it at the Battle of Kulikovo.
The defeated Mamai was presently dethroned by a rival Mongol general, Tokhtamysh. That khan reasserted Mongol rule over parts of what now is Russia and overran Moscow for Dmitry's resistance to Mamai. Dimitry, however, pledged his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and to the Golden Horde and was reinstated as Mongol principal tax collector and Grand Duke of Vladimir. Upon his death in 1389, Dimitry was the first Grand Duke to bequeath his titles to his son Vasiliy without consulting the Khan.
Marriage and children
- Daniil Dmitriyevich (c. 1370 – 15 September 1379).
- Vasiliy I of Moscow (30 September 1371 – 27 February 1425).
- Sofia Dmitriyevna. Married Fyodor Olegovich, Prince of Ryazan (reigned 1402–1427).
- Yuriy Dmitriyevich, Duke of Zvenigorod and Galich (26 November 1374 – 5 June 1434). Claimed the throne of Moscow against his nephew Vasiliy II of Moscow.
- Maria Dmitriyevna (d. 15 May 1399). Married Lengvenis.
- Anastasia Dmitriyevna. Married Ivan Vsevolodovich, Prince of Kholm.
- Simeon Dmitrievich (d. 11 September 1379).
- Ivan Dmitriyevich (d. 1393).
- Andrey Dmitriyevich, Prince of Mozhaysk (14 August 1382 – 9 July 1432).
- Pyotr Dmitriyevich, Prince of Dmitrov (29 July 1385 – 10 August 1428).
- Anna Dmitriyevna (born 8 January 1387). Married Yury Patrikiyevich. Her husband was a son of Patrikas, Prince of Starodub and his wife Helena. His paternal grandfather was Narimantas. The marriage solidified his role as a Boyar attached to Moscow.
- Konstantin Dmitriyevich, Prince of Pskov (14 May/15 May 1389 – 1433).
Regnal titles Preceded by
Grand Prince of Moscow
Russian royalty Preceded by
Heir to the Russian Throne
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Dmitry Donskoy — Dmitry Donskoï Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Dmitry Donskoy Dmitry Donskoï, en russe : Дмитрий Донской … Wikipédia en Français
Dmitry Donskoy (opera) — Anton Rubinstein … Wikipedia
Donskoy — (masculine), Donskaya (feminine), or Donskoye (neuter) may refer to: People Alexander Donskoy (b. 1970), mayor of Arkhangelsk, Russia Boris Donskoy (1894 or 1896–1918), Russian revolutionary Dmitry Donskoy (1350–1389), Grand Prince of Moscow… … Wikipedia
Donskoy Monastery — For other uses, see Donskoy (disambiguation). Our Lady of the Don, by Theophanes the Greek Donskoy Monastery (Russian: Донской монастырь) is a major monastery in Moscow, founded in 1591 in commemoration of Moscow s deliverance from an imminent… … Wikipedia
Dmitry Donskoï — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Dmitry Donskoy Dmitry Donskoï, en russe : Дмитрий Донской … Wikipédia en Français
Dmitry Tursunov — Дмитрий Турсунов Country Russia Residence Moscow … Wikipedia
Dmitry (II) Donskoy — ▪ prince of Moscow byname of Dmitry Ivanovich born Oct. 12, 1350, Moscow [Russia] died May 19, 1389, Moscow prince of Moscow, or Muscovy (1359–89), and grand prince of Vladimir (1362–89), who won a victory over the Golden Horde (Mongols… … Universalium
Dmitry Donskoï (1350-1389) — Dimitri IV de Russie Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dimitri (Russie). Dimitri IV Donskoï Dimitri IV Donskoï, fils de Ivan II, né à … Wikipédia en Français
Dmitry Ivanovitch Donskoï — Dimitri IV de Russie Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dimitri (Russie). Dimitri IV Donskoï Dimitri IV Donskoï, fils de Ivan II, né à … Wikipédia en Français
List of Russian people — The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history … Wikipedia