Higher education in Quebec


Higher education in Quebec

Higher education in Quebec is an education system that is unique from other provinces in Canada. Instead of entering university or college directly from high school, Quebec students enter post-secondary studies at the collegiate level into institutions called Collège d’enseignement générale et professionel (CEGEP). This level of post-secondary education allows students to choose either a vocational path or a more academic path.Smith, W. Foster, W. and Donahue, H. (1999) The Contemporary Education Scene in Quebec: A Handbook for Policy Makers, Administrators and Educators (p.6) Montreal: Office of Research on Educational Policy (OREP)] Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition (p. 99) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] Many factors have lead to the province’s current state of higher education including language and culture as well as provincial distribution of natural resources and population. The Quiet Revolution in the 1960s also brought about many changes that are still reflected in the province's higher education today.Magnuson, R. (1980) "A Brief History of Quebec Education: from New France to Parti Quebecois" (p. 16) Montreal: Harvest House] The provincial government is responsible for education in Quebec through the Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sport. Currently (2008), the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport is Michelle Courchesne.Higher education in Quebec is available in both English and French at all levels. Unlike the primary and secondary levels of education, students have the choice of pursuing post-secondary studies in either language (in CEGEP and university). As of 2008, there were nineteen universities, three of which are English Language institutions. The total number of CEGEPs is forty-eight, of which, six offer English language instruction.Ministère de l'Education Québec (2007). "L'enseignement universitaire." Retrieved May 26, 2008, from http://www.meq.gouv.qc.ca/rens/brochu/ens-univ.htm] The average undergraduate tuition fees for Quebec residents: Cdn $2025, Statistics Canada (2007). "University Tuition Fees." Retrieved May 26, 2008, from http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/071018/d071018b.htm] and the average graduate tuition fees for Quebec residents: Cdn $2137.In Quebec forty percent of the students who reach university (baccalaureat) level studies are women.

History

1700's

Education in Quebec has been around for almost four hundred years, when Jesuits College was inaugurated in 1635.Galarneau, Claude (2008) "Collège des Jésuites" in The Canadian Encyclodia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2008 http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0001759] Marianopolis College. "Quebec History:Classical Studies in Canada" Retrieved Aug 1, 2008, http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/Classicalstudies-ClassicalColleges.htm] Brunelle, Roland "Classical Colleges and Seminaries in Quebec" retrieved Aug 1, 2008,http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0000734] The Jesuit School initially opened to teach the children of the colonists in classical education. This college later develop secondary levels of education and over the course of the French regime, it was the only institution to offer primary and secondart instruction.Education of Children in New France "Schools in France" Retrieved Aug 1, 2008, http://www.civilization.ca/vmnf/education/eco00_e.html] Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (2008) “Postsecondary Education in Quebec” Retrieved July 8, 2008 http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.29.30 ] The Quebec Seminary opened in 1678 through the merging of the Petit Séminaire and Grand Séminaire.Voisine, Nive and Cameron, Christina "Séminaire de Québec" In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0007283] This institution was initially formed to train the citizens of the colony to be priests and church ministers. The Quebec Seminary later became the University of Laval.

In 1789, the Commission on Education, chaired by Judge William Smith proposed the establisment of a school system from elementary school through to university. They recommended that this system be capped by a non-denominational university, governed by lay and religious representatives - both Catholic and Protestant - attracting members of both faiths.; unfortunately, the report was frowned upon by the clergy and Smith's recommendation were rejected. This report was a catalyst for debate revolving around the divided nature of the early Quebec education system. The Quebec Education system would remain secular until the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s.

1800's

Higher Education in Quebec was established at the base of Mont Royal in Montreal when James McGill donates £10000 and a forty-six acre estate in 1821. With the proceeds of this donation, McGill University was founded. Eight years later classes begin when a Montreal medical school was merged with McGill. Four years later William Leslie Logie was the first graduate, awarded a Doctor of Medicine and Surgury. McGill University "About McGill: History" Retrieved Aug. 14, 2008 http://www.mcgill.ca/about/history/] Collège Sainte-Marie de Montréal was created in 1848 by the Jesuits. Three years later in 1951 Université Laval forms in Québec City as the first major French Language higher education institution. Laval University grew out of the Québec Seminary. In 1853, Bishops University is established in Lennoxville. Specializing in undergraduate education, it was developed, as an institute of higher education representing both British and rural Québec traditions. Twenty years later (1973) the École Polytechnique opens in Montreal. Then in 1896, Loyola College is founded as the English sector of Collège Sainte-Marie de Montréal.

1900 – 1960

In 1915, the École des Hautes Études Commerciales opens in (Montreal) Five year later, the École des Hautes Études Commerciales merges with the École Polytechnique and a branch of Laval University forming the University of Montreal in 1920. Although merged all three institutions maintained unique identities. Sir George Williams College was formed in Montreal in 1926 offering evening classes for the English-speaking community. Sir George William College received a university charter from the provincial government and became Sir George William University. 1954 saw the development of the University of Sherbrooke. Similar in nature to Bishop’s University, it was created to meet the needs of francophones in Quebec. . There were two teacher colleges (St. Joseph, Teacher College), two liberal arts (Loyola and Mariaopolis) and three English language universities (McGill, Bishop's and George Williams University).

1960-2000

According to Henchey and BurgessHenchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] , there were five major changes to the Quebec Higher Education system since the 1960s:

1. The demand on the post secondary system saw increases of sixty percent per decade until the 1980sHenchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p.112) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] This growth was due largely in part to the growth in population of Quebec and the need for more specialized post secondary training requirements. With enrolment increasing one hundred fifty percent from 1967 until 1983, a joint committee was established with representatives including secondary school personal and University Admissions Officers for the purpose of consolidating and a expanding regular programs. This helped to smooth articulation between the various colleges and university both public and private, which assisted the increasing volume of student participantsHenchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p.101) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] This committee was the result of a provincial royal commission recommendation that stressed the need to accomidate the increasing demand for higher education, and to provide industry with the higher degree of skilled labour required in the industrialized province. In 1969, ÉNAP (École Nationale d’Administration Publiques) forms as the Public Administration University. , and in October 1972, Télé-université is established as a multi-mode francophone university when parliament created the Commission of the Télé-université, on an experimental basis, for a five year period.Télé-université. (2006). "Télé-université: formation à distance, études universitaire, cours à distance." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.teluq.uquebec.ca/index.html.] Loyola would cease to exist in 1974 when it is merged with Sir George Williams University to become Concordia University. Although both institutions had religious roots as Jesuit and Christian, Concordia is established as a secular institution. Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean opens in 1985 and offers instruction in the sciences.

2. The establishment of CEGEPS and the University of Quebec System changed the institutional patterns.

In 1967, Bill 21 established the CÉGEPs. In September of 1967, there were twelve CEGEPS. A year later in September 1968, the number of CEGEPs almost doubled to twenty-three colleges. Dawson College opens in 1969 as the first English Language CEGEP. Three years later (1971), there were forty CÉGEPs. The current (2008) number of CEPEGs in Quebec is forty-eight. The CEGEPs assumed the role of instructing advanced general courses; essentially removing the freshman year from university. Because the CEGEP graduate was given 30 credits toward a Bachelor's Degree leaving only 90 credits, the university courses became more specialized and of course shorter. Also, prior to the Quiet Revolution, a Bachelor's of Science Degree took an English student four years of University. Their French counterpart was required to complete an undergraduate degree in general arts before entrance into three additional years of Science Studies; thus, CEGEPs standardize the required duration of training for both English and French students.Henchey, N. & Burgess, D. (1987). "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition." (p. 9) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited.] In 1979, the Conseil de Collèges was established to make revisions to the act governing colleges. It developed two commissions: one for general (academic) and one for vocational. Revisions of the laws governing colleges conducted in 1984 establishing a new set of regulations for programs. Also in 1984, the saw the development of an annual report, Cahiers de l’enseignement collegial interested in regulations respecting the basis of college education. In 1985, a policy statement of the Council of Collèges is published titled “Les CÉGEPs de demain.”

The University of Quebec system was created in 1968, though the passing of Bill 88. It was modeled after State university systems in New York State and California. It was developed with a central administration office located in Québec City with four initial campuses: Montréal, Trois Rivières, Rimouski, Chicoutimi. Desprès-Poirier, M. (1991) “Le Systeme d'Education au Quebec” (p.59) Morin Editeur Limitee: Gaetan] By delivering higher education in this format, the University of Quebec has provided access to many social and economic groups that may have otherwise restricted from pursuing further education due to there geography location. Specialized courses are offering at the various regional campus are designed with local representatives and ecological orientation. The initial philosophies were meant to be more democratic, less elite and more flexible. Collège Sainte-Marie de Montréal was one of the institutions that merged together to create UQAM in 1969. In this same year, the Institut Nationale de Recherches Scientifiques (INRS) develops as a research arm of the University of Quebec. Institut Armand Frappier is established as a component of the INRS in 1975. Disciplines at the Institut Armand Frappier are focus around health science research including immunology and environmental biotechnology.INRS Institute Armand Frappier “The Centre at a Glance” Retrieved Aug 15, 2008, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.iaf.inrs.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%257C%2BInstitut%2BArmand%2BFrappier%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC] The Université Québec à Hull (UQAH) is added to the University of Quebec system in 1972. In 1974, TELUQ offers first its course titled COO 1001, Initiation with co-operation. This course was create in partnership Desjardins, and two years later (1976) TELUQ offers its first program titled “Certificate in Knowledge of the Man and Medium (CHEM). The first graduate from this program was Mr. Pierre Vincent of Holy-Foy, Quebec. Télé-université. (2006). "Télé-université: formation à distance, études universitaire, cours à distance." Retrieved Aug 14, 2008, http://www.teluq.uquebec.ca/siteweb/enbref/historique.html] In 1990, TELUQ offers its first baccalaureat in communication, and by 1997 TELUQ is receiving a subsidy of nine million dollars for technological modernization. The head office of Téluq in Quebec take hold of their own buildings, which is similar to the structure of the Montreal office. 1974 saw the inauguration of École de Technologique Supérieur (ÉTS) which specializes in the delivery of engineering and technology. École de Technologique Supérieur “L’ETS en Bref: Presentationde l’ets” Retrieved Aug. 14, 2008, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.etsmtl.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25C3%2589cole%2Bde%2BTechnologique%2BSup%25C3%25A9rieur%2B(%25C3%2589TS)%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC%26pwst%3D1] The École de Technologique Supérieur (ETS) has developed industry partnerships to build the curriculum and provide instructors.

3. Attempts to coordinate and rationalize the traditionally independent universities into a network that reflects the growing financial dependence of universities on government grants. In 1968, Bill 57 is passed to established the Council of Universities (Conseil des universités) to help strengthen the network of universities in Québec. The Council’s responsibilities included implementing a plan of development and financing education.

4. Curriculum changes involving new programs, more specialized B.A.’s and short certificates and diplomas, and the integration of teacher education into the universities. The Quiet Revolution in the 1960s was instrumental in the development of the current higher education system. The Parent Report released in 1964 was essentially the blueprint for university development in Quebec. It reported that Quebec primary and secondary school teachers ranked significantly lower than those in other jurisdictions of North America.Magnuson, R. (1980) "A Brief History of Quebec Education: from New France to Parti Quebecois" (p. 113) Montreal: Harvest House] 1961-62 figures indicate that 90% of Catholic (French) teachers and 65% of Protestant (English) teachers had less than or equal to 13 years of schooling. The Quebec Government believed that success in school reform hinged on having well qualified teachers, and teacher education underwent major changes in the preparation and qualification for those entering the profession. The Quebec universities assumed the duties of administering teacher education. By the end of the 1960s, undergraduate degrees became the minimum requirement for new teachers in the K-V system.

5. Periodic analysis of the role of Universities in society and the kind of policies that would be appropriate for future university development.In 1975, NADEAU Report was commissioned.Higher education in Quebec was also subject to a cultural development policy in 1978 In 1978, Les Collèges de Québec Nouvelles Étapes Report was commissioned.The Commission d’etude sur les Universities (CEU) was commissioned as for volumes in 1979

Essentially, "the reforms fundamentally altered the character and pattern of education, changing it from a decentralized, church dominated system serving an elite to a centralized, state controlled one catering to a mass population."Magnuson, R. (1980) "A Brief History of Quebec Education: from New France to Parti Quebecois" (p. 114) Montreal: Harvest House]

2000 and beyond

In 2005, the government of Quebec authorizes the joining of the TÉLUQ and the UQAM. This decision was made by decree of the Council of Ministers on May 18, 2005 on recommendation of the Minister for Education, Recreation and Sport, Mr Jean-Marc Fournier. This amalgamation, which makes of Téluq a component of the UQAM within the University of Quebec, was carried out by the delivery of additional letters patent to the UQAM. Télé-université. (2006). "Télé-université: formation à distance, études universitaire, cours à distance." Retrieved Aug 14, 2008, http://www.teluq.uquebec.ca/siteweb/enbref/historique.html]

Equity and access

CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionel)

The new CEGEP institutions were polyvalent offering both pre-university and technical programs. The association with the various religious interests was replaced with a secular and public approach with the intention of increasing access for all social groups. By developing a single structure, it allowed for equality of educational opportunity. Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 100) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] Students apply to regional admission services, not to individual CEGEPS. The exceptions to this are Dawson College and Champlain Regional College. There are three regions: Québec (Service régional d'admission au collégial de Québec - SRACQ), Metropolitan Montréal (Service régional d'admission du Montréal métropolitain - SRAM), and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Service régional d'admission des cégeps du Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean - SRASL). Metropolitan Montréal (SRAM) is the only region that offers English-language CEGEPs. CEGEP International. (2004). "Démarches pour effectuer une demande d'admission." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://www.cegepinternational.qc.ca/etudiantsetrangers/demande.html. ]

Universities

Since the 1960s, the higher education system in Quebec reacted to an increasing population by offering expanded education access in more regions. Universities in Quebec are actively reducing or eliminating desparities between men and women, metropolitan and rural and French and English.Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 115) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] According to Henchey and Burgess, "Quebec is clearly moving in the direction of equality access, especially for French women; however, gaps still remain for other language groups, poor and the isolated."

There are transfer programs available for secondary school grads from outside the province; however, applicants are required to meet entrance requirements as specified by the individual university.McGill Uniiversity "Applying to McGill" retrieved Aug 4, 2008] TELUQ "Accueil:Études:Marche à suivre pour une admission-inscription" Retrieved Aug 4, 2008] Applicants are required to demonstrate profiecency in the language of instruction used at the institution.

The University of Quebec (UQ)

The University of Quebec is a unique educational system in the province, as it was originally modeled after the state run universities found in California and New York State.Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials "Post Secondary Education in Quebec" Retrieved Aug. 7, 2008, http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.29.30] The UQ system was a product of the Quiet Revolution, and it was created by the Quebec National Assembly who enacted the "University of Québec Act" in 1968. According to Magnuson (1980), "The University of Quebec was intended to extend higher education to thoughout Quebec in response to expanding enrolments allowing accessable to students in rural communities."Magnuson, R. (1980) "A Brief History of Québec Education: from New France to Parti Québécois" (p. 112-113) Montreal: Harvest House] The mission of the University of Quebec is to facilitate the access to university education, to contribute to the scientific development of Quebec and to assist in regional development. University of Quebec "University of Quebec Information pamphlet" Retrieved Aug 4, 2008 http://www2.uquebec.ca/siteuq/objets/Depliant/Diffusion/depliant_anglais.pdf] In 2007, students had access to adult and university education in seven regions of Quebec through one of the UQ's ten French language institutions. Each campus of the University of Quebec is a legally independent entity, which allows for increased autonomy

The Faculty of Medicine had increased residency capacity sixty percent since 2003 largely due to International Medical Graduates (IMG's).Jeannotte, D. (2008, May 23). "A Record Number of admissions in residence in 2008" CREPUQ Conférence des Recteurs et Des Principaux Des Université Du Québec Retrived on May 23, 2008, from http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/apa.php]

Télé-université

The Télé-université, or TÉLUQ, is the first university-level establishment specializing in distance education in Quebec. As part of the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), the TÉLUQ's mandate is university education and research. It is characterized by its flexible teaching model, which makes it possible for students to pursue studies on one's own schedule. It accommodates annually more than 17.000 students. Its programs are sanctioned by a diploma of the UQAM. The amalgamation of TÉLUQ and UQAM form the largest bimodal francophone university, combining an on campus and a distance education model. [ Télé-université. (2006). "Télé-université: formation à distance, études universitaire, cours à distance." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.teluq.uquebec.ca/index.html. ]

tructure

CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionel)

In 1967, the CEGEP system was created during the Quiet Revolution to allow French and English students the ability to follow the same educational route. It was initially formed as an amalogmation of the classical colleges, normal schools and technical schools.The CEGEP system quickly replaced the provinces classical colleges,which numbered ninety-eight in 1966-67, to less than twenty in five years time.Magnuson, R. (1980) "A Brief History of Quebec Education: from New France to Parti Quebecois" (p. 112) Montreal: Harvest House] The English schools, however, had to be created from scratch because the only two existing English colleges (Loyola and Marianopolis) were converted into other educational institutions. Loyola merged with Sir George University to become Concordia University, and Marianopolis became a private college.Smith, W. Foster, W. and Donahue, H. (1999) "The Contemporary Education Scene in Quebec: A Handbook for Policy Makers, Administrators and Educators" (p.7) Montreal: Office of Research on Educational Policy (OREP)]

Two types of programs are offered:

:1) two year general education (pre- university) programs leading to university.::General Arts include: science, social sciences, creative arts, music, fine arts, language, literature and oral communications.

:2) various three year vocational programs leading to the wokforce.::Vocational Programs: biological sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, administrative sciences and fine arts.

As of 2008, there were forty-eight CEGEPs, twenty five private colleges, ten institutions operated by government departments, and one college under university.English as the medium of instruction is offered in six of these colleges: Champlain Regional College, Dawson College, Heritage College, Jon Abbott College, Marianopolis, and VanierCEGEP.com "What is CEGEP?" Retrieved Aug 6, 2008, http://www.cegep.com/default.htm] Upon completion of the CEGEP program, a student is awarded a DEC - Diploma of College Studies. This certification is awarded to student who have completed either the vocational stream or the academic stream. Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p.7) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] The CEGEP system streamlined access to niversities, as English students were previously eligable for post secondary studies after eleven years of schooling, but French students once required fifteen years of schooling. Although, Smith et al, indicated that French students were previously required to complete sixteen years of study before university In the 1970s through early 1980s, “the colleges became heavily involved in programs of continuing education, community development and recently programs of international cooperation with developing nations.” In 1999 Andre Michaud [Michaud, A. (1999)"Our Bankrupt Elite: State of University Teaching in 1999" (p. 28) Quebec: SRP Books] indicated that the rates of completion for Quebec students was greated that forty percent for those in high school and greater that twenty-five percent for those in university

General overview of university education

One of the objectives of the Québec education system is to provide access to university services to the whole province of Quebec. Physical accessibility with these services results either in a physical university campus or a center of teaching establishment in the area, or through distance education. University services are offered in all regions of Quebec. Thus, the majority of universities have several centres of teaching and research, which make up the university campus. In general, the head office of the university is found at this centre. However, in order to meet the needs of populations further removed from the campuses, universities often offer classes at satellite centres distant from their principal campus. These are generally offered on a part-time. Another way of making university education more accessible is through the integrated use of media, such as in printed paper form, television and telematics. The Télé-université, establishment of the network of the University of Quebec, specializes in this mode of distance education. More than 5,100 students are registered there, including more than 3,200 women and nearly 1,900 men. Most of these students enter in the first cycle (September), although some are enrolled part time. As well, three out of four students are 30 years old or older. Ministère de l'Education Québec. (2007) "L'enseignement universitaire." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.meq.gouv.qc.ca/rens/brochu/ens-univ.htm ] Québécois universities confer more than 35 000 university degrees annually. In the 1990s, the annual number of decreed university degrees grew considerably. The rate of obtaining a baccalaureat in Quebec is among the highest in the world.

Governance

CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionel)

CEGEP Education is governed by the provisions of the General and Vocational Colleges Education Regulations. The public colleges are legal institutions each with a Board of Goverors (BOG) composed of twenty members appointed by the Ministry of Higher Education. It includes senior adminstrators, personal and students of the college, parents and representatives of regional groups. Each College also has an Academic Council with 20 members of which the majority are instrutors. The administrative head of the institution is the director general. The colleges level below the director general is the academic dean and the director of student services. Other adminstrators, directors, deans and coordinators make up the next teir of the institution. Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition"(p. 105)Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] Private CEGEPs are governed by the Act Respecting Private Education, and regulations adopted under this act known as the Regulation Respecting the Application of the Act Respecting Private Education, but they are still subject to the same College Education Regulations, which apply to public CEGEP’s.

Universities

"Since the 1960’s the Quebec government has assumed a more commanding presence in university policy than was previously the case, allocating resources, standardizing procedures, setting broad policies objectives and attempting to rationalize the university system in the interest of the common good”Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 118) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] In December of 2006, the Institute for Governance of Private and Public Organizations, announced the creation of a study group on the governance of Quebec universities. CNW Group. (Dec. 20, 2006). "Creation of a study group on university governance." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/December2006/20/c9358.html. ] The mandate of the group was three-fold. The first was to assess current practices and challenges for the proper governance of universities in Quebec and elsewhere. Second was to assess various principles and practices put in place to improve the quality of university governance in Quebec and around the world, and the final mandate was to make specific recommendations that are likely to enhance the quality of university governance in Quebec. The eleven member group consisted of university rectors, chancellors and principals as well as board members of various universities across the province. Their report was released in September of 2007. It was rejected by the Fédération québecoise des professeures et professeurs d’université (FQPPU) as well as the McGill Association of University Teachers (MAUT) and the Concordia University Faculty Association (CUFA). In February 2008, representatives of CUFA and MAUT denounced the report’s recommendations in a written response to the study group’s report. The report recommended a fifteen member board of governors, where ten members are to be external. The board would also be responsible for hiring and compensation of senior administration as well as strategic planning and establishment of performance measures for teaching and research. The report did not take into account the current bicameral system of a board of governors as well as a senate, a system in place across North American universities. CUFA and MAUT were concerned about the lack of academic presence, both in teachers and in students, as well as the overwhelming presence of corporate and business interests on the proposed structure of the board. Draimin, Charles and Zorychta, Edith. (2008). "Redefining University Governance-A Response to the Report of the Working Group on University Governance of the Institute for Governance for Private and Public Organizations." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://maut.mcgill.ca/archive.php."]

Provincial bodies that influence the higher education system in Quebec

Association of Private Colleges of Québec (Association des collèges privés du Québec (APCQ)) acts as the voice of twenty-two private subsidized colleges in order to promote education at the CEGEP level.The site of subsidized private colleges in Quebec "Welcome to the Association of Private Colleges of Quebec" Retrieved Aug. 13, 2008, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.cadre.qc.ca/acpq/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DAssociation%2Bdes%2Bcoll%25C3%25A8ges%2Bpriv%25C3%25A9s%2Bdu%2BQu%25C3%25A9bec%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC]

Confederation des Syndicaux Nationales (CSN), most CEPEG instructors are associated with this union.

Council of Education (Conseil supérieure de l’Éducation) is composed of twenty-two members and is an advisor body to the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport. This council is independent from the Minister, but it provides suggestions and information about the state of education in the province. It conducts research and encourages stake holder to provide their input. [Conseil supérieure de l’Éducation "Home: Organization: Mission" Retrieved Aug 19, 2008, http://www.cse.gouv.qc.ca/EN/Mandat/index.html]

Commission of College Teaching Evaluation (Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial) acts as an independent government organization whose evaluation mandate covers most aspects of college education, with special emphasis on student achievement and programmes of studies. Legislation attributes to the Commission the power to evaluate and make recommendations, as well as to exercise a declaratory power. [Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial"The Commission: Mandate" retrieved Aug 19, 2008, http://www.ceec.gouv.qc.ca/en/commission/mandat.htm]

Conférence des recteurs et des principaux des universités du Québec (Conference of Rectors and Principles of Quebec(CREPUQ)). This group is an association of university institutions.Henchey, Norman and Burgess, Donald (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 113) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] The CREPUQ currently have a campaign promoting the importance of higher education titled [http://www.ilfautlesavoir.ca/ KNOWLEGDGEMATTERS] to promote the benefit of having a well educated, highly skilled society.:*Services provided by CREPUQ include the following: [Conférence des recteurs et des principaux des universités de Québec. (2008). "Mandat. Le CREPUQ: ce qu'elle est" Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.crepuq.qc.ca/article.php3?id_article=31 ] :**Evaluation of program projects by the Commission of Evaluation of Program Projects (CEP):**Verification of program evaluation processes of university programs in Québec through its Commission of verification of program evaluation (CVEP):**Follow-up committee on programs through the work of the Commission of universities on programs.:**Integration centre of information technologies and communication to university teaching and its site PROFeTIC:**Coordination of student exchange programs through formal agreements reached with numerous higher education institutions in the United States, Mexico and Latin America, Europe, Iceland, Japan, China and Australia.:**Control mechanism of multiple acceptances for first cycle students:**Electronic transmission of college academic files to universities for admissions processes:**Management of agreements relative to study associations with outside institutions which allow students to take courses at another university when the same course is not offered at their own.:**Interuniversity exchange on teaching vacancy notices:**Centre for special documents in higher education instruction offering professionals in CREPUQ and university personnel a library of over 100000 documents

:*Information system where the CREPUQ assumes current management within the framework of a protocol with the ministry for Education:**on admissions into universities:**on university personnel:*Exchange programs are negotiated with other organizations similar to CREPUQ, not with individual schools [ Béchard, Bruno-Marie. (2006). "THE QUEBEC HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE CANADIAN CONTEXT AND INTERNATIONALLY: Address by professor Bruno-Marie Béchard, rector of the Université de Sherbrooke (Canada) at Fu Jen University." Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www.usherbrooke.ca/accueil/direction/allocutions/2006/taiwan-061019.html. ] :**Official program of cotutorship with French universities, created post-signing of Québec-France general agreement signed by Québec premier and French prime minister.:***Allows PhD students to register simultaneously in two universities (one in Québec, one in France), with two supervisors (one per university), meeting requirements at both universities and spending half the time in each institution.:***Thesis defense occurs in front of a mixed jury of experts from each school.:***Earn a double diploma: one from Québec university and one from French university, both mentioning the other institution involved:***Cotutorship model duplicated with other countries (ie. Sherbrooke has one with a Belgian university), but funding is not equivalent if schools are not in France, due to close ties of French language support

Federation of CEGEPs (Fédération des cégeps) is the voice of the forty-eight public CEGEPS in Québec.The Fédération promotes education at the college level, and more specifically in the general and vocational colleges known as CEGEPs. [Fédération des cégeps "Fédération des cégeps: English: What is the Fédération des cégeps" Retrieved Aug. 19, 2008] Federation des association des professeurs des universities du Quebec (FAPUQ) was created in 1970. This organization grew out to the new Quebecios identity triggered by the societal changes in higher education follwoing the Quiet Revolution, and according to Greg Allain [Allain, G. (2008) "Francophones in the CAUT: The Long March" CAUT/ACPPU Bulletin. (Vol. 55 No. 4) Retrieved May 23 2008. Envision Online Media Incorporated Website: http://www.cautbulletin.ca/en_article.asp?SectionID=220&SectionName=President's%20Column&VolID=52&VolumeName=No%204&VolumeStartDate=4/11/2008&EditionID=9&EditionName=Vol%2055&EditionStartDate=1/17/2008&ArticleID=412] was the central body in the formation of the FQPPU

Federation of Employees of Public Services (Fédération des employées et employés de services publics(FEESP-CSN)) represents support staff located in the province of Quebec [Fédération des employées et employés de services publics "Fédération des employées et employés de services publics: English Version: The School Sector" Retrieved Aug. 19, 2008]

The McGill Association of University Teachers (l'Association des Professeur(e)s et Bibliothécaires de McGill ((MAUT - APBM)) was organized at McGIll University in 1951 to increase the involvement of facalty in the goverance of the university. Through this involvment, McGill has fostered an atmosphere of academic freedom with improvements have made with regards to working conditions and salaries for teachers and librarians.MAUT - APBM McGill Association of University Teachers - l'Association des Professeur(e)s et Bibliothécaires de McGill (6 April 2008) "About MAUT - APBM" Retrieved, Aug 12, 2008, http://maut.mcgill.ca/about.php]

Minister of Economic Development, Innovation and Export (Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation) Promotes and develops the overall scientific and technological development required in Quebec. This Ministry encourages university research and technology transfer [Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation "Science and Technology: Development and Transfer of Research Results" Retrieved http://www.mdeie.gouv.qc.ca/index.php?id=4039]

Ministry of Education, recreation and Sport (Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport)directs, promotes and develops postsecondary, college and university education, including scientific research and development. [Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport "Home Page" Retrieved Aug 19, 2008, http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/GR-PUB/m_englis.htm]

:For a list of past Ministers see Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports (Quebec).

Quebec House of Labour (Centrale des syndicats du Québec(CSQ)) prior to June 2000, this union was known as the Quebec Teachers' House of Labour (Centrale des enseignants du Québec(CEQ)). ["Profile of the CSQ:Centrale des syndicats du Québec: 2007-2008 edition" Retrieved Aug.19, 2008, http://cbcsq.qc.net/sites/1676/documents/english/news/profile.pdf]

The Office of Professions(Office des Professions) is a government agency mandated to protect the public by ensuring that the workers of fifty one professions in Quebec follow the Professional CodeConseil Interpersonel du Quebec (2008) "Professional Systems:The Concept of Protecting the Public" Retrieved Aug 12, 2008, http://www.professions-quebec.org/index.php/en/element/visualiser/id/7#58] Part of the public protection is done through the regulations of the total students admitted for specific professions; furthermore, the Office of Professions maintains the accreditation standards for professional programs including ungrading and continuing education for practitioners.

The Quebec Federation of University Teachers (Fédération québécoise des professeures et professeurs d’université (FQPPU)) was founded on May 16, 1991. The federation is made up of fifteen unions and it is primarily concerned with the maintainance, defence, promotion and development of the university as a public service including the defence of the right to university access and quality.Fédération québécoise des professeures et professeurs d’université (FQPPU) "Who ARE WE" Retrieved Aug. 12, 2008, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.fqppu.org/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DFQPPU%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC%26pwst%3D1]

Funding

CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionel)

Universities

In the latter part of 1970s and into the early 1980s serious under funding lead to difficulties in basic financial planning due to the uncertainty in funding policies; therefore, priorities for programs leading to careers and professions and for research and development in the emerging sectors of information technologies were not always easily engaged this time of little growth and financial constraint. Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 115)Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] In 1979, nine percent of the total cost of post secondary education was collected as student fees. This compares to three percent from gifts and eighty-eight percent from the provincial government. This compares to Ontario's total funding sources, where thirteen percent is from user fees, nine percent from foundation gifts and seventy-eight percent from the provincial government. Henchey, N. and Burgess, D. (1987) "Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition" (p. 118)Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited] Currently, McGill University has the third largest endowment of all Canadian educational institutions, approaching $1 billion. Tuition fees vary significantly between in-province, out-of-province and international students, with full-time Quebec students paying around $3,500 per year, other Canadian students paying around $7,500 per year, and international students paying over $15,000 per year. [McGill University "Student Information: Student Accounts: Citizenship and Residency Status" Retrieved Aug. 17, 2008]

The budget of Téluq, which is a public agency, is mainly made up of subsidies from the Minister of Education, Recreation and Sport. These subsidies are calculated from the number of students who are registered annually. This is combined with other sources of revenue, and in the 2006- 2007 fiscal year, the budget of $32,912,000 was generated from three sources: seventy- three percent was from subsidies, thirteen percent came from the incomes of education rights, and fourteen percent came from other incomes TELUQ. (2007). "Financement." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://www.teluq.uquebec.ca/siteweb/enbref/financement.html.]

Tuition fees

CEGEP

In the 2007-2008 fiscal year, tuition fees for Québec students are as follows free at public CEGEP unless a student fails five general courses or seven vocational course. Private CEGEP assess tuition fees. Subsidizes for private colleges vary in amount from one institution to another, but is generally between $800 (can.) and $3700 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of studies. International students (non-Canadian) were required to pay between $4010 (can.) and $6125 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of study. At a subsidized private college an interntional student was charged between $2404 (can.) and $3732 (can.) per semester, depending on the program of studies.

University

Québec has the lowest tuition fees in Canada, but only for in-province students. In the 2006-2007 fiscal year, Québec residents paid $1916 (can.) in tuition for undergraduate programs due to a tuition-freeze that has kept fees at less than half the national average since the 1990s. [Statistics Canada. (2006). "University Tuition Fees." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/060901/d060901a.htm.] . The tuition freeze was lifted in 2007, bringing fees to $2025 (can.), still less than half the national average in Canada. Graduate fees also remained low at $2137 (can.), on average. In comparison, Canadian graduate students paid $5387 (can.), on average. [Statistics Canada. (2007). "University Tuition Fees." Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/071018/d071018b.htm.]

Differential tuition

Residents of Québec pay less tuition than non-residents of the province. For the 2008-2009 academic year, at Bishop’s University in Lennoxville, a Québec resident will pay $1668 (can.) in tuition while a Canadian, non-resident of Québec will pay $4790 (can.). [ Bishop's University. "Prospective Students-Paying for BU." Retrieved on May 30, 2008 from http://www.ubishops.ca/general_info/prosp/mmatters.htm.] At Concordia University, Québec residents paid $58.94 (can.) per credit and Canadian non-Québec residents paid $171.36 (can.) per credit in the 2007-2008 fiscal year. [ Concordia University. "Tuition & fees." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://tuitionandfees.concordia.ca/07_08/u_pg1.shtml]

For the academic year 2007-2008, the additional financial contributions required of non-Canadian students enrolled in a university were $306.60(can.) per credit for students the undergraduate level studying human and social sciences, geography, education, physical education, administration, humanities and law, and all other discpines were 348.60 (can.) per credit, studetns at the graduate level paid an additional $306.60 (can.) per credit and students at the doctoral level paid an additional $269.85 (can.) per credit. [ Minister of Education. (2007). "Program for Exemption from Supplemental Tuition Fees or Exemption from Payment of an Additional Financial Contribution." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/ens-sup/ens-univ/droits_scolarite-A-2007.asp]

tudent financial aid

Student financial aid is administered provincially through the Ministry of Education, Leisure and Sport, which has set up conditions for student eligability for loans and bursaries. Gouvernement du Quebec. (2008). "Aide financiere aux etudes." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://www.afe.gouv.qc.ca/fr/pretsBourses/conditionsAdmissibilite.asp.] A student must have Canadian citizenship or the statute of permanent resident, refugee or anybody protected under the terms of the Law on immigration and protection from the refugees; a student must reside in the province of Quebec at the time of presenting the request for financial aid; a student must be allowed or will be allowed in an educational establishment recognized by the Minister for Education, Leisure and Sport, and be enrolled in full-time recognized studies, or considered to be enrolled in full-time studies. Studies can not exceed the maximum number of months of studies for which financial aid can be allotted; a student can not reach the limit of debt fixed for your order of teaching, your academic cycle or your program of studies; and must not have sufficient financial resources to continue studies. Students can not be imprisoned. If an individual and thier spouse are both students, only one qualifies for full-time studies during the same year of attribution. Special provisions are available for pregnant students and students with families, which include: a recognition of indepedence that excludes parental income when calculating eligiblity, the living expenses of a dependant child, and if a pegnant student is single the expenses as a household single parent are added to the calculation. [Gouvernement du Quebec. (2008). "Aide financiere aux etudes-Conciliation etudes-famille." Retrieved on May 26, 2008 from http://www.afe.gouv.qc.ca/fr/pretsBourses/conciliationEtudesFamille.asp.] Students with families are eligable to the Program of loans and purses that is normally intended for the full-time students althought the studnet can study part-time or a minimum of twenty hours of instruction per month; half of the number of months during which you are being studied part-time is then taken into account to determine your period of admissibility. Recognition, in the allowed expenditure, of expenses if you are household head single-parent, and for the living expenses of dependent children 18 years. The coverage of the expenses dependent on the purchase of drugs and care chiropratic portion not covered by he health insurance of Quebec or by an insurance company, as well as expenses related to the visual purchase of ortheses for you or your child. Exemption is given, in the evaluation of your contribution, for the first $1,200 (can.) of the entire amount of annual alimony. Admissibility with an financial aid during the period of summer, even if you are not being studied during this one. Extensions, in certain cases, of your period of admissibility to a purse, to allow you to provide for the expenses related to one or more children on your load. The temporary exemption of the refunding of the debt of studies when you stop your studies for a certain time because of a pregnancy or following the birth or of the adoption of a child.

See also

* Higher education in Canada
* McGill University
* Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports (Quebec)
* University of Quebec

References

External Links

* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.cadre.qc.ca/acpq/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DAssociation%2Bdes%2Bcoll%25C3%25A8ges%2Bpriv%25C3%25A9s%2Bdu%2BQu%25C3%25A9bec%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC Association of Private Colleges of Québec (Association des collèges privés du Québec)]
* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.ceec.gouv.qc.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DCommission%2Bd%2527%25C3%25A9valuation%2Bde%2Bl%2527enseignement%2Bcoll%25C3%25A9gial%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC Commission of College Teaching Evaluation (Commission d'évaluation de l'enseignement collégial)]
* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.cse.gouv.qc.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DConseil%2Bsup%25C3%25A9rieure%2Bde%2Bl%25E2%2580%2599%25C3%2589ducation%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRCHigher Council of Education (Conseil supérieure de l’Éducation)]
* [http://www.crepuq.qc.ca/?lang=en CREPUQ]
* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.fedecegeps.qc.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DF%25C3%25A9d%25C3%25A9ration%2Bdes%2Bc%25C3%25A9geps%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC Federation of CEGEPs (Fédération des cégeps)]
* [http://fqppu.org/ FQPPU]
* [http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/ Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport]
* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.mdeie.gouv.qc.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DMinist%25C3%25A8re%2Bdu%2BD%25C3%25A9veloppement%2B%25C3%25A9conomique,%2Bde%2Bl%2527Innovation%2Bet%2Bde%2Bl%2527Exportation%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC Minister of Economic Development, Innovation and Export (Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation)]
* [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.opq.gouv.qc.ca/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DOffice%2Bdes%2BProfessions%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-ca:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GFRC The Office of Professions (Office des Professions)]
* [http://www2.uquebec.ca/siteuq/objets/Depliant/Diffusion/depliant_anglais.pdf University of Quebec Information pamphlet]


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