- Type-E Dualism
This is the view that ‘
phenomenalproperties’ are different from physicalproperties. That phenomenal properties can have no effect on the physical. In other words, there are two properties, the physical and the mental.
‘Physical states cause phenomenal states, but not vice versa’. So the
psychophysicallaws run only from phenomenal to physical, not vice versa. So the causal chain can only move in one direction- form the physical to the ‘mental’. Our mind cannot have a direct effect on the physical world.
Type-E dualism is compatible with substance "and" property
dualism, and is supposed to respect both consciousnessand science. Many people think this theory is counterintuitive. If the theory is true, then phenomenal states can have no direct effect on our actions. For example, when I feel pain, this does not "cause" me to move my hand away from the flame. The phenomenal state is not the cause of a physical action.
Even though this view is often seen to be false, there is no evidence to show it to be so. Evidence only shows a connection between a mental state and a physical state. I.e., certain experiences are typically followed by a certain action. There is no
causationhere, just a common coincidence, which leads us to a belief that it will always happen- that there is a causal connection. (See Humeon causation)
epiphenomenalism(Type-E Dualism) were true, it would point to the same situation. It "appears" that consciousness has a causal relationship to our physical actions, where really it is just coincidences that have lead to strong beliefsthat there is in fact a causal connection.
*Nightingale R (2008) (Provided and written by), What Table? Blog, [http://whattable.wordpress.com/ "Consciousness and its Place in Nature"] .
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