- John III of Portugal
Infobox Portuguese Royalty|monarch
name =John III
title =King of Portugal
and the Algarves
of either side of the sea in Africa
caption =Portrait of John III by
December 13, 1521— June 11, 1557
December 19, 1521 in Lisbon
predecessor =Manuel I
Catherine of Castile
issue =Afonso, Prince of Portugal
Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal and Asturias
João Manuel, Prince of Portugal
issue-link = #Marriages and descendants
issue-pipe = among others...
royal house =
House of Aviz-Beja
Manuel I of Portugal
mother =Maria of Aragon
date of birth =
June 7, 1502
place of birth =Palace of Alcáçova,
Castle of São Jorge, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
date of death =June 11, 1557
place of death =Palace of Ribeira,
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
place of burial =
Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, District of Lisbon, Portugal|
John III (Portuguese: "João III," pronounced|ʒuˈɐ̃ũ) (
June 7, 1502– June 11, 1557), nicknamed "o Piedoso" ("the Pious"), was the fifteenth King of Portugal and the Algarves.
Lisbon, he was the son of King Manuel I and his queen consort, Maria of Aragon (the third daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain). John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen.
During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in
Asiaand in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India(such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopolyover the spice tradeof clovesfrom the Moluccasand nutmegfrom the Banda Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empirespanned almost 1 billion acres.
During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both
China, under the Ming Dynasty, and Japan, during the Muromachi period. He abandoned Muslimterritories in North Africain favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic regionand the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.
John was responsible for the
evangelizationof the Far Eastand Brazil, in part through the introduction of Jesuit missions there. Both the Jesuits and the Portuguese Inquisition, introduced in 1536, were to become key institutions in Portugal and its Empire. The Jesuits were particularly important for mediating Portuguese relations with native peoples and the Inquisition served to spare Portugal the civil upheavals of religious warfare of the sort that occurred in France and elsewhere in Europe during the 16th century. In the final years of John's reign, Portugal's colony of Brazil was just beginning its rapid development as a producer of sugar that compensated for the gradual decline of revenues from Asia, a development that would continue during the reign of his grandson and successor, Sebastian, who became king upon the death of John of apoplexyin 1557.
Prince John, the eldest son of King Manuel, was born on
June 6, 1502. The event was marked by a masterpiece of Portuguese theater, Gil Vicente's "Visitation Play, or: the Monologue of the Cowherd" ("Auto da Visitação ou Monólgo do Vaqueiro") presented in the Queen's chamber.
The young prince was sworn heir to the throne in 1503 and was educated by notables of the time, including the
astrologer Tomás de Torresand Diogo de Ortiz, Bishop of Viseu. One of his teachers was Luís Teixeira, a humanist educated in Italy. John's chroniclersaid that "Dom João III faced problems easily, complementing his lack of culturewith a practice formation that he always showed during his reign" (António de Castilho, "Elogio d'el-rei D. João de Portugal, terceiro, do nome"). In 1514, he was given his own house, and a few years later began to help his father in administrative duties.
At sixteen he was chosen to marry his first cousin, the 20-year-old
Eleanor of Habsburg, eldest daughter of Philip the Handsomeof Austria-Burgundy and queen Joanna of Castile, but instead she married his widowed father King Manuel I. John took deep offence at this: his chroniclers say he became melancholy and was never quite the same. Some historians also claim this was one of the main reasons that John later became fervently religious.
December 19, 1521, at the age of 19, he was crowned king in the Church of Saint Dominique in Lisbon, beginning a thirty-six-year reign characterized by intense activity in internal and overseas politics, especially in relations with other major European states.
The marriage of John's sister, Infanta Isabella of
Portugal, to Charles V enabled the Portuguese king to forge a stronger alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. To strengthen his ties with Austria, he married his maternal first cousin Catherine of Habsburg, younger sister of Charles V and his erstwhile fiancée Eleanor, in the town of Crato. John had nine children from that marriage, but most of them died young. By the time of John's death, only his grandson, Sebastian, was alive to inherit the crown.
John III continued to centralize the absolutist politics of his ancestors. He called for the
Cortesonly three times and at great intervals: 1525 in Torres Novas, 1535 in Évoraand 1544 in Almeirim. He also tried to restructure administrative and judicial life in his realm.
Toward the end of John III's reign, Portugal entered a period of serious economic, social, and political problems, resulting in the wane of Portuguese power.
The large and far-flung
Portuguese Empirewas difficult and expensive to administer, and was burdened with huge external debtand trade deficits. Portugal's Indian and Far Eastern interests grew increasingly chaotic under the poor administration of ambitious governors. John III responded with new appointments which proved troubled and short-lived: in some cases, the new governors even had to fight their predecessors to take up their appointment. The resulting failures in administration brought on a gradual decline of the Portuguese trade monopoly.
Among John III's many governors of this region, were
Vasco da Gama, Henrique de Meneses, Pedro Mascarenhas, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Nuno da Cunha, Estêvão da Gama, Martim Afonso de Sousaand João de Castro.
Rise of the Jesuits brings social and economic conflict
The establishment of the
Society of Jesusin 1534, (approved by Pope Paul IIIin 1540), and the introduction of the Portuguese Inquisitionin 1536, (a result of John's religious fanaticism), were also causes of the country's economic woes. John was so determined to introduce the Inquisition, that he spent vast quantities of gold in embassies to the Pope. While the Society of Jesus had a valuable role to play overseas in evangelizing native populations, within Portugal it had a devastating impact, draining the gold of the Empire - offered by John himself - to erect a great number of religious buildings, including their home church in Lisbon (the Church of St. Roch (São Roque). The Jesuits also propitiated an environment of instability within some parts of the nobility, the majority of the existent religious orders, and with the Universities that saw it as a rival motivated by religious fanaticism. Finally, the Inquisition's persecution of many important Jewish merchants, who were killed or had to flee the country, had a damaging effect on the economy.
Overseas, the Empire was threatened by Turkey in both the
Indian Oceanand North Africa, causing Portugal to increase spending on defense and fortifications. Meanwhile, in the Atlantic, where Portuguese ships already had to withstand constant attacks of corsairs, an initial settlement of French colonists in Brazil created yet another "front". The French made alliances with native South Americans against the Portuguese and military and political interventions were used. Eventually they were forced out, but not until 1565.
In the first years of John III's reign, explorations in the
Far Eastcontinued and the Portuguese reached Chinaand Japan; however, these accomplishments were offset by pressure from a strengthening Ottoman Empireunder Suleiman the Magnificent, especially in Indiawhere attacks became more frequent. The expense of defending Indian interests was huge. To pay for it, John III abandoned a number of strongholds in North Africa(Safim, Azamor, Alcacer Ceguer and Arzila).
All of John III's children died before him, although one son, also named John, had sired a child by
Joan of Spainbefore he died. This posthumous son became King Sebastian I (1557-1578). Sebastian had no children. After his early death the crown passed to his great-uncle Cardinal Henry I (John's brother). He, too, had no children and reigned for only two years (1578-1580). The ensuing dynastic crisis opened the way for Philip II of Spain(Philip I of Portugual) to take over Portugal for the Habsburg dynasty.
The reign of John III was marked by diplomacy. With
Spain, he made alliances through marriage (himself with Catherine of Spain; Isabella, princess of Portugal with Charles V; Maria, princess of Portugal – his daughter – with Philip II of Spain, and others) which ensured peace in the Iberian Peninsulafor a number of years. However, the intermarriage of these closely related royal families may have been one of the factors contributing to the poor health of John's children and of future King Sebastian.
John III remained neutral during the war between
Franceand Spain, but stood firm in fighting French corsair attacks. He strengthened relations with Rome by introducing the Inquisitionin Portugal and the adhesion of the Portuguese clergy to the Counter-Reformation. This relationship with the Catholic Church made it possible for John to name whomever he wanted to important religious positions in Portugal: his brothers Henry and Afonso were made Cardinals, and his natural son Duarte was made Archbishopof Braga.
Commercial relations were intensified with
England, the countries of the Baltic and Flandersduring John's reign. Meanwhile, at the other end of the world, Portugal was the first European nation to make contact with Japan. In China, Macauwas offered to the Portuguese, and soon Portugal controlled major trade routes in the area. In the South, the Portuguese continued its hostile stance against their Muslim rivals and insurgent Indian leaders. In the MoluccasJohn achieved an important political victory, securing the control of the area in spite of Spanish claims.
John III's support for the humanist cause was significant. In
literature, his active support of Gil Vicente, Garcia de Resende, Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, Fernão Mendes Pinto, João de Barrosand Luís de Camõeswas notable. In the sciences, John III supported Pedro Nunesand Garcia de Orta.
The monarch awarded many
scholarships in Universities abroad (mainly in Paris) and definitively transferred the Lisbon to Coimbra in 1537. He quickly recalled the many prominent Portuguese-born figures of European education and provided the University with excellent conditions. However, the importance of the University of Coimbra was reduced by the advent of the Society of Jesus. The Society founded colleges and made education more widely available, but it also created great instability in Portuguese education, setting itself up as a rival of the University of Coimbra, often taking a conservative position against any innovation. The Inquisition also arrested and killed many prominent teachers and censured new ideas like Erasmism.
Another noteworthy aspect, was the support that John gave to
missionariesin the New World, Asiaand Africa.
Inquisitionwas introduced into Portugal in 1536. As in Spain, the Inquisition was placed under the authority of the King. The Grand Inquisitor, or General Inquisitor, was named by the Popeafter being nominated by the king and he always came from within the royal family. The Grand Inquisitor would later nominate other inquisitors. In Portugal, the first Grand Inquisitor was Cardinal Henry, the king's brother (who would later himself become King). There were Courts of the Inquisition in Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora and, from 1560 onwards, in Goa. The Goa Inquisitionchanged the demographics of Goa considerably.
The activities of the Inquisition extended to book
censure, repression and trial for divination, witchcraftand bigamyas well as the prosecution of sexual crimes, especially sodomy. Book censure proved to have a strong influence in Portuguese cultural evolution, serving to keep the country in ignorance and cultural backwardness. Originally created to punish religious deviance, the Inquisition came to have influence in almost every aspect of Portuguese society: politically, culturally and socially.
The Portuguese Empire under John III
In John III's time, trade between the Portuguese and Africans was extremely intense in the "feitorias" like
Arguim, Mina, Mombasa, Sofalaor Moçambique. "Common products were salt, wheat, horses, carpets, fabric, Irish and English clothing, blades, tinfor African natives' coins, copperor tin vases, shells from the Canary Islandsthat Ethiopians carry on their necks as an amulet against lightning, yellow and green beads from Nuremberg, and brass armlets" (Basílio Vasconcelos, «Itinerário» de Jerónimo Münzer, 1932), in exchange for gold, slaves, ivoryand bush redpepper brought by the Portuguese.
"Now, I [John III] say, like you said that there was no capture of slaves in your Kingdom [of Congo] , I just want to provide you [King of the Congo] with flour and wine for your Eucharistic rites, and for that it would only be needed a caravelão [a kind of caravel] each year; if it seems right to you, in exchange for 10,000 slaves and 10,000 armlets and 10,000 ivory tooth, that, it is said, in the Congo there is not much, not even a ship per year; so, this and more shall be as you want." (Letter of John III to the King of the Congo).
Under John III, several expeditions started in coastal
Africaand advanced to the interior of the continent. These expeditions were formed by groups of navigators, merchants, adventurers and missionaries. Missions in Africa were established by the College of Arts of Coimbra. The objective was to increase the king's dominion, develop peace relations and to christianizethe native population.
Defense and abandonment of North African strongholds
John III refused to abandon all of the Portuguese North African strongholds, but he had to make choices:
"To want to have such a costly thing, and from which there came no profits wasn’t wise, mainly for who had so great expenditures and so huge and necessary, that cannot be stopped." (Unknown, Relações de Pero Alcáçova Carneiro, etc., 1937)
John III decided to abandon Safim and
Azamorin 1541, followed by Arzila and Alcácer Ceguer in 1549. The fortresses of Ceuta, Tangiersand Mazaganwere strengthened "to face the new military techniques, imposed by the generalization of heavy artillery, combined with light fire weapons and blades" (José Mattoso dir., História de Portugal, 1993).
"There were years when the King had thought with his great judgement (…) to abandon the cities of Safim and Azamor (…). It was certain that Safim had no port and the river of Azamor was not navigable (…). The cost was too much that resulted in fruits of no consideration (…)" (Frei
Luís de Sousa, Anais de D. João III, 1983).
John III declared every male subject between 20 and 65 years old recruitable on
7 August 1549.
"Every nobleman, like all my servants and those who are not, and every knight, squire, servants of mine, my brothers, and any other person that might have them [horses] , I order them to have the horses ready." (idem)
Before the reign of John III, the Portuguese had already reached Siam (1511), the
Moluccas(1512), the Chinese littoral (1513), Canton (1517) and Timor(1515). During John's rule, the Portuguese reached Japan, and at the end of John's reign, Macauwas offered to Portugal by China.
"From India, he [John III] receives all kinds of spice, drug & stone & many cotton clothes, "taficiras" and "alaquecas" [kinds of Indian fabrics] . From Malacca, clovetrees, marzipan, sandalwood, camphor, porcelains, "beijoim & calaim" [kinds of spices] . From Bengala, "sinafabos", flannel, "chautares", castor beans, & "rebotins" that are kinds of thin fabric made of cotton (…). From Alexandria & Cairo, red dyewood, cinnabars, saffron, copper, rosed waters, "borcados" [a kind of silk] , velvets, taffeta, grains of wood, camlets, gold & silver in bars, & in coins, & carpets. From China, musk, rhubarb, & silk in exchange of gromwells, pearls, horses from Arabia & Persia, non worked silk, silk embroidery threads, fruits of the date palm, raisins, salt, sulphur & many other goods." (Fernão Lopes de Castanheda, História do Descobrimento e Conquista da Índia pelos Portugueses, 1979)
As Muslims and other peoples constantly attacked Portuguese fleets in the area, and because India was so far from mainland Portugal, it was extremely difficult for John III to assure Portuguese dominion in this area. A
Viceroy, a Governor-General with extensive powers, was nominated, but it was not enough. The Portuguese started by creating "feitorias" – commercial strongholds (Cochin, Cannanore, Coulão, Cranganoreand Tanor) – with the initial objective of establishing just a commercial dominion in the region.
The hostility of many Indian kingdoms, and the alliances between
sultans and zamorinsto expel the Portuguese, made it necessary for the Europeans to establish a sovereign state. So, Portugal militarily occupied some key cities on the Indian coast, and Goa(1512) became the headquarters of the Portuguese Empire in the East. Goabecame a starting point for the introduction of European cultural and religious values in India, and churches, schools and hospitals were built. Goa remained an overseas possession of Portugal until Indiareclaimed it in 1961.
Portuguese arrival in Japan
The Portuguese arrived in
Japanin 1543. Japan was known to Portugal since the time of Marco Polo, who called it "Cipango". Whether Portuguese nationals were the first Europeans to arrive in Japan is debatable. Some say it was the writer Fernão Mendes Pinto, and others say the navigators António Peixoto, António da Motaand Francisco Zeimoto.
Portuguese traders started negotiating with Japan earlier than 1550, and established a base there at Nagasaki. By then, trade with Japan was a Portuguese
monopoly, under the rule of a Captain. Because the Portuguese established themselves in Macau, Chinese commercial relations, mainly the silvertrade with Japan, were improved under John III's rule.
After the voyage of
Ferdinand Magellan, the Castilians claimed the recently discovered MoluccasIslands. In 1524, a conference of experts ( cartographers, cosmographers, pilots, etc.) was held to solve the dispute caused by the difficulty of determining the meridian agreed to in the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Portuguese delegation sent by John III included names such as António de Azevedo Coutinho, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Lopo Homemand Simão Fernandes.
The dispute was settled in 1529 by the
Treaty of Zaragoza, signed by John III and Charles I of Spain. The Portuguese paid 350,000 golden " ducados" to Spain and secured their presence in the islands.
This payment should not have been a necessity, as Portugal was actually entitled to the islands, according to the
Treaty of Tordesillas.
Leonel de Sousaobtained authorization for the Portuguese to establish, in Canton and Macau. Macau was later offered to John III as a reward for the Portuguese assistance against maritime piracy in the period between 1557 and 1564.
"In the morning of the other day, we set sail from this island of Sanchão and when the sun set, we arrived at another island, that lies six more
leagues to the north, called Lampacau, where at that time the Portuguese made trade with the Chinese, and they made it until the year of 1557, when the mandarins of Canton, when asked by Portuguese land merchants, gave this port of Macau to us (…)." (Fernão Mendes Pinto, "Pilgrimage", 1974 ed.)
Portugal retained Macau for over 400 years. It became a
Special Administrative Regionof the People's Republic of Chinain 1999, two years after Hong Kongwas similarly returned to Chinese jurisdiction by the UK.
Malacca, which controlled the eponymous Strait of Malacca, was vital to Portuguese interests in the Far East. After an unsuccessful expedition in 1509, Malacca was finally conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese viceroy of India, on 24 August 1511. Malacca was later taken by the Dutch in 1641.
In order to follow its trade routes to the Far East, Portugal depended on the seasonal
monsoonwinds in the Indian Ocean. In winter, the prevailing northeasterly monsoon impeded travel to India; in summer, the southwest monsoon made departure from India difficult. As a result, Portugal determined that it needed permanent bases in India, in addition to its ports of call in Africa, to pass the time while the wind changed. In addition to Goa, they founded a base at Colombo(in what is now Sri Lanka) in the sixteenth century. This port remained in Portuguese hands until 1656, when it was seized by the Dutch after an epic siege.
Trade in Brazil
Immediately following the discovery of
Brazil, the Portuguese imported brazilwood, Indian slaves and exotic birds from there. Brazilwood was a much appreciated product in Europe, because it could be used to produce a red dye. During John III's rule, after the initial colonization, Portuguese explorers intensified the search for brazilwood and began the cultivation of sugarcanewhich was well suited to the climate of Brazil, especially around Recife and Bahía.
Since Brazil lacked a large native population, and the Indians did not make good plantation workers, the Portuguese colonists began to import African slaves to work their plantations. The first slaves, from the region of
Guinea, arrived in Brazil in 1539. Most of them worked in the sugarcane fields or were house servants.
John III was the first Portuguese monarch to recognize the potential of the
New World, and the colonizationof Brazil began during his reign. The territory was divided into 12 captaincies in 15 lots (some captaincies had more than one lot) that were given to donatary captains with obligations to defend them, populate them, and to develop their resources.
"Martim Afonso, my friend, I, the King (…) knew of your arrival at this land of Brazil, and because of your patrol of the coast (…) against the French corsairs, (…) I thank you (…). After you left, a question was raised if it would be my service to populate all that coast of Brazil, and some people asked me for captaincies (…), so I ordered to mark from
Pernambucoto the Rio da Prata [ Río de la Plata] fifty leagues of coast to each captaincy, and before giving them to anyone, I ordered a hundred of the best leagues of the coast to be marked to you and fifty leagues to your brother, Pêro Lopes(…). I also gave captaincies of fifty leagues to some people (…) and everyone is willing to take people and ships with them (…)" (Letter of John III to Martim Afonso de Sousa)
The first Governor-General appointed by John III was
Tomé de Sousa, who in 1549 founded the city of Bahia(known at the time as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos - Holy Saviour of the Bay of All Saints).
John's ancestors in three generationsAhnentafel4
1. John III of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal
3. Maria of Aragon
Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu
5. Beatriz of Portugal
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Isabella of Castile
Edward of Portugal
9. Leonor of Aragon
Infante João of Portugal
Isabella of Braganza
John II of Aragon
John II of Castile
15. Isabel of Portugal
Death and succession
From 1539, the heir to the throne was John, prince of Portugal, who married
Joan of Spain, daughter of Charles V. But Prince John was a sickly child (and the sole son of John III to survive childhood) and died young (of tuberculosis), when the princess was giving birth to Prince Sebastian in January 1554. When John III died of apoplexyin 1557, only heir was his grandson, Sebastian, who was just three years old.
To this day, John's body rests in the Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon.
Like his predecessors John used the style "El-rei" (the king) followed by "Dom" (abbreviated to D.), a mark of high esteem for a distinguished
The official style was the same used by his father Manuel I: "Dom João, by the grace of
God, King of Portugal, of the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea, & of the Conquest, Navigation, & Commerceof Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, & India" ("Dom João, por graça de Deus, Rei de Portugal, e dos Algarves, d'aquém e d'além mar em África, Senhor da Guiné, e da Conquista, Navegação, & Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, & Índia"). This style would only change in the 19th century when Brazil became a Vice-Kingdom.
* Serrão, Joel (dir.) (1971). Dicionário da História de Portugal, Vol. II. Lisboa: Iniciativas Editoriais
* Domingues, Mário (1962). D. João III O Homem e a Sua Época. Lisboa: Edição Romano Torres
* Serrão, Joaquim Veríssimo (1978). História de Portugal, Vol. III. Lisboa: Verbo
* Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). História de Portugal, Vol. III.Círculo de Leitores
* Paulo Drummond Braga, D. João III (Lisbon: Hugin, 2002) is the most recent and best biography.
* Cambridge History of Latin America, ed. Leslie Bethell (Cambridge, 1984): chapter by Harold Johnson for the early history of Brasil.
* Alexandre Herculano, História da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisição em Portugal, 3 vols. (Lisbon, 1879-80) for the negotiations leading to the creation of the Inquisition.
History of Portugal
Kings of Portugal
Timeline of Portuguese history
Portugal in the period of discoveries
History of Europe
* [http://www.icm.gov.mo/RC/TextPE.asp?No=6&ID=387 Cultural Affairs Bureau of Macao S.A.R.] - The Portuguese Settlement at Macao (Portuguese and English)
* [http://www.companhia-jesus.pt/intro/hist_port.htm The Society of Jesus in Portugal] (in Portuguese)
* [http://www.foriente.pt/ Orient Foundation in Portugal]
* [http://www.timelines.info/history/empires_and_civilizations/portuguese_empire/ Portuguese Empire Timeline]
* [http://www.city.kobe.jp/cityoffice/57/museum/meihin/5_namban/046.html Japanese Screen Painting of the Portuguese in the Indies] (Enlarge)
* [http://www.colonialvoyage.com/ Dutch Portuguese Colonial History] Dutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil. Language Heritage, lists of remains, maps.
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/COLONIES.html#Portuguese Current and Former Colonies and Possessions of Portugual from World Statesmen]
* [http://purl.pt/711/1/ The Portuguese and the East] (in Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese and Thai) with English introduction.
* [http://www.noscafora.be/pt/ Portuguese monuments and history]
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