- Washington Metro
Washington Metro Overview Type Rapid transit System Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Stations 86 (5 under construction) Services Red Line
Silver Line (under construction)
Daily ridership 590,625 (2010, daily average)
737,196 (September 2011, weekday)
Operation Opened March 27, 1976 Technical Line length 106.3 mi (171.1 km) Track gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge) Electrification Third rail 750 V DC
The Washington Metro, commonly called Metro, and unofficially Metrorail, is the rapid transit system in Washington, D.C., United States, and its surrounding suburbs. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which also operates Metrobus service under the Metro name. In Maryland, Metro provides service to Montgomery County and Prince George's County; in Virginia, to Fairfax County, Arlington County, and the City of Alexandria. Since opening in 1976, the network has grown to include five lines, 86 stations, and 106.3 miles (171.1 km) of track.
Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the United States in number of passenger trips, after the New York City Subway. There were 215.3 million trips, or 727,684 trips per weekday, on Metro in fiscal year 2008. In June 2008, Metro set a new monthly ridership record with 19,729,641 trips, or 798,456 per weekday. Fares vary based on the distance traveled, the time of day, and the type of card used by the passenger. Riders enter and exit the system using a stored-value card in the form of a paper magnetic stripe farecard or a proximity card known as SmarTrip.
Metro stations were designed by Chicago architect Harry Weese, and are examples of late-20th century modern architecture. With their heavy use of exposed concrete and repetitive design motifs, Metro stations also display aspects of brutalist design. In 2007, the design of the Metro's vaulted-ceiling stations was voted number 106 on the American Institute of Architects' list of "America's Favorite Architecture".
- 1 History
- 2 Metro network
- 3 Security
- 4 Accidents
- 5 Safety measures
- 6 Fare structure
- 7 Future expansion
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
During the 1960s, there were plans for a massive freeway system in Washington, but opposition to this freeway system grew. Harland Bartholomew, who chaired the National Capital Planning Commission, thought that a rail transit system would never be self-sufficient because of low density land uses and general transit ridership decline. Finally, a mixed concept of a Capital Beltway system along with rail line radials was agreed upon. The Beltway received full funding; funding for the ambitious Inner Loop Freeway system was partially reallocated toward construction of the Metro system.
In 1960, the federal government created the National Capital Transportation Agency to develop a rapid rail system. In 1966, a bill creating WMATA was passed by the federal government, the District of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland, with planning power for the system being transferred to it from the NCTA.
WMATA approved plans for a 98-mile (158 km) regional system in 1968, and construction began in 1969, with groundbreaking on December 9. The system opened March 27, 1976, with 4.6 miles (7.4 km) available on the Red Line with five stations from Rhode Island Avenue to Farragut North, all in the District of Columbia. Arlington County, Virginia was linked to the system on July 1, 1976; Montgomery County, Maryland, on February 6, 1978; Prince George's County, Maryland, on November 20, 1978; and Fairfax County, Virginia, and Alexandria, Virginia, on December 17, 1983.
The 103-mile (166 km), 83-station system was completed with the opening of the Green Line segment to Branch Avenue on January 13, 2001. This did not mean the end of the growth of the system: a 3.22-mile (5.18 km) extension of the Blue Line to Largo Town Center and Morgan Boulevard opened on December 18, 2004. The first in-fill station, NoMa – Gallaudet University (originally New York Ave–Florida Ave–Gallaudet U) on the Red Line between Union Station and Rhode Island Ave-Brentwood, opened November 20, 2004. Construction began in March 2009 for an extension to Dulles Airport to be built in two phases and opening in 2013 and 2016.
Metro construction required billions of federal dollars, originally provided by Congress under the authority of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969 (Public Law 91-143). The cost was paid with 90% federal money and 10% local money. This act was amended on January 3, 1980 by Public Law 96-184, "The National Capital Transportation Amendment of 1979" (also known as the Stark-Harris Act), which authorized additional funding of $1.7 billion to permit the completion of 89.5 miles (144.0 km) of the system as provided under the terms of a full funding grant agreement executed with WMATA in July 1986, which required 25% to be paid from local funds. On November 15, 1990, Public Law 101-551, "The National Capital Transportation Amendments of 1990", authorized an additional $1.3 billion in federal funds for construction of the remaining 13.5 miles (21.7 km) of the 103-mile (166 km) system, completed via the execution of full funding grant agreements, with a 63% federal/37% local matching.
The highest ridership for a single day was on the day of the inauguration of Barack Obama, January 20, 2009, with 1,120,000 riders. It broke the previous record, set the day before, of 866,681 riders. June 2008 set several ridership records: it set the single-month ridership record of 19,729,641 total riders, the record for highest average weekday ridership with 772,826 weekday trips, had five of the ten highest ridership days, and had 12 weekdays in which ridership exceed 800,000 trips.
In February 2006, Metro officials chose Randi Miller, a car dealership employee from Woodbridge, Virginia, to record new "doors opening", "doors closing", and "please stand clear of the doors, thank you" announcements after winning an open contest to replace the messages recorded by Sandy Carroll in 1996. The "Doors Closing" contest attracted 1,259 contestants from across the country.
On October 30, 2010, the crowd at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear broke a 19-year record in Saturday ridership, with 825,437 trips. The previous record had been set on June 8, 1991 at 786,358 trips during the Desert Storm rally.
Since opening in 1976, the Metro network has grown to include five lines, 86 stations, and 106.3 miles (171.1 km) of track. The rail network is designed according to a spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with rail lines running between downtown Washington and its nearby suburbs. The system makes extensive use of interlining – running more than one service on the same track. There are five operating lines and one line under construction: The system's iconic official map was designed by noted graphic designer Lance Wyman.
Washington Metro lines Line Name Opened Stations Distance Termini mi km Red Line 1976 27 31.9 51.3 Shady Grove - Glenmont Orange Line 1978 26 26.4 42.5 Vienna - New Carrollton Blue Line 1977 27 30.3 48.8 Franconia–Springfield - Largo Town Center Yellow Line 1983 17 15.07 24.25 Huntington - Fort Totten / Mount Vernon Square Green Line 1991 21 23.04 37.08 Branch Avenue - Greenbelt Silver Line
23 37 Route 772 - Stadium-Armory
There are 40 stations in the District of Columbia, 15 in Prince George's County, 11 in Montgomery County, 11 in Arlington County, six in Fairfax County, and three in the City of Alexandria. The Silver Line will add 11 new stations, eight in Fairfax County and three in Loudoun County, Virginia.
About 50 miles (80 km) of Metro's track is underground, as are 47 of the 86 stations. Track runs underground mostly within the District and high-density suburbs. Surface track accounts for about 46 miles (74 km) of the total, and aerial track makes up 9 miles (14 km). At 196 feet (60 m) below the surface, the Forest Glen station on the Red Line is the deepest in the system. There are no escalators; high-speed elevators take 20 seconds to travel from the street to the station platform. The Wheaton station, next to Forest Glen station on the Red Line, has the second-longest continuous escalator in the world, the longest in the Western Hemisphere, at 230 feet (70 m). The Rosslyn station is the deepest station on the Orange/Blue Line, at 97 feet (30 m) below street level. The station features the third-longest continuous escalator in the world at 205 feet (62 m); an escalator ride between the street level and the mezzanine level takes nearly two minutes.
The system is not centered on any single station, but Metro Center is at the intersection of the Red, Orange and Blue Lines, the three busiest lines. The station is also the location of WMATA's main sales office. Metro has designated five other "core stations" that have high passenger volume, including: Gallery Place, transfer station for the Red, Green and Yellow Lines; L'Enfant Plaza, transfer station for the Orange, Blue, Green and Yellow Lines; Union Station, the busiest station by passenger boardings; Farragut North; and Farragut West. In order to deal with the high number of passengers in transfer stations, Metro is studying the possibility of building pedestrian connections between nearby core transfer stations. For example, a 750-foot (230 m) passage between Metro Center and Gallery Place stations would allow passengers to transfer between the Orange/Blue and Yellow/Green Lines without going one stop on the Red Line. Another tunnel between Farragut West and Farragut North stations would allow transfers between the Red and Orange/Blue lines, decreasing transfer demand at Metro Center by an estimated 11%.
Metro runs special service patterns on holidays and when events in Washington may require additional service. Independence Day activities require Metro to adjust service in order to provide extra capacity to and from the National Mall. WMATA makes similar adjustments during other events, such as presidential inaugurations. Metro has altered service and used some stations as entrances or exits only to help manage congestion.
In an effort to gain revenues, WMATA has started to allow retail ventures in Metro stations. WMATA has authorized DVD-rental vending machines and ticket booths for the Old Town Trolley Tours and is seeking additional retail tenants.
Metro's fleet consists of 1,126 rail cars, each 75 feet (23 m) long. Trains have a maximum speed of 75 mph (121 km/h), and average 33 mph (53 km/h) including stops. Operating rules presently limit their top speed to 59 mph (95 km/h). All cars operate as married pairs (consecutively numbered even-odd), with systems shared across the pair. Metro currently operates 850 cars during rush hours. 814 cars are in active service, and the remaining 36 cars compose gap trains to serve as backup should a train experience problems.
Metro's rolling stock was acquired in six phases, and each version of car is identified with a separate series number. The original order of 300 rail cars (290 of which are in operation as of June 2009[update]) was manufactured by Rohr Industries, with final delivery in 1978. These cars are numbered 1000–1299 and were rehabilitated in the mid-1990s. Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (Breda) manufactured the second order of 76 cars delivered in 1983 and 1984. These cars, numbered 2000–2075, were rehabilitated in the early 2000s by Alstom in Hornell, New York. A third order of 288 cars, also from Breda, were delivered between 1984 and 1988. These cars are numbered 3000–3291 and were rehabilitated by Alstom in the early 2000s. An order of 100 cars from Breda, numbered 4000–4099, were delivered between 1992 and 1994. A fifth order of 192 cars was manufactured by Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain. These cars are numbered 5000–5191 and were delivered from 2001 through 2004. A sixth order of 184 cars from Alstom Transportation was delivered between 2005 and 2007. The cars have body shells built in Barcelona, Spain with assembly completed in Hornell, New York.
The 7000 series of cars, currently in development, are planned to go into service beginning in 2012. The new cars will be different from previous models in that they will operate as quads instead of pairs. The new design will allow for increased passenger capacity, elimination of redundant equipment, greater energy efficiency, and lower maintenance costs. Metro plans to eventually purchase up to 748 cars to increase system capacity and replace its older rolling stock. The National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the fatal June 22, 2009, accident led it to conclude that the 1000 series cars are unsafe and unable to protect customers in a crash. As a result, on July 26, 2010, Metro voted to purchase 7000 series cars to replace the remaining 1000 series cars. Additional series 7000 cars have been ordered to serve the new Silver Line to Dulles Airport. On July 1, 2010, the WMATA Board was able to activate a $886 million contract for 428 new series 7000 Metro cars to serve Dulles.
Signaling and operation
During normal passenger operation on revenue tracks, trains are controlled by an integrated Automatic Train Operation and Automatic Train Control system that accelerates and brakes the trains automatically without operator intervention. However, all trains are manned with train operators who open and close the doors, make station announcements, and supervise their trains. Since June 2009, when two Red Line trains collided due in part to malfunctions in the automatic control system, all Metro trains have been under manual operation.
The train doors were originally designed to be opened and closed automatically and the doors would re-open if an object blocked them, much as elevator doors do. Almost immediately after the system opened in 1976 Metro realized these features were not conducive to safe or efficient operation and they were disabled. At present the doors may be opened automatically or manually. If a door tries to close and it meets an obstruction, the operator must re-open the door.
The operator can manually operate a train when necessary.
Metro planners designed the system with passenger safety and order maintenance as primary considerations. The open vaulted ceiling design of stations and the limited obstructions on platforms allow few opportunities to conceal criminal activity. Station platforms are built away from station walls to limit vandalism and provide for diffused lighting of the station from recessed lights. Metro's attempts to reduce crime, combined with how the station environments were designed with crime prevention in mind, has contributed to Metro being among the safest and cleanest subway systems in the United States.
Metro is patrolled by its own police force, which is charged with ensuring the safety of passengers and employees. Transit Police officers patrol the Metro system and Metrobuses, and they have jurisdiction and arrest powers throughout the 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) Metro service area for crimes that occur on or against transit authority facilities, or within 150 feet (46 m) of a Metrobus stop. The Metro Transit Police Department is the only U.S. police agency that has local police authority in three different "state"-level jurisdictions (Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia).
Each city and county in the Metro service area has similar ordinances that regulate or prohibit vending on Metro-owned property, and which prohibit riders from eating, drinking, or smoking in Metro trains, buses, and stations; the Transit Police have a reputation for enforcing these laws rigorously. One widely publicized incident occurred in 2000 when police arrested a 12-year-old girl for eating french fries in the Tenleytown-AU station. In a 2004 opinion by John Roberts, now the Chief Justice of the United States, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the girl's arrest. By then WMATA had answered negative publicity by adopting a policy of first issuing warnings to juveniles, and arresting them only after three violations within a year.
Metro's zero-tolerance policy on food, trash and other sources of disorder embodies the "broken windows" philosophy of crime reduction. This philosophy also extends to the use of station restroom facilities. A longstanding policy, intended to curb unlawful and unwanted activity, has been to only allow employees to use Metro restrooms. Station managers may make exceptions for passengers with small children, the elderly, or the disabled. Metro now allows the use of restrooms by passengers who gain a station manager's permission, except during periods of heightened terror alerts.
Random bag searches
On October 27, 2008, the Metro Transit Police Department announced plans to immediately begin random searches of backpacks, purses, and other bags. Transit police would search riders at random before boarding a bus or entering a station. It also explained its intent to stop anyone acting suspiciously. Metro claims that the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit decision in MacWade v. Kelly, which upheld random searches on the New York City Subway, allows Metro Transit Police to take similar action. Metro Transit Police Chief Michael Taborn stated that, if someone were to turn around and simply enter the system through another escalator or elevator, Metro has "a plan to address suspicious behavior". Security specialist Bruce Schneier characterized the plan as "security theater against a movie plot threat", implying that he does not believe that these random searches will actually help improve security.
Metro’s Riders’ Advisory Council recommended to WMATA’s board of directors that Metro hold at least one public meeting regarding the search program. As of December 2008[update], Metro had not conducted a single bag search.
In 2010 Metro once again announced that it would implement random bag searches, and conducted the first such searches on December 21, 2010. The searches consist of swabbing bags and packages for explosive residue and X-Raying or opening any packages which turned up positive. On the first day the tests did produce one or more false-positive for explosives, which metro officials indicated could occur for a variety of reasons including if a passenger had recently been in contact with firearms or been to a firing range. A petition against the searches was started by the DC Bill of Rights Coalition and the Montgomery County Civil Rights Coalition, who claimed that it violated the US 4th amendment and would not improve security. On January 3, 2011 Metro held a public forum for the searches at a Metro Riders Advisory Council meeting, at which more than 50 riders spoke out, most of them in opposition to the searches. However at the meeting Metro officials called random bag inspections a "success" and claimed that few riders had complained.
Several collisions have occurred on Washington Metro, resulting in injuries and fatalities, along with numerous derailments with few or no injuries. WMATA has been criticized for disregarding safety warnings and advice from experts. The Tri-State Oversight Committee oversees WMATA, but has no regulatory authority. Metro's safety department is usually in charge of investigating incidents, but cannot require other Metro departments to implement its recommendations.
During the Blizzard of 1996, on January 6, a Metro operator was killed when a train failed to stop at the Shady Grove station. The four-car train overran the station platform and struck an unoccupied train that was awaiting assignment. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation found that the crash was a result of a failure in the train's computer-controlled braking system. The NTSB recommended that Metro grant train operators the ability to manually control the braking system, even in inclement weather, and recommended that Metro prohibit parked rail cars on tracks used by incoming outbound trains.
On November 3, 2004, an out-of-service Red Line train rolled backwards into the Woodley Park station and hit an in-service train stopped at the platform. No one was killed, but 20 people were injured. A 14-month investigation concluded that the train operator was most likely not alert as the train rolled backwards into the station. Safety officials estimated that had the train been full, at least 79 would have died. The train operator was dismissed and Metro officials agreed to add rollback protection to more than 300 rail cars.
On June 22, 2009 at 5:02 p.m., two trains on the Red Line collided. A southbound train heading toward Shady Grove stopped on the track short of the Fort Totten station, and another southbound train collided with its rear. The front car of the moving train (1079) was telescoped by the rear car of the standing train (5066), and passengers were trapped. Nine people died and more than 70 were injured, dozens of whom were described as "walking wounded". According to WMATA, trains were not single-tracking in the area when the crash occurred, but the trains were on the same track. Red Line service was suspended between the Fort Totten and Takoma stations, and New Hampshire Avenue was closed. One of the dead was the operator of the train that collided with the stopped train.
On November 29, 2009 at 4:27 a.m., two trains collided at the West Falls Church train yard. One train pulled in and collided into the back of the other train. No customers were aboard, and only minor injuries to the operators and cleaning staff were reported. However, three cars (1106, 1171, and 3216) were believed to be damaged beyond repair.
On January 13, 1982, a train derailed at a malfunctioning crossover switch south of the Federal Triangle station. In attempting to restore the train to the rails, supervisors failed to notice that another car had also derailed. The other rail car slid off the track and hit a tunnel support, killing three people and injuring 25. Coincidentally, this accident occurred about 30 minutes after Air Florida Flight 90 crashed into the nearby 14th Street Bridge during a major snowstorm.
On January 20, 2003, during construction of a new canopy at the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Metro began running trains through the center track even though it had not been constructed for standard operations, and a Blue Line train derailed at the switch. No injuries resulted, but the accident delayed construction by a number of weeks.
On January 7, 2007, a Green Line train carrying approximately 120 people derailed near the Mount Vernon Square station in downtown Washington. Trains were single-tracking at the time, and the derailment of the fifth car occurred where the train was switching from the south to northbound track. The accident injured at least 18 people and prompted the rescue of 60 people from a tunnel. At least one person had a serious but non-life-threatening injury.
On February 12, 2010, a Red Line train derailed at about 10:13 a.m. as it left the Farragut North station in downtown Washington. After leaving the station, the train entered the pocket track north of the station. As it continued, an automatic derailer at the end of the pocket track intentionally derailed the train as a safety measure. If the train had continued moving forward on the pocket track, it would have entered the path of an oncoming train. The wheels of the first two cars in the six-car, White-Flint-bound train were forced off the tracks, stopping the train. Almost all of the estimated 345 passengers were evacuated from the damaged train by 11:50 a.m. and the NTSB arrived on the accident scene by noon. Two minor injuries were reported, and a third passenger was taken to George Washington University Hospital. The cause is under investigation.
On July 13, 2009, WMATA adopted a "zero tolerance" policy for train or bus operators found to be texting or using other hand-held devices while on the job. This new and stricter policy came after investigations of several mass-transit accidents in the U.S. found that operators were texting at the time of the accident. The policy change was announced the day after a passenger of a Metro train videotaped the operator texting while operating the train.
Metro fares vary based on the distance traveled and the time of day at entry. During regular hours (weekdays from opening until 9:30 a.m. and 3–7 p.m., and Friday and Saturday nights from 2:00 a.m. to closing), fares range from $1.95 to $5.00, depending on distance traveled. At all other times, fares are $1.60, $2.15, or $2.75, based on distance traveled. Discounted fares are available for school children, the disabled, and the elderly. Metro charges reduced fares on all federal holidays.
Riders enter and exit the system using a stored-value card in the form of a paper magnetic stripe farecard or a proximity card known as SmarTrip. The fare is deducted from the balance of the card upon exiting the system. Farecards are purchased primarily at vending machines in each station. Farecards can hold up to $45 in value and are reused until the value of the card reaches zero. If the card contains the exact fare needed to exit, leaving the card at a zero balance, the card is not returned by the exit gate. Alternatively, passengers may purchase passes at most farecard vending machines. The passes are used the same way as farecards but grant riders unlimited travel within the system for a certain period of time. Some Metro passes restrict the times and distances that the pass may be used.
Users can add value to any farecard, but riders must pay an exit fare if the cost of a trip is higher than their card's balance. Riders may transfer for free, provided they do not exit through the faregates. SmarTrip users receive a $0.50 discount on bus-to-rail and rail-to-bus transfers.
On January 7, 2010, the WMATA board approved hearings to consider a temporary 10-cent fare increase on rail and bus fares to take effect in April through July 2010 in order to make up for a budget shortfall. The increase was approved, took effect on February 28, 2010, and will last through June 26, 2010 (unless the board takes further action to extend or increase it).
Due to severe deficits, Metro introduced a "staggered" fare increase beginning in June 2010 and further increasing on August 1, 2010—its largest increase ever. An increase in fares of from 25 cents to 45 cents depending on distance was implemented, along with an additional "peak-of-the-peak" fare increase of 20 cents during morning and afternoon rush periods. Due to problems with memory capacity and software upgrades on faregates, as of August 12, the morning peak-of-the-peak had not been implemented. Additionally, users of paper farecards will be charged a 25-cent surcharge on each trip in addition to the regular fare; this surcharge does not apply to SmarTrip users.
WMATA expects an average of one million riders daily by 2030. The need to increase capacity has renewed plans to add 220 cars to the system and reroute trains to alleviate congestion at the busiest stations. Population growth in the region has also revived efforts to extend service, build new stations, and construct additional lines.
The most prominent expansion is the Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project, informally dubbed the Silver Line, a 23-mile (37 km) extension from the Orange Line into Loudoun County, Virginia by way of Tysons Corner and Washington Dulles International Airport. Rail to Dulles has been discussed since the system opened in 1976. The current Silver Line project was formally proposed in 2002 and initially approved by the Federal Transit Administration in 2004. After several delays, federal funding for Phase 1 was secured in December 2008 and construction began in March 2009. The line will be constructed in two phases; the first phase to Reston – Wiehle Avenue in Reston, Virginia is scheduled for completion in late 2013 and the second phase to Virginia Route 772, beyond Dulles Airport, is projected for completion in 2015.
Blue Line realignment
Blue Line trains share a single tunnel with Orange Line trains in order to cross the Potomac River. The current tunnel limits service in each direction, creating a choke point. A 2001 proposal would have rerouted the Blue Line between the Rosslyn and Stadium–Armory stations by building a bridge or tunnel from Virginia to a new station in Georgetown. The proposal was later rejected due to cost, but Metro again started considering a similar scenario in 2011. In October 2008, Metro released a study on the possibility of rerouting some Blue Line trains over the 14th Street Bridge, currently used by Yellow Line trains. This Blue Line realignment would increase service directly to downtown and relieve congestion at the Rosslyn tunnel. If implemented, the new service between Franconia–Springfield and Greenbelt stations may be referred to as a new line.
Fort Belvoir and Fort Meade extensions
In 2005, the Defense Department announced that it would be shifting 18,000 jobs to Fort Belvoir in Virginia and at least 5,000 jobs to Fort Meade in Maryland by 2012, as part of that year's Base Realignment and Closure plan. In anticipation of such a move, local officials and the military proposed extending the Blue and Green Lines to service each base. The proposed extension of the Green Line could cost $100 million per mile ($60 million per kilometer), and a light rail extension to Fort Belvoir was estimated to cost up to $800 million. Neither proposal has established timelines for planning or construction.
Potomac Yard station
In 2008, officials began to explore the possibility of adding a station in the Potomac Yard area of Alexandria on the Blue and Yellow Lines between the National Airport and Braddock Road stations. The project remains in the exploratory stages, and construction funding (estimated at $150 million) has not been approved.
Other new rail lines
In 2011, Metro began studying the needs of the system through 2040. New Metro rail lines and extensions under consideration as part of this long term plan include: a new line which parallels the Capital Beltway; a new line from the Friendship Heights Metro station to White Oak, Maryland, which would pass through the District and Silver Spring; an extension of the Green Line to National Harbor in Maryland; and re-routing the Blue Line in the District between the Orange Line and Green Line. None of these lines are yet funded for planning or construction.
A number of light rail and urban streetcar projects have been proposed to extend or supplement service provided by Metro. Like the Silver Line in Virginia, the proposed Purple Line has been in planning since the 1980s. The project was originally envisioned as a circular heavy rail line connecting the outer stations on each branch of Metrorail system, in a pattern roughly mirroring the Capital Beltway. The current proposal would create a light rail system in Maryland between the Bethesda and New Carrollton stations by way of Silver Spring and College Park. Such a plan would connect both branches of the Red Line to the Green and Orange Lines, and would decrease the travel time between suburban Metro stations. The project is still undergoing regulatory approval but received significant backing from local officials and Maryland lawmakers in January 2009.
The Corridor Cities Transitway (CCT) would link Clarksburg, Maryland in northern Montgomery County with the Shady Grove station on the Red Line. The CCT is currently scheduled to open in 2016. In 2005, a Maryland lawmaker proposed a light rail system to connect areas of Southern Maryland, especially the rapidly growing area around the town of Waldorf, to the Branch Avenue station on the Green Line. The project is still in the planning stages.
In Washington, a new DC Streetcar system is under construction to link various neighborhoods to Washington Metro stations. The first tram line will connect Bolling Air Force Base to the Anacostia station and is expected to open in 2010. Streetcar routes have been proposed in the Atlas District, Capitol Hill, and the K Street corridor. In Virginia, the Pike Transit Initiative is a streetcar project that will link Annandale, Virginia along Columbia Pike to the Pentagon City station in Arlington. The streetcars were originally expected to begin service in 2011.
- List of metro systems
- List of United States rapid transit systems by ridership
- Transportation in Washington, D.C.
- United States Capitol Subway System
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- ^ "Discover A New Horizon". Rosslyn Magazine 1 (2): 21. Summer 2006.
- ^ a b "Media Guide 2008". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/docs/media_guide_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- ^ a b "Core Stations Capacity Enhancements". WMATA. October 21, 2008. http://www.wmata.com/pdfs/planning/Demand_Passenger%20Facilities.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
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- ^ "Metro launches retail at Smithsonian Metrorail station". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=4889. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
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- ^ "NTSB Accident Report RAR-06-01, Collision Between Two Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Trains at the Woodley Park- Zoo/Adams Morgan Station in Washington, D.C. November 3, 2004". National Transportation Safety Board. pp. 56. http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/reports/2006/RAR0601.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
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- ^ "7000 Series Railcar Program: Overview". WMATA. September 25, 2008. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/board_of_directors/board_docs/092508_8A7000SeriesRailcar.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- ^ Scott Tyson, Ann (July 28, 2010). "Red Line crash was inevitable, NTSB finds". Washington Post: p. A1.
- ^ Tuss, Adam (March 22, 2010). "Metro's oldest rail cars will be rolling out of service". WTOP. http://www.wtopnews.com/?nid=25&sid=1917616. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- ^ Lisa Rein and Anita Kumar (July 2, 2010). "Metro's directors back $300 million accord with Va.". Washington Post: p. B4.
- ^ Hohmann, James (2009-08-19). "After Fatal Crash, Metro Still Wary Of Letting Computers Control Trains". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/18/AR2009081802446.html.
- ^ "Precision Station Stopping Progress Update". WMATA. March 21, 2005. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/board_of_directors/board_docs/033105_Rev3033005PrecisionStopping.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ La Vigne, Nancy G. (November 1997) (PDF). Visibility and Vigilance: Metro's Situational Approach to Preventing Subway Crime (Research in Brief). National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/166372.pdf.
- ^ a b La Vigne, Nancy G. (1996). "Safe Transport: Security by Design on the Washington Metro (Chapter 6)". In Clarke, Ronald V. (editor). Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Criminal Justice Press. ISBN 1881798283.
- ^ "Metro Transit Police". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/transit_police. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
- ^ Sullivan, Emmet G. (2003-09-30). "Hedgepeth v. WMATA, et al." (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Columbia. http://news.findlaw.com/wp/docs/crights/dcfrycase93003opn.pdf.
- ^ Hedgepeth v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, 386 F.3d 1148 (D.C. Cir. 2004) (Argued September 17, 2004 decided October 26, 2004)
- ^ Layton, Lyndsey (2003-01-05). "If You Have to Go, Perhaps Soon You Can Go on Metro". The Washington Post: p. C04. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A11550-2003Jan4¬Found=true.
- ^ "Metro steps up security as a precaution after foiled London terror plot" (Press release). WMATA. August 10, 2006. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=3844.
- ^ Lena H. Sun (2008-10-28). "Metro to Randomly Search Riders' Bags". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/27/AR2008102700767.html.
- ^ Appeals court decision: Brieant, Charles L.; Newman and Straub, Circuit Judges (August 11, 2006). "Brendan MacWade and four other Plaintiffs v. Raymond Kelly, Defendant". www.aele.org. Americans for Effective Law Enforcement. http://www.aele.org/law/2006LRSEP/macwade-kelly.html. Retrieved November 7, 2009. Original complaint: New York Civil Liberties Foundation (August 4, 2005). "MacWade v. Kelly" (PDF). findlaw.com. FindLaw. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/nyc/mcwadenyc80405cmp.pdf. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
- ^ "News Q & A: MTPD Security Inspection Program". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/faqs/preview.cfm?faqID=50. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Taborn, Michael (2008-10-28). "Metro Transit's Top Cop Discusses New Search Policy". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2008/10/27/DI2008102702325.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ "Bruce Schneier Talks Metro Bag Searches". The Washington Post. 2008-10-31. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2008/10/30/DI2008103003705.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Dr. Gridlock (2008-12-07). "Discussion Overdue On Metrorail’s Bag-Search Policy". The Washington Post: p. C02. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/06/AR2008120601866.html.
- ^ "Metro Begins Random Bag Searches". MSNBC. 2010-12-21. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40764493/ns/local_news-washington_dc/.
- ^ "Metro bag inspections cause minor customer annoyances". Washington Post. 2010-12-21. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/21/AR2010122105534.html.
- ^ "Groups Launch Petition Against Metro Bag Searches". MSNBC. 2010-12-20. http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local-beat/Groups-Launch-Petition-Against-Metros-Bag-Searches.html.
- ^ "Metro riders sound off on bag searches". WTOP. 2011-01-04. http://www.wtop.com/?nid=598&sid=2220916.
- ^ Becker, Jo; Lyndsey Layton (2005-06-06). "Safety Warnings Often Ignored at Metro". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/05/AR2005060500968.html. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- ^ "Railroad Accident Report: Collision of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Train T-111 with Standing Train at Shady Grove Passenger Station, Gaithersburg, Maryland, January 6, 1996". National Transportation Safety Board. 1996-10-29. http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/reports/1996/rar9604.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Layton, Lyndsey; Steven Ginsberg (2004-11-04). "20 Injured in Crash of 2 Red Line Trains". The Washington Post: pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22466-2004Nov3.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Sun, Lena H. (2006-03-23). "Dozing Operator Blamed in Rail Accident". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/23/AR2006032300974.html.
- ^ "NTSB Abstract RAR-10/02". National Transportation Safety Board. http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/reports/2010/RAR1002.pdf.
- ^ "Metro: Train operator not using cell phone – wtop.com". Wtopnews.com. 2009-06-25. http://www.wtopnews.com/?nid=25&sid=1702179. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "Metro – Home page". Wmata.com. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/rotator.cfm?id=0AB5FB0A-1EC9-3EBA-50AC57E553EF6E9E. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "Metro Trains Collide; At Least 1 Dead". Myfoxphilly.com. http://www.myfoxphilly.com/dpp/news/national/062209_metro_train_collision_2599596#. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "Photos from the scene". Myfoxdc.com. http://www.myfoxdc.com/dpp/news/local/062209_metro_train_collision. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "9 Killed, 76 Injured in Deadliest Disaster in Metro History|ABC 7 News". Wjla.com. 2009-06-23. http://www.wjla.com/news/stories/0609/634125.html. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- ^ "Two six-car trains collide inside Metro rail yard" (Press release). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. November 29, 2009. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=4162. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- ^ Layton, Lyndsey (February 27, 2003). "Metro track blamed in derailment – Section not made for regular use". The Washington Post: p. A1.
- ^ Klein, Allison; Martin Well (2007-01-08). "Green Line Metro Train Derails; at Least 18 Hurt". The Washington Post: pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/07/AR2007010700827.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- ^ a b Weiss, Eric M. (2007-01-09). "Federal Investigators Question Metro's Safety". The Washington Post: pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/08/AR2007010800195.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Sun, Lena H.; Daniela Dean (2008-06-10). "Metro Train Derails, Causing Major Delays". The Washington Post: pp. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/09/AR2008060901703.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- ^ Sun, Lena H. (2008-06-11). "Metro Says Operator Wasn't First to Detect Derailment". The Washington Post: pp. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/10/AR2008061000546.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- ^ "D.C. Metro train derails at Farragut North". Washington Post. February 12, 2010. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/getthere/2010/02/train_derails_at_farragut_nort.html. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- ^ John Hughes (July 9, 2009). "Washington Metro Train Operators Caught Texting Will Be Fired". Bloomberg.com. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQFnCkF0qCSs.
- ^ a b "Metrorail Fares". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/fares/metrorail.cfm. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
- ^ "General Manager’s Fiscal 2008 Proposed Operating and Capital Budgets". WMATA. 2006-12-14. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/board_of_directors/board_docs/121406_6GMGRProposedBudget.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ "How to Use Metrorail Faregates, Farecards, and Passes". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/getting_around/faregates.cfm. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ "Metro Pass and Farecard Options". WMATA. http://www.wmata.com/fares/purchase/passes.cfm. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- ^ Tyson, Ann Scott (January 8, 2010). "10-cent fare hike proposed for Metro". Washington Post: p. B1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/07/AR2010010702588.html?hpid=newswell. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- ^ "Ten-cent Metro fare increase effective February 28 through June 26" (Press release). WMATA. February 17, 2010. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=4325.
- ^ "Metro details improvements to meet future capacity needs". WMATA. 2008-04-18. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=2064. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- ^ a b "Dulles Metrorail is Coming" (PDF). Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project. April 2008. http://www.dullesmetro.com/pdfs/Dulles-Fact-Sheet.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- ^ Gardner, Amy (2008-12-04). "Silver Line To Dulles Wins Crucial Federal Okay". The Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/03/AR2008120302256.html. Retrieved 2008-12-07.
- ^ "Project Timeline". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. http://www.dullesmetro.com/about/timeline.cfm. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- ^ "Metro Long Range Planning". National Association to Restore Pride in America's Capital. http://www.narpac.org/METROLRP.HTM. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- ^ Whoriskey, Peter (2005-04-15). "Choke Point Slows Orange Line Trains". The Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A54434-2005Apr14.html.
- ^ a b c Kytja Weir (14 June 2011). "Metro studies more rail lines for future". The Examiner (WashingtonExaminer.com). http://washingtonexaminer.com/local/dc/2011/06/metro-studies-more-rail-lines-future. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- ^ "New Rail Service, Franconia-Springfield to Greenbelt". WMATA. October 2008. http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/riders_advisory_council/minutes/docs/Blue%20Line%20Split%20RAC%20Presentation,%20October%208,%202008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- ^ Smith, Leef (2005-05-20). "Metro Studies Ft. Belvoir Extension". The Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/19/AR2005051901618.html.
- ^ McGowan, Phillip (2005-06-09). "Fort Meade proposes Metro extension". The Baltimore Sun. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/traffic/bal-md.ar.bases09jun09,1,1245355.story.
- ^ Sun, Lena (2008-06-06). "New Push For Metro Station in Alexandria". The Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/05/AR2008060501570.html.
- ^ a b Shaver, Katherine (2009-01-23). "Leggett Endorses Light-Rail Plan". The Washington Post: p. B03. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/22/AR2009012203666.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ "Where Would the Purple Line Go?". Sierra Club. http://www.sierraclub.org/dc/sprawl/purple-line/purple-line-connections.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ "About the Project". Maryland Transit Administration. http://purplelinemd.com/about-the-project. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- ^ "The Corridor Cities Transitway". Montgomery County Planning Department. http://www.montgomeryplanning.org/transportation/projects/corridor.shtm. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ "Major Transit and HOV Improvements". Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. 2008-11-19. http://www.mwcog.org/clrp/projects/transithov.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ Paley, Amit (2005-02-15). "Dyson Pushes Light Rail, Expansion of Bridge". The Washington Post: p. SM01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18469-2005Feb12.html.
- ^ Sun, Lena (2008-07-13). "Transit Plan on Track". The Washington Post: p. C01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/12/AR2008071201834.html. Retrieved 2008-07-13.
- ^ Laris, Michael (2008-01-14). "Streetcar Plan Has Money and Desire". The Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/01/13/AR2008011303609.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Official site
- Metro Transit Police Official site
- StationMasters Online Neighborhood maps and panoramic photographs of each station
- MetroRiders.Org Metro Passenger Advocacy Group
- Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project
- Dulles Corridor Rail Association
- Building the Washington Metro
Transit enthusiast sites
- world.nycsubway.org Washington Metro
- The Schumin Web Transit Center (WMATA)
- Oren's Transit Page (Washington, D.C.)
- Washington-DC-Metro.com – A retired WMATA employee reflects on 27 years of insider experiences.
- UrbanRail.net Washington Metro
- John R. Cambron. "Various Documents, Pictures and Maps of Washington Metro". Archived from the original on 2007-05-09. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070509124714/http://www.chesapeake.net/~cambronj/.
- Home Page of John R Cambron
- "The Pipeshaft: Infrastructure of the D.C. Metrorail". Archived from the original on 2007-04-17. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070417222849/http://www.pipeshaft.com/.
- GP Bus Gallery
- MetroSongs, folksongs about the DC Metro by Jason Mendelson
- DCRails.com Google Maps representation of Metrorail with address lookup.
- An alternate Google Maps representation showing all lines drawn in
- Archived version of a track map on nycsubway.org that was removed post-9/11 at the request of WMATA.
- Track schematic of 106 Mile System
- Track schematic of 129 mile system (Dulles Corridor Metrorail Project)
- Planned 2030 Track schematic
- Stationmasters, map of the Washington Metro with 360-degree photos of each station's surroundings and highly detailed local maps
- Washington Metro daily rail operations visualized (Java applet, unofficial)
- "Document describing line nomenclature, operation and signaling". Archived from the original on 2007-02-10. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/www.chesapeake.net/~cambronj/wmata/track_schematic/wmata_track_schematic_nomenclature.htm.
- "Traction Motor Repair". Swiger Coil Systems. http://www.swigercoil.com/traction-Motor-Repair.asp.
- "On Track With Added Value". Engineered Casting Solutions. November/December 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-10-20. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20061020015634/http://www.castsolutions.com/archive/feature_article_1105.html.
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Services Metrorail lines Future projects General managers Related articles Transit in Metropolitan Washington, D.C. Agencies Metrorail Commuter Rail Bus Future projects Railroads of Washington, D.C. Common carriers Passenger carriers Former carriers See also: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Currently operating heavy rail rapid transit systems in the United States
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Blue, Orange, and Red Lines) · MTA (New York City Subway and Staten Island Railway) · Port Authority Trans-Hudson · Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Market–Frankford and Broad Street lines) · PATCO Speedline · Baltimore Metro Subway · Washington Metro · Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority · Miami Metrorail · San Juan Tren Urbano · Cleveland Red Line · Chicago 'L' · Bay Area Rapid Transit · Los Angeles Metro Rail (Red and Purple Lines)
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