- Ghadar Party
Infobox Historic Political Party
party name = Ghadar Party
party articletitle =
active = 1913 - 1919
preceded by = Pacific Coast Hindustan Association
succeeded by =
Red, Saffronand Green
The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by
Indians of the United Statesand Canadain June, 1913 with the aim to liberate Indiafrom British rule. It was also known as the Hindi Association of the Pacific Coast.
The first issue of the "Ghadr", their paper was published from
University of California in Berkeleyin November 1, 1913, In it Har Dayalwrote: "Today there begins in foreign lands, but in our country's tongue, a war against the British Raj... What is our name? Mutiny. What is our work? Mutiny. Where will mutiny break out? In India. The time will soon come when rifles and blood will take the place of pens and ink."
The economic scenario in India in the early 1900s was depressing and this led to large scale immigration of Punjabis to
Australia, the United Statesand Canada. The Canadian governmentdecided to curtail this influx with a series of legislations, which were aimed at limiting the entry of South Asians into the country and restricting the political rights of those already in the country. The Punjabi community had hitherto been an important loyal force for the British Empireand the Commonwealth, and the community had expected, to honour its commitment, equal welcome and rights from the British and commonwealth governments as extended to British and white immigrants. These legislations fed growing discontent, protests and anti-colonial sentiments within the community. Faced with increasingly difficult situations, the community began organising itself into political groups. A large number of Punjabis also moved to the United States, but they encountered similar political and social problems.Harvnb|Strachan|2001|p=795]
The Ghadar Party, initially the "Pacific Coast Hindustan Association", was formed in 1913 in the United States under the leadership of
Har Dayal, with Sohan Singh Bhaknaas its president. The members of the party were Indian immigrants, largely from Punjab. Many of its members were from the University of California at Berkeley including Dayal, Tarak Nath Das, Maulavi Barkatullah, Kartar Singh Sarabhaand V.G. Pingle. The party quickly gained support from Indian expatriates, especially in the United States, Canadaand Asia.
The word "Ghadar"
"Ghadar" is an
Urdu/Punjabi word which means "mutiny" or "rebellion" or "revolt". As Lala Hardayal, one of the founders of the party, wrote in the first issue: "Today there begins 'Ghadar' in foreign lands, but in our country's tongue, a war against the British Raj. What is our name? Mutiny. What is our work? Mutiny. Where will mutiny break out? In India. The time will soon come when rifles and blood will take the place of pens and ink." The party consisted of mainly revolutionaries and socialists.
The Ghadar Newspaper
The party was built around the weekly paper "The Ghadar", which carried the caption on the masthead: "Angrezi Raj Ka Dushman" (an enemy of the British rule). "Wanted brave soldiers", the Ghadar declared, "to stir up rebellion in India. Pay-death; Price-martyrdom; Pension-liberty; Field of battle-India". The ideology of the party was strongly secular. In the words of
Sohan Singh Bhakna, who later became a major peasant leader of the Punjab: "We were not Sikhs or Punjabis. Our religion was patriotism". The first issue of "The Ghadar", was published from San Franciscoon November 1, 1913.
Following the voyage of the
Komagata Maruin 1914, a direct challenge to Canadianracist anti-Indian immigration legislations, several thousand Indians resident in the USAsold their business and homes ready to drive the British from India. However, Hardayal had fled to Europeconcerned that the US authorities would hand him over to the British. Sohan Singh Bhakna was already in British hands, and the leadership fell to Ram Chandra. Following the entry of Canadainto World War I, the organisation was centred in the USA and received substantial funding from the German government. They had a very militant tone, as illustrated by this quote from Harnam Singh:
:"No pundits or mullahs do we need"The party rose to prominence in the second decade of the 20th century, and grew in strength owing to Indian discontent over World War I and the lack of political reforms.
Ghadar activists undertook what the British described as
political terrorism, but what was revolution to most Indians.Fact|date=January 2008 Ghadar activists were responsible for bombs planted on government property, and targeted assassinations of Bas Bhagat Singh.
In 1917 some of their leaders were arrested and put on trial in the
Hindu German Conspiracy Trialin which their paper was quoted.
The Ghadar party commanded a loyal following the province of Punjab, but many of its most prominent activists were forced into exile to Canada and the United States. It ceased to play an active role in Indian politics after 1919. The party had active members in other countries such as
Mexico, Japan, China, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Malaya, Indo-Chinaand Eastern and Southern Africa.
Members of the Ghadar Party
Kartar Singh Sarabha
Tarak Nath Das
* [http://india_resource.tripod.com/ghadar.html Important Documents of the Ghadar Movement]
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape17/PQDD_0001/MQ36004.pdf Ghadar: The Indian Immigrant Outrage Against Canadian Injustices 1900 - 1918] by Sukhdeep Bhoi
* [http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SouthAsia/gadarcol.html The Hindustan Ghadar Collection] .Bancroft Library,
University of California, Berkeley
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Communist Ghadar Party of India — CGPI Logo The Communist Ghadar Party of India (CGPI.org) was founded on December 25, 1980, as a continuation of the Hindustani Ghadar Party Organisation of Indian Marxist Leninists Abroad founded in Canada in 1970. The group had established a… … Wikipedia
Ghadar — may refer to* Indian Rebellion of 1857 * Ghadar Party. A Indian political party founded in San Francisco, espousing millitant nationalist movement. * Hindustan Ghadar (or Ghadar, for short) The weekly publication of the Ghadar Party. * The Ghadar … Wikipedia
Party of Labour of Albania — Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë Leader Enver Hoxha (1941 85), Ramiz Alia (1985 91) F … Wikipedia
Ghadar Conspiracy — The Ghadar Conspiracy was a conspiracy for a pan Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army in February 1915 formulated by Indian revolutionaries. It was the most prominent plan amongst a number of plots of the much larger Indo German Conspiracy,… … Wikipedia
Hindustan Ghadar — The Hindustan Ghadar was a weekly publication that was the party organ of the Ghadar Party. It was published under the auspices of the Yugantar Ashram (Advent of a New Age Ashram)in San Francisco. Its purpose was to further the militant… … Wikipedia
Communist Party of India — Coordinates: 28°37′54.01″N 77°14′17.15″E / 28.6316694°N 77.2380972°E / 28.6316694; 77.2380972 Not t … Wikipedia
Communist Party of India (Marxist) — CPIM redirects here. For other uses, see CPIM (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Communist Party of India or Communist Party of India (Maoist). Communist Party of India (Marxist) Secretary … Wikipedia
Communist party (disambiguation) — Contents 1 All Union 2 Bolsheviks 3 Central, Centre 3.1 Chin … Wikipedia
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation — Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist) Liberation Leader Dipankar Bhattacharya … Wikipedia
Communist Party of India (Maoist) — Not to be confused with Communist Party of India or Communist Party of India (Marxist). For other uses, see Naxalism. Communist Party of India (Maoist) … Wikipedia