- Barbados Programme of Action
The United Nations Programme of Action on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, popularly referred to as the Barbados Program of Action (BPOA), is a policy document that both: comprehensively addresses the economic, environmental, and social developmental vulnerabilities facing islands; and outlines a strategy that seeks to mitigate those vulnerabilities. It remains the only internationally approved programme specific to
Small Island Developing States(SIDS) which has been collectively and unanimously endorsed by SIDS.
Development of the BPOA
The full text of the BPOA was produced in
Bridgetown, Barbadosin 1994 at the first Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island States, a conference mandated by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 47/189. The need for an islands specific conference was highlighted some two years prior at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( Earth Summit), held in Rio de Janeirowhere 179 governments voted to adopt Agenda 21. Chapter 17, section G of Agenda 21acknowledges that "small island developing states are a special case both for environment and development ... [and] are considered extremely vulnerable to global warming and sealevel rise."
In 1999, the General Assembly of the UN held a special session to appraise five years of progress on the implementation of the BPOA (BPOA +5). The Assembly recognized progress as 'uneven' and identified key trends including increasing
globalization, widening inequalities in income and a continued deterioration of the global environment. A new General Assembly Resolution (S-22/2) promised further action.
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, agreed to at the
World Summit on Sustainable Development( Earth Summit 2002) affirmed UN commitment to 'full implementation' of Agenda 21, alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, the BPOA, and other international agreements. To this end, it recommended the convening of an International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. Upon receipt of the recommendation, the General Assembly of the UN passed Resolutions 57/262 and 58/213, which mandated an International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States to take place. The meeting was held in Port Louis, Mauritiusbetween January 10-14, 2005. The final report emerging from this meeting significantly revised the original BPOA, and verified what previous reviews were alluding to, that the implementation of the BPOA had been largely unsuccessful. What emerged from it was a reorganising of the Programs "priority areas" and an entrenched commitment to the notion that economic growth would ultimately contribute to sustainable development.
* [http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21text.htm Agenda 21 text] .
* [http://worldinbalance.net/agreements/1992-rio-agenda21.html Easy-to-read version of Agenda 21] at the Center for a World in Balance.
* [http://www.sidsnet.org/docshare/other/BPOA.pdf] , the final Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (BPOA).
* [http://www.sidsnet.org/docshare/other/20050622163242_English.pdf] , the final Report of the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (BPOA +10).
* [http://www.sidsnet.org/] , the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs sponsored website providing a global network for small island developing States.
* [http://www.sidsnet.org/aosis/index.html] , official website for the
Alliance of Small Island States.
* [http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12117&URL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE&URL_SECTION=201.html] , a summary of the path "From Barbados to Mauritius" provided by UNESCO.
* [http://www.geol.utas.edu.au/isisa/ International Small Islands Studies Association]
Open accessscholarly journal of Island Studies]
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