Academic grading in Sweden

Academic grading in Sweden

These grades are used in the Grundskola (primary school) and the Gymnasium (secondary school):
*MVG - Mycket väl godkänd (Passed with special distinction)
*VG - Väl godkänd (Passed with distinction)
*G - Godkänd (Passed)
*IG - Icke godkänd (Fail) (Only in the gymnasium, which resembles grades 10-12. In mandatory school IG is represented by a "***", or a EUM, Ej Uppnått Målen, Didn't achieve the goals.)

Grades are assigned based on individual achievements rather than relative performance. Formally, the grade should reflect the degree of attainment of stated learning outcomes and objectives. In practice, however, simple percentage limits are often used.

Until 1994 relative grades on the scale 1-5, 5 being the highest, were used. The scale was intended to follow a normal distribution on a national level, with a mean of 3 and a standard deviation of 1.

Up until 1962 yet another scale was used:

*A - Berömlig (Passed with great distinction)
*a - Med utmärkt beröm godkänd (Passed with distinction)
*AB - Med beröm godkänd (Passed with great credit)
*Ba - Icke utan beröm godkänd (Passed with credit)
*B - Godkänd (Passed)
*Bc - Icke fullt godkänd (Not entirely passable)
*C - Underkänd (Fail)

Though unused for over 40 years, this scale retains some cultural significance, and the standard law school grading scale used today is based on it (see below).

On university level the following standard grading scale has been defined:

*VG - Väl godkänd (Passed with distinction)
*G - Godkänd (Passed)
*U - Underkänd (Fail)

As long as relative grading is not used, however, individual universities may choose to use any other scale. For example, in the fields of engineering and technology, the passing grades of VG and G are commonly replaced with 5, 4 and 3, whereas law schools consistently employ a scale of AB, Ba and B as passing grades. Further, a number of universities are currently in the process of transitioning to an ECTS based scale, with an A to F grading, pursuant to the Bologna process.

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