- Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub.L. 104-208, Div. C, 110 Stat. 3009-546 (often referred to as "Ira-Ira", and sometimes abbreviated to IIRIRA) vastly changed the immigration laws of the
Constitutional issues within the law
Previously, immediate deportation was triggered only for offences that could lead to five years or more in jail. Under the Act,
minor offencessuch as shoplifting, may make an individual eligible for deportation. The Act also applies to residents who have married American citizens and have American-born children.
When IIRIRA was passed in 1996, it was applied retroactively to all those convicted of deportable offenses. This included US residents who committed minor offences decades ago.
* However, in 2001, the
U.S. Supreme Courtdecided that Congress did not intend IIRIRA to be applied retroactively to those who pleaded guilty to a crime prior to the enactment of IIRIRA, if that person would not have been deportable at the time that he pleaded guilty. (INS v. St. Cyr).
* In spite of the 2001 ruling the way the IIRIRA law is used in practice has had so little public scrutiny and oversight so as to make its further use questionable.
In an effort to curb illegal immigration, Congress voted to double the U.S. Border Patrol to 10,000 agents over five years and mandated the construction of fences at the most heavily trafficked areas of the U.S.-Mexico border. Congress also approved a pilot program to check the immigration status of job applicants.
IIRIRA's mandatory detention provisions have also been repeatedly challenged, with less success.
ection 287(g) and relations between federal and lower levels of government
IIRIRA addressed the relationship between the federal government and local governments.
Section 287(g)is a program of the act that deputizes state and local law enforcement personnel to enforce immigration matters. [Elizabeth Llorente, "Newark Killings Become Immigration Flash Point," "The Record," August 14, 2007 http://www.northjersey.com/page.php?qstr=eXJpcnk3ZjczN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXkzJmZnYmVsN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXk3MTgxNjYzJnlyaXJ5N2Y3MTdmN3ZxZWVFRXl5Ng=] ["Cobb ignoring tool aimed at illegals," "Marietta Daily Journal," August 3, 2006 http://www.mdjonline.com/articles/2006/08/03/270/10226979.prt] [http://www.ice.gov/doclib/pi/news/factsheets/060816dc287gfactsheet.pdf] This provision was implemented by local and state authorities in five states, California, Arizona, Alabama, Florida and North Carolina by the end of 2006. [Katie Zezima, "Massachusetts Set for Its Officers to Enforce Immigration Law," "New York Times," December 13, 2006 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/13/us/13romney.html?ex=1187582400&en=26f4c2bb4c5c983c&ei=5070]
Cambodian American Repatriation
* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=104_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ208.104.pdf Text of IIRIRA] (See pg. 547 in this document).
* Stephen Davis, "
New Statesman", November 22, 2004, [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_4715_133/ai_n8578746 "Deported from America"]
* [http://uscis.gov/graphics/publicaffairs/factsheets/948.htm USCIS Factsheet, March 1997]
* [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=00-767 INS v. St. Cyr]
* [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=99-7791 Zadvydas v. Davis]
* [http://uscis.gov/graphics/publicaffairs/factsheets/948.htm USCIS Summary of the Act]
* [http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/text/104208.txt Text of the Act]
* [http://www.thislife.org/pages/descriptions/00/170.html "This American Life" on 'Immigration']
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Illegal immigration to the United States — refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. Residing in the United States in violation of immigration law is not a crime but a civil infraction. [ Being… … Wikipedia
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. St. Cyr — 533 U.S. 289 (2001) is a United States Supreme Court case involving habeas corpus relief for deportable aliens. Facts Enrico St. Cyr pleaded guilty to a controlled substance violation in Connecticut. Under U.S. Immigration Law, St. Cyr, a lawful … Wikipedia
Immigration reduction — refers to movements that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into their country. This can include a reduction in the numbers of legal immigrants, advocating stronger action be taken to prevent illegal entry and illegal… … Wikipedia
Immigration to the United States — 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States has been a major source of … Wikipedia
Immigration and Nationality Act Section 287(g) — Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) was made law in the United States in 1996 as a result of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). Section 287(g) authorizes the Secretary of Homeland… … Wikipedia
Immigration Aux États-Unis — L immigration est un phénomène démographique qui encadre l histoire des États Unis au XXe siècle. Les immigrants sont arrivés à raison de plus d un million par an durant la première décennie du siècle et d environ un million par an au cours de la … Wikipédia en Français
Immigration aux Etats-Unis — Immigration aux États Unis L immigration est un phénomène démographique qui encadre l histoire des États Unis au XXe siècle. Les immigrants sont arrivés à raison de plus d un million par an durant la première décennie du siècle et d environ un… … Wikipédia en Français
Immigration aux états-unis — L immigration est un phénomène démographique qui encadre l histoire des États Unis au XXe siècle. Les immigrants sont arrivés à raison de plus d un million par an durant la première décennie du siècle et d environ un million par an au cours de la … Wikipédia en Français
List of United States immigration legislation — There have been a number of Immigration Acts in the United States.*The Naturalization Act of 1790 established the rules for naturalized citizenship, as per Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution. *The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first … Wikipedia
USA PATRIOT Act, Title IV — The USA PATRIOT Act was passed by the United States Congress in 2001 as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. It has ten titles, each containing numerous sections. Title IV: Protecting the Border aims to prevent terrorism in the USA… … Wikipedia