Higher education in New Brunswick


Higher education in New Brunswick

Higher education in New Brunswick (also referred to as postsecondary education) refers to education provided by higher education institutions in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Higher education has a rich history in New Brunswick, including the first English-speaking university in Canada, University of New Brunswick, [University of New Brunswick. (n.d.). "Historical Sketch of UNB.". Retrieved August 12, 2008 from http://www.unb.ca/welcome/historical_sketch.html] and the first university in the British Empire to have awarded a baccalaureate to a woman, Grace Annie Lockhart, B.Sc., in 1875 at Mount Allison University. [ Mount Allison University. (n.d.). " About Mount Allison." Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.mta.ca/about.html] Education is the responsibility of the provinces in Canada and there is no federal ministry governing it. The governing body for education in New Brunswick is the Department of Post Secondary Education, Training and Labour, headed by the Minister of Post Secondary Education, Training and Labour, the Honourable Ed Doherty. New Brunswick has four public and three private chartered universities, only four of which are authorized to grant degrees under the Degree Granting Act, and one community college, the New Brunswick Community College.

History

American Revolution to Canadian Confederation

University of New Brunswick

Loyalists who settled in Nova Scotia who had been involved with American higher education, most notably Charles Inglis of King's College, New York; Benjamin Moore; and Jonathan Odell, drew up a plan for the future education of their sons in Nova Scotia. [Harris R.S. (1966). "Changing patterns of higher education in Canada" University of Toronto Press] [Blupete. (2000). "Historical Biographies, Nova Scotia: Charles Inglis (1734-1816)." Retrieved on August 16, 2008 from http://www.blupete.com/Hist/BiosNS/1800-67/Inglis.htm] One result was the creation of King’s College in 1789 in Windsor, Nova Scotia.University of King's College (n.d.). "History." Retrieved on July 05, 2008 from http://www.ukings.ca/kings_2879.html] Prior to this, and a year after New Brunswick became a province (pre-Confederation) in 1784, was the founding in Fredericton of the Academy of Arts and Science, which would transform into the College of New Brunswick in 1800, King's College in 1828, when it granted its first degrees, and finally the non-denominational University of New Brunswick in 1859. [The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). "University of New Brunswick.". Retrieved August 16, 2008 http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008254]

Mount Allison University

In June 1839, Charles Allison proposed to the Wesleyan Methodists that a school of elementary and higher learning be built. His offer to purchase a site in Sackville, to erect a suitable building for an academy, and to contribute operating funds of £100 a year for 10 years was accepted and the Wesleyan Academy for boys, which was later elevated to the status of a University, was opened in 1843. [Bourinot, J.G.(1881). "The Intellectual Development of the Canadian People, A historical review", House of Commons, Ottawa Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/tlctd10.txt] In 1854, a girls' institution (later known as the "Ladies College") was opened as a branch institution to complement the boys' academy. By 1858, both had attained degree-granting status and were referred to as Mount Allison College. [The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). "Mount Allison University." Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0005477] Mount Allison Wesleyan College was established in 1862 with degree-granting powers on behalf of the other Academies and the first two students, Howard Sprague and Josiah Wood, graduated in May 1863. [The Directory of Canadian Universities. (n.d.). "Mount Allison University" Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.aucc.ca/can_uni/our_universities/mt_allison_e.html] Mount Allison was the first university in the British Empire to confer a Bachelor's degree to a woman in 1875, (Grace Annie Lockhart, B.Sc.) [ Mount Allison University. (n.d.). " About Mount Allison." Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.mta.ca/about.html] and the first university in Canada to grant a Bachelor of Arts degree to a woman in 1882, (Harriet Starr Stewart, B.A.). [ Semple, N. (1996). "The Lord's Dominion: The History of Canadian Methodism." McGill-Queen's Press, p. 253.] For nearly a century, Mount Allison functioned as three distinct, mutually enriching parts: the College proper, which became the University of Mount Allison College in 1886. [The Directory of Canadian Universities. (n.d.). "Mount Allison University" Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.aucc.ca/can_uni/our_universities/mt_allison_e.html] , the Boys' Academy and the Ladies College, the later two closing in 1953 and 1946 respectively. [Mount Allison University: Human Resources. (n.d.). "Mount Allison and our Campus: HISTORICAL SKETCH" Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.mta.ca/hr/employment/mount_allison.htm]

At the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, representatives from the British North America colonies - Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada - gathered to discuss Confederation. In 1867, the British North America Act, 1867 was passed by the British government and then given the Queen's assent. It established Confederation and outlined division of responsibility between the provincial and federal governments in several areas, including education. [The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). "Confederation.". Retrieved August 16, 2008 http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0001842]

Into the twentieth century

t. Thomas University

An institution called St. Thomas College was established in 1910 by Reverend Thomas F. Barry, Bishop of Chatham, in Chatham, New Brunswick, to provide education for secondary and junior college level male students. Until 1934, St. Thomas College remained a High School and Junior College, but in that year, it became a degree-granting institution upon receipt of its University Charter from the provincial legislature of New Brunswick. [Harris R.S. (1966). "Changing patterns of higher education in Canada" University of Toronto Press] St. Thomas College changed to St. Thomas University in 1960 and in 1961, the high school courses were removed from the curriculum. In 1962, St. Thomas entered into a federation with the University of New Brunswick and by 1964, relocated its campus to Fredericton. To avoid duplicate services, the two universities share each other’s libraries and St. Thomas students have access to UNB’s scientific, cultural, and athletic facilities. [St. Thomas University. (n.d.). " St. Thomas University’s History.". Retrieved August 16, 2008 http://w3.stu.ca/stu/about/history/history.aspx]

University of Moncton/Université de Moncton

Universite de Moncton, a francophone university, was formed in 1963 as an initial amalgamation of three colleges: the Collège Saint-Joseph, the Collège du Sacré-Coeur de Bathurst, and the Collège Saint-Louis d'Edmundston after the recommendations of a Royal Commission On Higher Education. [The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). "Université de Moncton.". Retrieved August 16, 2008 http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008236]

New Brunswick Community College

In 1973, the New Brunswick Community College (NBCC) was established with a mandateTo provide post-secondary non-university education throughout the Province. The opportunity to regionally train students on emerging occupations was also recognized. [New Brunswick Community College. (2005). "Modernizing the New Brunswick Community College A Discussion Paper." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/0105/NBCCDiscussionPaperEnglish.pdf.] In 1980, its corporate structure would be replaced by a governmental one with the creation of the Department of Continuing Education, later renamed the Department of Community Colleges. It now has nine locations throughout New Brunswick and serves both the anglophone and francophone communities. [Brown, S.A. "New Brunswick. " in Jones, G.A. (1997). "Higher Education in Canada: Different Systems, Different Perspectives." Taylor & Francis] The 1993 Commission on Excellence in Education recommended NBCC be established as a crown-owned corporation, and in 1996, it was restructured as a Special Operating Agency (SOA) so as to operate in a more business-like manner and gain more financial and administrative independence. [New Brunswick Community College. (2005). "Modernizing the New Brunswick Community College A Discussion Paper." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/0105/NBCCDiscussionPaperEnglish.pdf.]

In 1991, the Department of Advanced Education and Training, which had been created in 1985, was merged with the department of Labour to become the Department of Advanced Education and Labour. [Brown, S.A. "New Brunswick. " in Jones, G.A. (1997). "Higher Education in Canada: Different Systems, Different Perspectives." Taylor & Francis] This would again split in 1998 into the Department of Labour and the Department of Education, the latter absorbing the responsibilities of the Department of Advanced Education. [Landal Inc. (2002). "Comprehensive Training Needs Assessment for Literacy in New Brunswick." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.nald.ca/library/research/landal/english/nbneedse.pdf]

Twenty-first century developments

New Brunswick adopted the Degree Granting Act in 2001, which allowed private for-profit institutions to confer university degrees. [Government of New Brunswick. (2001). "Degree Granting Act", S.N.B. c. D-5.3. Retrieved on August 19, 2008 from http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/sta/d-5.3/20030912/whole.html] The Act provides for evaluation of the quality of programs that lead to a degree offered by all public and private institutions in New Brunswick. [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (n.d.). "Postsecondary Education in New Brunswick" Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.36.37] There are currently three institutions that have been designated to offer specific degrees through that legislation. They include Lansbridge University, which was founded in 1999 and provides on-line business degrees; [Lansbridge University. (n.d.). "Frequently Asked Questions." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.lansbridge.edu/content/index.php] Yorkville University,which was established in 2003 and offers a combination of on-line and on-site degrees; [Yorkville University. (n.d.). "Frequently Asked Questions." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.yorkvilleu.ca/resources/frequently-asked-questions/] and the University of Fredericton, which now provides certificate and graduate degree programs in business leadership. [ University of Fredericton. (n.d.). " Mission Statement, Objectives and Goals." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.universityfredericton.ca/about.html]

Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Act was passed in 2005. [Government of New Brunswick. (2001). " Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission Act", N.B. Reg. 2005-6. Retrieved on August 19, 2008 from http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/regu/2005r.6/20070410/whole.html] Ratified by the Council of Maritime Premiers, the act defined the mandate of the Commission as both improving and providing the best possible service to students as life-long learners in the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. [Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission. (n.d.). "Mandate." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.mphec.ca/english/about.html]

The Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour (PETL), which had undergone numerous name changes and departmental mergers over the past years, launched the Commission on Post-Secondary Education in 2007 to make recommendations that would help to make the post-secondary education and training system more accessible, collaborative, competitive, and relevant. [Commission on Post-Secondary Education in New Brunswick. (2007). "Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour Commission on Post-Secondary Education." Retrieved August 19, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/cpse-ceps/index-e.asp]

tructure

Governance

The higher education system in New Brunswick includes the governing Ministry of Postsecondary Education Training and Labour, related agencies, boards, and commissions, as well as public charted universities, private charted universities, universities recognized under the degree granting act, public colleges, and other institutions such as private career colleges. [Government of New Brunswick. (n.d.). "Post-Secondary Education." Retrieved on September 10, 2008, from http://www.gnb.ca/0105/ps/index-e.asp] The Post-Secondary Education Division of the Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour is “…responsible for the smooth operation of post-secondary branches including, Literacy, Student Financial Services, New Brunswick TeleEducation, New Brunswick Public Library Service, Connect NB and Post-Secondary Affairs.” [Government of New Brunswick. (n.d.). "Post Secondary Education (Division)." Retrieved on September 10, 2008, from http://app.infoaa.7700.gnb.ca/gnb/pub/DetailOrgEng1.asp?OrgID1=2977&Keyword1=&DeptID1=61]

Universities are independently-administered institutions with full autonomy over admissions and all other academic matters. New Brunswick provides funding to four public universities. Private universities do not receive government funding. In addition, the governing bodies of the eleven New Brunswick Community Colleges include provincial government representatives. [International Association of Universities, World Higher Education Database. (n.d.). "Canada (New Brunswick / Nouveau-Brunswick) - Education system." Retrieved on May 20, 2008, from http://www.unesco.org/iau/onlinedatabases]

Degree Granting Act

In 2001, New Brunswick adopted the Degree Granting Act [Government of New Brunswick. (2001)."Degree Granting Act", N.B. Reg. 2001-9. Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/regu/2001r.9/20060310/whole.html] , allowing private for-profit institutions to confer university degrees. To date, only one institution, Lansbridge University, has been designated to confer the Master of Business Administration degree. [Government of New Brunswick. (n.d.)."Degree Granting Act." Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/0105/ps/dga-e.asp]

Higher education institutions

Other specialized institutions

*The New Brunswick Community College has eleven campuses which provide non-university-degree training programs for existing and emerging occupations while also supporting adult basic education; each campus is designated as English (6) or French (5) according to the predominant language of the region. The campuses offer a multiplicity of programmes (technical and vocational, apprenticeship, general interest, academic upgrading, community service), full-time or part-time, both on and off campus, ranging from 20-100 weeks. [New Brunswick Community College. (n.d.)."College Information." Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.nbcc.ca/content/?id=529]
*The Maritime College of Forest Technology, renamed from The Maritime Forest Ranger School in 2003, began in 1946, as a co-operative effort of the provincial governments of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and the wood-using industries of the two provinces. The francophone program in Bathurst was started in 1982. Present facilities at the Fredericton Campus were completed in 1986. The objective of the College is to produce competent forest technologists for service with private, industrial or public (government) forestry or natural resource organizations. The program is officially recognized by the Society of American Foresters, and the Association of Registered Professional Foresters of New Brunswick. [Maritime College of Forest Technology. (n.d.)."About Us." Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.mcft.ca/about_us.htm]

Private Occupational Training Act

Besides various government-support from pre-employment, apprenticeship and other vocational programmes, there are also about 65 private training organizations [Government of New Brunswick. (2008)."LIST OF PRIVATE OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING ORGANIZATIONS REGISTERED UNDER THE NEW BRUNSWICK PRIVATE OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING ACT." Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/0368/pota-lst.pdf] operating in New Brunswick which are required to register under the Private Occupational Training Act. [Government of New Brunswick. (2002)."Private Occupational Training Act", N.B. Reg. 84-207. Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.canlii.org/nb/laws/regu/2001r.9/20060310/whole.html] Private sector programs that are considered enhance employment in some form must register programs/courses and instructors in accordance with the Act and its Regulation. Examples of training at post-secondary levels include Dental Assisting, Massage therapy, Truck Driving, Cosmetology, Travel & Tourism, Business Education and Computer related programs. [Government of New Brunswick. (n.d.)."Private Occupational Training." Retrieved on September 10, 2008 from http://www.gnb.ca/0368/index-e.asp]

Associations

Association of Atlantic Universities (AAU)

Established in 1964, the Association of Atlantic Universities is a voluntary association of the 17 universities in the Atlantic region and in the West Indies which offer programmes leading to a degree or have degree-granting status. One of the fundamental roles of the association is to create greater awareness and understanding of the important contribution of universities to the social and economic development of the Atlantic Provinces. The Association's business is conducted by the AAU Council, which consists of the executive heads of all the member institutions. The AAU currently meets two times a year and is served by a permanent secretariat. The activities of the Association are funded principally through annual membership fees based on the operating income of the member institutions. [Association of Atlantic Universities (n.d.). "About AAU." Retrieved on September 9, 2008 from http://atlanticuniversities.ca/AbsPage.aspx?siteid=1&lang=1&id=2]

Council of Atlantic Ministers of Education and Training (CAMET)

The Atlantic ministers responsible for education and training signed an agreement in April 2004 under which the provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island agreed to collaborate on joint undertakings to respond to the needs identified in public and post-secondary education. CAMET is dedicated to further enhancing the level of cooperation in public and post-secondary education by working on common issues to improve learning for all Atlantic Canadians, optimize efficiencies and bring added value to provincial initiatives and priorities. [Council of Atlantic Ministers of Education and Training (n.d.). "Home page." Retrieved on September 9, 2008 from http://www.camet-camef.ca/default.asp?mn=1.19.22]

Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission (MPHEC)

The MPHEC was created in 1974 to assist Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and their institutions in attaining a more efficient and effective utilization and allocation of higher education resources. It provides quality assurance, data and information sharing, cooperative action, and regional programmes as well as specific services to one or more provinces or institutions as agreed to by the Ministers of Education. [Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission. (n.d.). "Mandate." Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://www.mphec.ca/english/about.html]

Funding

Post secondary education funding formula

Funding for Higher Education in New Brunswick is based upon two methods: Unrestricted Operating Assistance and Restricted Operating Assistance. Unrestricted Operating Assistance represents approximately 95 percent of total operating assistance to New Brunswick’s four public universities, with Restricted Operating Assistance representing the balance. The Department of Education is responsible for determining the final allocation of funding. Unrestricted grants are allocated as a Flat Grant (75 percent is based on historical funding) and Enrollment Grant 25 percent - based on weighted FTE and three year rolling average. Restricted purpose grants are a small part of overall funding and generally are institution specific or allocated based on share of Operating Grant. Capital funding is project based. [NZ Parliamentary Library. (2006). "Higher Education Funding - Overseas Models." Background Note. Retrieved on May 20, 2008 from http://www.parliament.nz/NR/rdonlyres/5694EE99-CA9E-499C-9E94-E40F1B114354/40871/0605HigherEducationFundingpdf2.pdf]

Tuition

Tuition at New Brunswick post secondary institutions are set by the individual institutions, in consultation with government.

Access

Participation rates

Participation in post-secondary education in the Maritimes is higher than the national average, with approximately a 28% participation rate in New Brunswick (NB), while Canada as a whole hovers around 20-26%; this can be partly attributed to the high enrolment of out-of-province students who choose to attend postsecondary studies in New Brunswick. The university participation rate in New Brunswick has continued to increase between 2005/06 and 2006/07; but this change can mainly be attributed to the Francophone population of New Brunswick. While participation rates are higher than the national average, the population of 18-24 year olds in NB and the rest of the Maritime provinces are predicted to decline greater than the rest of Canada; undergraduate participation peaked in New Brunswick in 2003/04 and in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia during the 2004/05 academic session. Between 1990 and 2000, the number of 18-24 year olds has dropped 13% in the Maritimes while the rest of Canada dropped less than 1%. Some of the factors leading to a decline in postsecondary participation in NB include: a strong economy that encourages students to enter the labor force early; and an out-migration of students from the Maritime Provinces (NB, NS, PEI). [Maritime Provinces Education Commission. (2007). "Surveying the Enrolment Landscape: Factors and Trends in Maritime University Enrolment 2000-2001 to 2006-2007." Retrieved September 10, 2008 from http://www2.mphec.ca/english/pdfs/TrendsSurveyingen.pdf]

Mobility patterns

Over the past number of years (1997-2007), approximately one in seven New Brunswickers have left their home province to go to university in another province. A 2002 report, by the Maritimes Province Higher Education Commission has shown that "after graduation, while male residents do tend to leave at greater rates than female residents from New Brunswick, the gap is not statistically significant one year after graduation." It has been shown that the majority of those leaving the province are leaving to find a job. [Maritime Provinces Education Commission.(2002)."Who Stays and Who Leaves: Mobility Patterns of Maritime University Graduates, Class of 1996 in 1997 and 2000." Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www2.mphec.ca/english/pdfs/TrendsV12002E.pdf]

Mechanisms to facilitate transfer and articulation

In the past, New Brunswick had an on-line transfer system that focused on transfers between New Brunswick’s two public postsecondary systems (community colleges and public universities). The New Brunswick Community College (NBCC) has had a "policy in place since 1994 to allow, where academically appropriate, credit transferability of courses, programs, or units of instruction that have been taken at approved public and private postsecondary institutions." [Council of Ministers of Education. (2003). "Provincial Postsecondary Systems and Arrangements for Credit Transfer." Retrieved on May 20, 2008 from http://www.cmec.ca/postsec/CreditTransfer.en.pdf] "The two public postsecondary systems have also developed articulation agreements for applied degree programs. There are a number of agreements for block transfer of credits within different programs of these institutions." In order to support students through this process, each institution has appointed a representative to assist in their transfer of credits. [Council of Ministers of Education. (2003). "Provincial Postsecondary Systems and Arrangements for Credit Transfer." Retrieved on May 20, 2008 from http://www.cmec.ca/postsec/CreditTransfer.en.pdf]

Millennium Access Bursaries in New Brunswick

The Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation was established in 2005 to provide support to students with demonstrated financial need. The millennium access bursaries have been distributed in the form of grants to single, dependent, low-income students. There are two groups of eligible students: those who began post-secondary studies during the 2005/06 academic year, and those who are began studies in 2006/07. Millennium access bursaries are not available to students who have enrolled after the end of the 2006/07 academic year. Eligible students were able to receive a $1,000 grant in their first year of study, $2,200 in the second year, and $1,800 in the third. Students must have been enrolled full-time in undergraduate studies that lead to a degree, certificate or diploma in a program of at least two years in length. [Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation (n.d.). "Millennium Access Bursaries - New Brunswick, Eligibility Criteria." Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www.millenniumscholarships.ca/en/programs/RulesNB.asp] Those students who applied for financial assistance from New Brunswick Student Financial Services were considered automatically for the grant. [Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation (n.d.). "Millennium Access Bursaries in New Brunswick." Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www.millenniumscholarships.ca/en/programs/accesNB.asp]

Distance higher education

All universities and colleges in New Brunswick are currently offering distance education courses using various methods. One private degree-granting institution operates completely online and there is substantial focus on the development of Internet-based postsecondary education. [World Higher Education Database. Retrieved on May 20, 2008, from http://www.unesco.org/iau/onlinedatabases/]

ee also

*Higher education in Canada
*List of universities in Canada
*List of colleges in Canada

References


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