Iceberg


Iceberg

An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water. [ [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=define%3Aiceberg&btnG=Google+Search Numerous definitions of the word "Iceberg"] URL accessed December 20, 2006.]

Etymology

The word iceberg is a partial loan translation from Dutch "ijsberg", literally meaning "ice mountain", [Online Etymology Dictionary. " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=iceberg&searchmode=none iceberg] ". URL accessed March 29, 2006.] cognate to Danish "Isbjerg", Swedish "Isberg", Low Saxon "Iesbarg" and German "Eisberg"

Overview

Because the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/m³, and that of sea water about 1025 kg/m³, typically only one-tenth of the volume of an iceberg is above water. The shape of the remainder under the water can be difficult to surmise from looking at what is visible above the surface. This has led to the expression "", generally applied to a problem or difficulty, meaning that the visible trouble is only a small manifestation of a larger problem.

Icebergs generally range from 1 to 75 meters (3–250 ft) above sea level and weigh 100,000 to 200 000 tonnes. The tallest known iceberg in the North Atlantic was 168 meters (550 ft) above sea level, making it the height of a 55-story building. Despite their size, the icebergs of Newfoundland move an average of 17 kilometers a day (10 mi). [http://www.wordplay.com/tourism/icebergs/ URL accessed June 16, 2007] These icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland, and may have an interior temperature of -15 to -20°C (5 to -4 °F). [http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/MA06/indepth/justthefacts.asp Canadian Geographic Facts on Icebergs] URL accessed December 20, 2006.]

Though usually confined by winds and currents to move close to the coast, the largest icebergs recorded are calved, or broken off from, the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Iceberg B-15, photographed by satellite in 2000, measured 295 km long and 37 km wide (183-23 mi), with a surface area of 11,000 km² (4,250 mi²). The mass was estimated around three billion tonnes.

When an iceberg melts, it makes a fizzing sound called "Bergie Seltzer." This sound is made when compressed air bubbles trapped in the iceberg pop. The bubbles come from air trapped in snow layers that later become glacial ice.

Ice campers who camp on top of flat or hollowed icebergs are known as icebergers.

Classification

ize

This size classification is used by the International Ice Patrol: [http://www.uscg.mil/lantarea/iip/FAQ/FAQ_Icebergs.shtml Iceberg FAQ] URL accessed December 20, 2006.]

hape

In addition to the above size classification, there is also a type of classification based on shape. The two basic types of iceberg forms are "tabular" and "non-tabular". Tabular icebergs have steep sides and a flat top, much like a plateau, with a length-to-height ratio of more than 5:1. [http://www.uscg.mil/lantarea/iip/FAQ/Icebergs_5.shtml Clarification on the Sizes and Shapes of Icebergs] URL accessed December 20, 2006.] Non-tabular icebergs have different shapes, and include: [ [http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/ma06/indepth/nathistory.asp Iceberg Physiology] URL accessed December 20, 2006]
* "Dome": An iceberg with a rounded top.
* "Pinnacle": An iceberg with one or more spires.
* "Wedge": An iceberg with a steep edge on one side and a slope on the opposite side.
* "Dry-Dock": An iceberg that has eroded to form a slot or channel.
* "Blocky": An iceberg with steep, vertical sides and a flat top. It differs from tabular icebergs in that its shape is more like a block than a flat sheet.

History

In the 20th century, several scientific bodies were established to study and monitor the icebergs. The International Ice Patrol, formed in 1914 in response to the "Titanic" disaster, monitors iceberg dangers near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provide the "limits of all known ice" in that vicinity to the maritime community.

A chunk of Antarctic ice about seven times the size of Manhattan suddenly collapsed, putting an even greater portion of glacial ice at risk and an ice shelf about the size of Connecticut was "hanging by a thread" as of March 25 2008.cite web | author = CNN| title = Huge Antarctic ice chunk collapses | publisher = CNN | date = 2008-03-25 | url = http://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/science/03/25/antartica.collapse.ap/index.html | accessdate = 2008-03-25] cite web | author = CNN| title = Massive ice shelf on verge of breakup | publisher = CNN | date = 2008-03-25 | url = http://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/03/25/antarctic.ice/index.html | accessdate = 2008-03-26]

Monitoring

Icebergs are monitored worldwide by the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC), established in 1995, which produces analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions. More than 95% of the data used in its sea ice analyses are derived from the remote sensors on polar-orbiting satellites that survey these remote regions of the Earth.

The NIC is the only organization that names and tracks all Antarctic Icebergs. It assigns each iceberg larger than 10 nautical miles (18 km) along at least one axis a name composed of a letter indicating its point of origin and a running number. The letters used are as follows:
*A – longitude 0° to 90° W (Bellingshausen Sea, Weddell Sea)
*B – longitude 90° W to 180° (Amundsen Sea, Eastern Ross Sea)
*C – longitude 90° E to 180° (Western Ross Sea, Wilkes Land)
*D – longitude 0° to 90° E (Amery Ice Shelf, Eastern Weddell Sea)

Iceberg B15, which calved from the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 and initially had an area of 11,000 km², was the largest iceberg ever recorded. It broke apart in November 2002. The largest remaining piece of it, Iceberg B-15A, with an area of 3,000 km², was still the largest iceberg on Earth until it ran aground and split into several pieces October 27 2005. It has been determined that the cause of the breakup was an ocean swell generated by an Alaskan storm 6 days earlier and 13,500 kilometers (8,370 miles) away. [ [http://www.physorg.com/news79026480.html Alaskan storm cracks giant iceberg to pieces in faraway Antarctica] ]

Technology history

There was no system in place before 1912 to track icebergs to guard against ship collisions. The sinking of the RMS "Titanic", which caused the death of more than 1,500 of its 2,223 passengers, created the demand for a system to observe icebergs. For the remainder of the ice season of that year, the United States Navy patrolled the waters and monitored ice flow. In November 1913, the International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea met in London to devise a more permanent system of observing icebergs. Within three months, the participating maritime nations had formed the International Ice Patrol (IIP). The goal of the IIP was to collect data on meteorology and oceanography in order to measure currents, iceflow, ocean temperature, and salinity levels. They published their first records in 1921, which allowed for a year-by-year comparison of iceberg movement.

New technologies monitor icebergs. Aerial surveillance of the seas in the early 1930s allowed for the development of charter systems that could accurately detail the ocean currents and iceberg locations. In 1945, experiments tested the effectiveness of radar in detecting icebergs. A decade later, oceanographic monitoring outposts were established for the purpose of collecting data; these outposts continue to serve in environmental study. A computer was first installed on a ship for the purpose of oceanographic monitoring in 1964, which allowed for a faster evaluation of data. By the 1970s, icebreaking ships were equipped with automatic transmissions of satellite photographs of ice in Antarctica. Systems for optical satellites had been developed, but were still limited by weather conditions. In the 1980s, drifting buoys were used in Antarctic waters for oceanographic and climate research. They are equipped with sensors that measure ocean temperature and currents. Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) made it possible to acquire images regardless of weather conditions. On November 4 1995, Canada launched RADARSAT-1. Developed by the Canadian Space Agency, it provides images of Earth for both scientific and commercial purposes. This system was the first to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which sends microwave energy to the ocean surface and records the reflections to track icebergs. The European Space Agency launched ENVISAT on March 1 2002, an environmental satellite which uses Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). This can detect changes in surface height accurately. The Canadian Space Agency launched RADARSAT-2 in December 2007, which uses SAR and multipolarization modes and follows the same orbit path as RADARSAT-1. [Canadian Geographic. " [http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/MA06/indepth/technology_side2.asp Tracking Monsters] ". URL accessed March 29, 2006.]

References

External links

* [http://www.icebergfinder.com/ Iceberg Finder Service] for east coast of Canada
* [http://www.solcomhouse.com/iceberg.htm Icebergs of The Arctic and Antarctic]
* [http://www.avistadegoogle.com/88/15/Iceberg Iceberg Google maps] - South Georgia
* [http://www.thecircumference.org/experiences/glide-through-iceberg-alley Glide through Iceberg Alley] Best of flickr, youtube video wall, interactive map and references.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Iceberg b-15 — Pour les articles homonymes, voir B 15. L iceberg B 15A, mise à jour mars 2006 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • iceberg — [ isbɛrg; ajsbɛrg ] n. m. • 1839; ice berg 1819; mot angl., du norv. isberg « montagne de glace » ♦ Masse de glace flottante, détachée d un glacier polaire. Des icebergs. « La partie d un ice berg qui émerge de l eau n atteint qu environ 1/8 de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Iceberg B-15 — was the world s largest recorded iceberg. With an area of over 11,000 km², it was larger than the island of Jamaica. BackgroundCalved from the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000, B 15 broke up into several pieces in 2000, 2002 and 2003, the largest of… …   Wikipedia

  • Iceberg — steht für Iceberg (Modemarke), eine italienische Modemarke Iceberg Order, Vorgang an der Computerbörse Iceberg Slim (1918–1992), Zuhälter und Schriftsteller Iceberg Theory literarische Schreibtheorie Iceberg (Veranstaltung), Party in Wien… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Iceberg D-16 — is a city sized iceberg near Antarctica, discovered on March 26, 2006 by the National Ice Center using satellite imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. It broke free of the Fimbul Ice Shelf, located along the northwestern… …   Wikipedia

  • Iceberg B-9 — (1987) 154 km by 35 km calved away from Antarctica, from the sector east of Roosevelt Island, neighbouring the Bay of Whales and immediately east of the calving site of Iceberg B 15. It carried away all three Little Americas.External links*… …   Wikipedia

  • iceberg — (n.) 1774, partial loan translation of Du. ijsberg, lit. ice mountain, from ijs ice (see ICE (Cf. ice) (n.)) + berg mountain (see BARROW (Cf. barrow) (2)). An earlier term was sea hill (1690s). Phrase tip of the iceberg, in a figurative sense,… …   Etymology dictionary

  • iceberg — (Del ingl. iceberg, y este del neerl. medio ijsberg). m. Gran masa de hielo flotante, desgajada del polo, que sobresale en parte de la superficie del mar. ☛ V. la punta del iceberg …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • iceberg — ► NOUN ▪ a large mass of ice floating in the sea. ● the tip of the iceberg Cf. ↑the tip of the iceberg ORIGIN Dutch ijsberg, from ijs ice + berg hill …   English terms dictionary

  • iceberg — /ˈaizberɡ, ingl. ˈaɪsbYːɡ/ [vc. ol., ijsberg, letteralmente «monte (berg, col senso di «alto») di ghiaccio (ijs)»] s. m. inv. massa di ghiaccio galleggiante FRASEOLOGIA punta dell iceberg (fig.), parte evidente di un fenomeno …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Iceberg — Ice berg , n. [Prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. iisbierg, Sw. isberg, properly, a mountain of ice. See {Ice}, and {Berg}.] A large mass of ice, generally floating in the ocean. [1913 Webster] Note: Icebergs are large detached portions of glaciers …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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