Higher education in Manitoba


Higher education in Manitoba

Higher education in Manitoba traces the development and expansion of higher education (also described as post-secondary or tertiary level education) in the Canadian province of Manitoba. In Canada, education is a provincial concern and there is no national regulation nor accrediting body.

Manitoba was the first western territory to join confederation and the first to establish a university. The city of Winnipeg, is the sole large population centre of the province. Of Manitoba's 1.15 million people, over 175,000 are self-identified as Aboriginal. Just over 10% of the total population holds a at least a bachelor's Degree. [ Statistics Canada. (2008). "2006 census data products". Retrieved May 28, 2008, from http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data]

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History

Establishment of a one-university system

The University of Manitoba was founded in 1877 under the University of Manitoba Act [ [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/u060e.php "University of Manitoba Act", C.C.S.M. c. U60. Retrieved on July 15, 2008] ] , only seven years after the province of Manitoba and four years after the city of Winnipeg were created. University of Manitoba granted its first degrees in 1880. cite web|url = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm |title = The Canadian Encyclopedia |accessdate = 2008-06-15PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0003528] It was modelled after the University of London on the principle of a “one-university” system, or a federation of denominational colleges. This model was proposed to counteract sectarian conflicts developing to the east in their post-secondary systems. [Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives" (pp.115-136). New York: Garland.]

The original role of the University of Manitoba was to examine and confer degrees on students graduating from its three founding affiliated colleges--St. Boniface College (Roman Catholic); St John's (Anglican) and Manitoba College (Presbyterian). [ [http://umanitoba.ca/about/ourstory.html Our History: The First Years (n.d.). "Our History: The First Years." Retrieved on July 15, 2008] ] Consolidating other institutions was intended to strengthen the smaller, financially insecure institutions. Later, Methodist Wesley College and Brandon College joined the federation as well as other colleges.cite web|url = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm |title = The Canadian Encyclopedia |accessdate = 2008-06-15PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008242]

With increasing demand for a science curriculum and influence from other post-secondary systems, in 1892 the University of Manitoba Act was amended to allow the university to instruct teachers. In 1900, a faculty of science was formally established and in 1904, a generous donation made possible the appointments of five professors. By 1920, the University of Manitoba offered a wide range of undergraduate programs and several professional schools (Harris, 1976). [Harris, R.S. (1976). "A history of higher education in Canada: 1663-1960". Toronto: University of Toronto Press.]

Community of colleges

In 1967, Manitoba’s public policy of a one-university system ended with the establishment of the University of Winnipeg (formerly United College) and Brandon University (formerly Brandon College) under the Universities Establishment Act. [Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives" (pp.115-136). New York: Garland.] As colleges, these two institutions had been affiliated with the University of Manitoba until their incorporation as universities. The universities are currently governed by the The University of Winnipeg Act [ [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/u070e.php "The University of Winnipeg Act", C.C.S.M. c. U70. Retrieved on July 15, 2008] ] and the The Brandon University Act [ [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/b090e.php "The Brandon University Act", C.C.S.M. c. B90. Retrieved on July 15, 2008] ] respectively.

The remaining colleges still affiliated with the University of Manitoba continued developing under the new concept of a ”Community of Colleges”. [Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives" (pp.115-136). New York: Garland.] Arts and science teaching functions were taken over by the University of Manitoba, and the colleges lost control over eligibility requirements to teach and study. This solved the classical colleges’ financial concerns regarding the provision of more expensive science-oriented curricula and allowed them to concentrate on theological studies and an interdisciplinary collegial environment. At the same time, this concept allowed the University to respond to cultural diversity in the province, yet honour long-standing historical relationships with the colleges. ["ibid"]

Special arrangements were made with the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface due to its specific language and cultural mission. The Collège universitaire retained public funding and some administrative autonomy, including the appointment of faculty. It is answerable directly to the University of Manitoba Senate on academic matters. ["ibid"]

Other special arrangements include those made with Ukrainian Orthodox St. Andrew's College [ [http://webapps.cc.umanitoba.ca/calendar08/colleges/andrews.asp St. Andrew's College (n.d.). "University of Manitoba Colleges." Retrieved on May 15, 2008] ] , which jointly sponsors a Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies with the University, which, although not formally linked as an institution, is located on its campus. [ [http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/ukrainian_canadian/newsletter/index.html Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies (n.d.). "Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies." Retrieved on May 15, 2008] ] Approved Teaching Centres have also been created to teach specific courses, approved by the University, which are offered by other denominational colleges. These approved courses may be applied towards a Bachelor degree at the University of Manitoba. [ [http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/ukrainian_canadian/index.html The Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies (n.d.). "The Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies." Retrieved on July 15, 2008] ]

Today, the University of Manitoba enrols approximately 27,000 students--24,000 undergraduates and 3,000 graduates. The University of Manitoba offers the most comprehensive selection of degree programs, including professional and graduate, of any university in the province. In all, eighty-two degree programs are offered, fifty-one at the undergraduate level. It contributes $1.2 billion to the social and economic fabric of the province in annual economic activity. [ [http://umanitoba.ca/about/numbers_notes/ University of Manitoba (2008). "Numbers & notes". Retrieved May 19, 2008] ]

Missions of the universities

The mission of the University of Manitoba is to “create, preserve and communicate knowledge, and thereby, contribute to the cultural, social and economic well-being of the people of Manitoba, Canada and the world.” [ [http://umanitoba.ca/mission.html University of Manitoba. (2008). "Mission statement". Retrieved May 19, 2008] ] The university aims not only to be the premier Western Canadian university, but to “be respected for our knowledge of the world and for our understanding of the complexities of our Prairie region in its cultural, socioeconomic and scientific dimensions, which we will articulate according to international standards of science and scholarship. We will be recognized for our centrality in the development of Manitoba's knowledge-based society in a knowledge-based global economy.” [ [http://umanitoba.ca/mission.html University of Manitoba. (2008). "Mission statement". Retrieved May 19, 2008] ]

The mission of the University of Winnipeg is to offer students "breadth and depth of knowledge, the skills to communicate effectively and to make informed decisions, an understanding of the ethical problems facing our society, and an appreciation of the full range of human, aesthetic and environmental values." [ [http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/index/hr-mission University of Winnipeg. (2008). "The university of Winnipeg mission statement". Retrieved May 27, 2008] ]

The mission of Brandon University is "to shape the whole person and enable students to make a positive difference as citizens and leaders." [ [http://www.brandonu.ca/administration/president/aboutBU Brandon University. (2008). "BU vision/mission statement". Retrieved May 27, 2008] ]

tructure and governance

There are currently three public universities in Manitoba: the Universities of Manitoba and of Winnipeg, and Brandon University. Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface is affiliated with the University of Manitoba but retains some administrative autonomy and answers directly to the University Senate.

The public universities have instituted a bicameral system. The University of Manitoba and Brandon University have a Board of Governors, which looks after finance and the physical plant, and a Senate, which takes charge of academic matters. The University of Winnipeg has a Board of Regents instead of a Board of Governors.

Three public colleges were founded through the federal Vocational Training Co-ordination Act of 1942. Those institutions are now known as: Red River College (formerly Red River Community College), Assiniboine Community College, and University College of the North (formerly Keewatin Community College). The École technique et professionnelle is also publicly funded (MAEL [http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/colleges.html] , 2008). [Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. (2008). "Post-secondary institutions". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/colleges.html] These colleges were largely dependent on federal funding targeted at occupational training and so undertook a vocational mandate. [Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives" (pp.115-136). New York: Garland.]

Public and private denominational colleges are established by the Lieutenant Governor in Council and have been governed by the [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c150-1e.php Colleges and Consequential Amendments Act] since 1991. The Act provides for a Board of Governors to run each college, thereby allowing greater institutional autonomy than the previous centralized system (Dennison & Gallagher, 1986. [Dennison, J.D., & Gallagher, P. (1986). "Canada’s community colleges: A critical analysis". Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press] ;Sheffield, Campbell, Holmes, Kymlicka, & Whitelaw, 1978. [Sheffield, E., Campbell, D.D., Holmes, J., Kymlicka, B.B., & Whitelaw, J.H. (1978). "Systems of higher education: Canada". New York: International Council for Educational Development] ). The mandate of the Act is “to enhance the economic and social well-being of Manitoba through the provision of a broad range of educational opportunities” (Manitoba Laws [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c150-1e.php] , 2008). [Manitoba Laws. (2008). "The Colleges and Consequential Amendments Act". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c150-1e.php]

[http://www.rrc.mb.ca Red River College] is located in Winnipeg and offers more than ninety certificate and diploma programs in applied arts and sciences, technology, and trades. The smaller [http://public.assiniboine.net Assiniboine Community College] in Brandon offers certificate and diploma programs in trades, business, nursing, and agricultural training. The [http://www.ustboniface.mb.ca/etp/index.shtml École technique et professionnelle] is the only francophone college in the province, and is operated under the [http://www.ustboniface.mb.ca Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface] . It offers courses in business, computing, early childhood education, nursing, and tourism.

[https://www.ucn.ca University College of the North] is Manitoba’s newest post-secondary institution, established in 2004. It grants degrees, diplomas, and certificates in academic, trades, technology, vocational, and literacy training programs. It also offers transition and preparatory programs for under-prepared students. Several campuses in northern Manitoba serve the educational needs of First Nations and other residents of this vast geographical area. A Governing Council runs the University College and is advised by a Council of Elders. The mission of the University College is “to ensure northern communities and people will have opportunities, knowledge and skills to contribute to an economically, environmentally, and culturally healthy society inclusive and respectful of diverse Northern and Aboriginal values and beliefs.” The core values of justice, respect, generosity, excellence and education, honesty and integrity, privacy, and stewardship are emphasized in a Code of Ethics (UCN [https://www.ucn.ca/ics/Welcome/The_UCN_Community.jnz] , 2008). [University College of the North. (2008). "About UCN". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from https://www.ucn.ca/ics/Welcome/The_UCN_Community.jnz]

[http://www.cmu.ca Canadian Mennonite University] is the one private university in Manitoba and offers degrees in the arts, music, music therapy, theology, and church ministries. It is an amalgamation of three colleges: Mennonite Brethren Bible College/Concord College (established in 1944), Canadian Mennonite Bible College (1947), and Menno Simons College (1989). In 1998, the government proclaimed a new charter for the creation of a university-level, degree-granting federation of Mennonite colleges. The Mennonite College Federation (now Canadian Mennonite University) began offering joint academic programs in 1999 (CMU, 2008) [Canadian Mennonite University. (2008). "The story of CMU". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.cmu.ca/who_3.html] . The three current owners of the University (Mennonite Church Canada, Mennonite Brethren Church of Manitoba, Friends of Menno Simons College) elect or appoint people to a Council, from which members of an integrated Board of Governors are elected (CMU, 2008) [Canadian Mennonite University. (2008). "CMU magazine". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.cmu.ca/magazine/fall03/pres03.html] .

Other private denominational institutions include Providence College and Seminary, William & Catherine Booth College, and Steinbach Bible College.

Private vocational institutions in Manitoba are registered under the [http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/p137e.php Private Vocational Institutions Act] and Manitoba Regulation 237/02. The Act “provides consumer protection and ensures that the training provides a person with skills and knowledge required to pursue employment in their chosen field” (MAEL [http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/privoc.html] , 2008). [Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. (2008). "Post-secondary institutions". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/privoc.html]

Funding

The Universities Grants Commission was established in 1967 under the Universities Establishment Act. It acts as a semi-autonomous intermediary between post-secondary institutions and the provincial government to advise government on the financial needs of institutions, distribute annual grants authorized by the legislature to public institutions and private denominational institutions, and coordinate program and policy development (MAEL [http://www.copse.mb.ca/en/index.html] , 2008). [Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. (2008). "Council on Post-Secondary Education". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.copse.mb.ca/en/index.html] The Universities Grants Commission is now known as the [http://www.copse.mb.ca/en/index.html Council on Post-Secondary Education] (COPSE).

The University of Manitoba Act of 1877 provided for a modest annual provincial grant of $250 (Morton, 1957). [Morton, W.L. (1957). "One university: A history of the university of Manitoba 1877-1952". Toronto: McClelland and Stewart] . In 2006-2007, COPSE allocated $314.9 million in block funding to the Universities of Manitoba and of Winnipeg, Brandon University, Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface, and the University College of the North. In addition, $4.8 million was allocated to the private denominational institutions of Canadian Mennonite University, Providence College and Seminary, William and Catherine Booth College, and the Steinbach Bible College. $66.9 million was provided to the public colleges of Red River College, Assiniboine Community College, and the École technique et professionnelle. $0.6 million was allocated to the private Winnipeg Technical College (MAEL [http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ar_ael_0607/parta.pdf] , 2008). [Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. (2008). "Annual report 2006-2007". Retrieved May 19, 2008, fromhttp://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ar_ael_0607/parta.pdf]

In 2006-2007, the University of Manitoba had a General Operating Budget of $406.2 million dollars. The province provided $237.8 million through COPSE as well as an additional $36.6 million. The federal government provided $71.3 million. Tuition fees provided another $101.3 million, leaving a shortfall which was provided by donations, investments, NGO grants, sales of goods and services, and other ancillary services (University of Manitoba [http://umanitoba.ca/publications/reports/annual_report07/annual_report07.pdf] , 2008). [University of Manitoba. (2008). "Annual report 2006-2007". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://umanitoba.ca/publications/reports/annual_report07/annual_report07.pdf]

Access

In 2006-07, 82% of students at the University of Manitoba were born in Manitoba, 8% were born in another Canadian province or territory, and 10% had moved from abroad for the purpose of study. In total, 1,600 were self-declared First Nations (University of Manitoba [http://umanitoba.ca/about/accountability/students/profiles.html] , 2008). [University of Manitoba. (2008). "Accountability". Retrieved May 19, 2008, fromhttp://umanitoba.ca/about/accountability/students/profiles.html]

In 2006-07, 54% of full time students were female, consistent with the national pattern. There was a rapid growth in student numbers over the past decade, reaching a high of 28,049 in 2005-06. In 2006-07, numbers stabilized as there is now a decreasing number of students graduating from Manitoba high schools (University of Manitoba [http://umanitoba.ca/about/accountability/students/profiles.html] , 2008). ["ibid"]

The retention rate in 2005-06 of full time, first-year students at the University of Manitoba was 80% (University of Manitoba [http://umanitoba.ca/about/accountability/students/profiles.html] , 2008). ["ibid"] 91% of students graduating in 2006 reported that they were satisfied with their decision to attend the University, a rate slightly higher than the national average ( [http://www.cusc-ccreu.ca/home.htm Canadian University Survey Consortium] 's 2006 Graduating Students Survey, as reported by the University of Manitoba [http://www.umanitoba.ca/student/media/Vol_18_No5.pdf] , 2008). [University of Manitoba. (2008). "Archived research reports":Volume 18, Number 5, April 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.umanitoba.ca/student/media/Vol_18_No5.pdf]

An earlier survey based on the Class of 1984 reported that Manitoba graduates were as satisfied with their jobs as other graduates nationally, and in fact experienced higher rates of employment and some higher salaries than the national averages. Almost all Manitoba graduates were still living in the province at the time of the survey (Manitoba Department of Education, 1986). [Manitoba Department of Education, Planning and Research Branch. (1986). "1984national grad survey (University)", January 1986 (No. 86-02). Winnipeg: Department of Education: Britton, C.J.]

In 2004, the [http://www.policyalternatives.ca Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives] (CCPA) reported that Manitoba had gained the top spot in overall provincial rankings of equity, quality, accountability, and accessibility, demonstrating a “consistent commitment to higher education as a share of total provincial expenditures, in fostering high employment and income parity among male and female graduates, and in limiting downloading of costs onto students” (CCPA, 2004, p.3) [Doherty-Delorme, D., & Shaker, E. (Eds.). (2004). "Missing pieces V: An alternative guide to Canadian post-secondary education", August 2004. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. ]

According to government figures, student enrolment had increased by 30% at university level and 25% at college level between 1999 and 2004, outpacing other provinces (CCPA, 2004, p.47) ["ibid"] .

Although First Nations post-secondary participation has been increasing during the past decade and is currently estimated at community colleges to be almost the same as for the general population of Manitoba, there are fewer participants at university level ( [http://www.caledoninst.org Caledon Institute of Social Policy] [http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/595ENG.pdf] , 2008). [Caledon Institute of Social Policy. (2008). "Aboriginal peoples and postsecondary education in Canada". Retrieved May 28, 2008, fromhttp://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/595ENG.pdf] It is estimated that Aboriginal students now constitute 7% of university enrolments, 17% of college enrolments, and 17% of all active apprentices in Manitoba ( [http://cmec.ca Council of Ministers of Education, Canada] [http://cmec.ca/postsec/rnfil/indexe.stm] , 2008). [Council of Ministers of Education, Canada.(2008). "Recognition of non-formal and informal learning" (RNFIL) November 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2008, fromhttp://cmec.ca/postsec/rnfil/indexe.stm] Additionally, secondary school dropout rates among First Nations students remain disproportionately high. First Nations peoples make up one quarter of the general population of the province (CCPA, 2004, p.48) [Doherty-Delorme, D., & Shaker, E. (Eds.). (2004). "Missing pieces V: An alternative guide to Canadian post-secondary education", August 2004. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. ] .

[http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/access.html ACCESS] provides specialized programs with funding to residents from under-represented groups who have faced barriers to post-secondary education. Such individuals include First Nations, the physically challenged, females, single parents, and immigrants. Enrolment in ACCESS programs in 2004-05 reached 1,064 students (MAEL [http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/access.html] , 2008). [Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. (2008). "Post-secondary institutions: ACCESS programs". Retrieved May 19, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/ael/unicoll/access.html]

Barriers to access

The [http://www.ccl-cca.ca/ccl Canadian Council on Learning] concluded in its 2007 [http://www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/PostSecondaryEducation/?Language=EN Report on Learning in Canada] that the most significant barriers to post-secondary access are informational and motivational (CCL, 2008) [Canadian Council on Learning. (2008). "Post-secondary education in Canada: Strategies for success". Retrieved May 28, 2008, fromhttp://www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/PostSecondaryEducation/?Language=EN] . The 2007 [http://www.copse.mb.ca/en/documents/reports/survey_of_early_leavers_final_report.pdf Survey of Early Leavers in Manitoba] reported that students typically leave higher education for reasons not related to the institution itself. Financial considerations sometimes influence the decision. The Survey concluded that remedial courses could be helpful, and that such students require assistance immediately in their first year, especially at college level where programs are of shorter duration (MAEL, 2008) [Ministry of Advanced Education and Learning. (2008). "Survey of early leavers: Universities and colleges in Manitoba". Retrieved May 19, 2008, fromhttp://www.copse.mb.ca/en/documents/reports/survey_of_early_leavers_final_report.pdf] .

The University of Manitoba today offers more than $12 million in scholarships and bursaries. Despite the common belief that lower tuition fees would result in greater university access, the [http://www.iedm.org/main/main.php Montreal Economic Institute] ’s 2004 report entitled [http://www.iedm.org/uploaded/pdf/universites_en.pdf Would Higher Tuition Fees Restrict Access to University Studies?] contended that data from various Canadian studies show no direct relationship. Instead, we should consider other factors such as secondary school grades, parental educational attainment, and parental expectations (MEI, 2008) [Montreal Economic Institute. (2008). "Would higher tuition fees restrict access to university studies?" Retrieved May 28, 2008, from http://www.iedm.org/uploaded/pdf/universites_en.pdf] .

The Manitoba Department of Education concluded that financial and institutional barriers seldom hinder access to post-secondary education. Instead, barriers are social and cultural (Manitoba Department of Education, 1983, 1984) [Manitoba Department of Education, Planning and Research Branch. (1983). "Post-secondary accessibility for Frontier students", June 1983 (No. 83-06). Winnipeg: Department of Education: Lee, L.E.] ; [Manitoba Department of Education, Planning and Research Branch. (1984). "Intentions of grade 12 students: Summary report", March 1984 (No. 84-02b). Winnipeg: Department of Education: McCort, H.F.] . [http://www.cprn.ca Canadian Policy Research Networks] in its 2005 report entitled [http://www.cprn.ca/documents/35676_en.pdf Getting There and Staying There] adds the factor of geography, citing the long distances that students must travel in Manitoba and consequent personal dislocation to find a suitable post-secondary program (CPRN [http://www.cprn.ca/documents/35676_en.pdf] , 2008) [Canadian Policy Research Networks. (2008). "Getting there and staying there: Low-income students and post-secondary education". Retrieved May 28, 2008, from http://www.cprn.ca/documents/35676_en.pdf] . All three reports suggest the following strategies to increase access and participation: early intervention, career counseling starting in grade 9, orientation programs, introductory academic and vocational programs starting in grade 12, the involvement of parents, promotion of role models, distance education, and satellite campuses (Manitoba Department of Education, 1983, 1984 [Manitoba Department of Education, Planning and Research Branch. (1983). "Post-secondary accessibility for Frontier students", June 1983 (No. 83-06). Winnipeg: Department of Education: Lee, L.E.] ; [Manitoba Department of Education, Planning and Research Branch. (1984). "Intentions of grade 12 students: Summary report", March 1984 (No. 84-02b). Winnipeg: Department of Education: McCort, H.F.] ; CPRN [http://www.cprn.ca/documents/35676_en.pdf] , 2008). [Canadian Policy Research Networks. (2008). "Getting there and staying there: Low-income students and post-secondary education". Retrieved May 28, 2008, from http://www.cprn.ca/documents/35676_en.pdf] ).

Future challenges

University College of the North is ideally situated to reach potential students living in northern Manitoba. It offers basic education upgrading and adult literacy programs, as well as post-secondary transition and preparatory programs for under-prepared students. It is developing academic programs in conjunction with other post-secondary institutions in the province. Additionally, its mandate offers community-centred learning, characterized by a “culture of openness, inclusiveness and tolerance and respectful of Aboriginal and northern values.” (UCN [https://www.ucn.ca/ics/Welcome/The_UCN_Community.jnz] , 2008) [University College of the North. (2008). "About UCN". Retrieved May 19, 2008, fromhttps://www.ucn.ca/ics/Welcome/The_UCN_Community.jnz] .

A major public review of higher education in Manitoba, submitted in 1973 under the title of the [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?database=&lin=1&gp=0&look=new&sc1=1&sc2=1&nl=1&req=2&ca=Manitoba%20(Canada).%20Task%20Force%20on%20Post-secondary%20Education Task Force on Postsecondary Education] , more commonly known as the Oliver Commission, recommended closer articulation between Manitoba’s universities and community colleges. The system remains a binary one, however, with few university transfer programs or college courses which can be applied towards a university degree. [Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives" (pp.115-136). New York: Garland]

The [http://www.gov.mb.ca/educate/postsec/roblin/roblin.html Roblin Commission] of 1993 and subsequent declining allocations of the public purse have made it clear that post-secondary institutions will have to find their own private sources of funding to make up shortfalls in general operating budgets. ["ibid"]

ee also

* [http://www.bufa.org/ Brandon University Faculty Association]
* [http://www.umfa.ca/ University of Manitoba Faculty Association]
* [http://uwfa.ca/ University of Winnipeg Faculty Association]
* [http://www.policyalternatives.ca/manitoba_office/index.cfm Manitoba Office of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives]

References


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