- Sino-Burmese relations
Bilateral relations with the
People's Republic of Chinaare the strongest enjoyed by the largely-isolated military-ruled Burma(officially Union of Myanmar). China is the third-largest trading partner of Burma and provides it with extensive military and economic aid and vital diplomatic support. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7011746.stm Chinese dilemma over Burma] (25 September 2007). BBC. Accessed 2008-05-30.] cite book |last=Shambaugh|first=David |others= |title=Power Shift: China and Asia's New Dynamics |year=2000 |publisher=Nazrul Institute |isbn=0520245709 |pages=218] [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/12/AR2007011201115.html Russia, China veto resolution criticizing Burma] (January 13, 2007). Washington Post. Accessed 2008-05-30.] [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/GB11Ae01.html Yangon still under Beijing's thumb] (February 11, 2005). AsiaTimes.com. Accessed 2008-05-30.]
Burma was the first non-Communist country to recognize the Communist-led People's Republic of China after its foundation in 1949. Burma and the People's Republic of China formally established diplomatic relations on
June 8, 1950. China and Burma signed a treatyof friendship and mutual non-aggression and promulgated a Joint Declaration on June 29, 1954, officially basing their relations on the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence. [http://www.international-relations.com/CM7-2WB/Sino-Myanmar.htm Sino-Myanmar Relations: Analysis and Prospects] by Lixin Geng, "The Culture Mandala", Vol. 7, no. 2, December 2006. Accessed 2008-05-30.] However, Burma maintained a neutralist foreign policy in the 1950s and 1960s. Anti-Chinese riots in 1967 and the expulsion of Chinese communities from Burma generated hostility in both countries. Relations began to improve significantly in the 1970s. Under the rule of Deng Xiaoping, China reduced support for the CPB and on August 5, 1988China signed a major trade agreement, legalizing cross-border trading and began supplying considerably military aid. Following the violent repression of pro-democracy protests in 1988, the newly-formed State Peace and Development Council, facing growing international condemnation and pressure, sought to cultivate a strong relationship with China to bolster itself; in turn, China's influence grew rapidly after the international community abandoned Burma.
Bilateral trade between China and Burma exceeds $1.4 billion. [http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Business/2007/12/09/china-myanmar_trade_increased_in_2007/6547/ China-Myanmar trade increased in 2007] (December 9, 2007). UPI. Accessed 2008-05-30.] Chinese imports to Myanmar typically focus around oil, steel and textile products, while Myanmar imports range from natural rubber to raw wood. China is providing extensive aid and helping to develop industries and infrastructure in Burma and aims to be the chief benefactor from cultivating Burma's extensive
oiland natural gasreserves. It is one of the chief partners of the Burmese regime in the project to renovate and expand the Sittweseaport and has received rights to develop and exploit natural gas reserves in the Arakanregion. China has offered loans and credit to the military regime, as well as economic aid and investments for the construction of dams, bridges, roads and ports as well as for industrial projects. China extensively aided the construction of strategic roads along the Irrawaddy Rivertrade route linking Yunnanprovince to the Bay of Bengal. Chinese firms have been involved in the construction of oil and gas pipelines stretching 2,380 km (1,479 miles) from Burma's Arakan coast to China's Yunnan Province. China National Offshore Oil Corporation and the China National Petroleum Corporationhold important contracts on upgrading Burmese oilfields and refineries and sharing of production. PetroChinais in process of building a major gas pipeline from the A-1 Shwe oil field off the coast of the Rakhine Stateleading to Yunnan, accessing and exploiting an estimated 2.88 to 3.56 trillion cubic feetof natural gas. [http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=129 India and China compete for Burma's resources] (21 August 2006). World Politics Review. Accessed 2008-05-30.] A proposed Sino-Burmese oil pipeline off the western coast of Burma may permit China to import oil from the Middle East, by-passing the Strait of Malacca.
China is the most important supplier of military aid and maintains extensive strategic and military cooperation. Since 1989, China has supplied Burma with
jet fighters, armored vehicles and naval vessels and has trained Burmese army, air forceand navalpersonnel. Access to Burma's ports and naval installations provide China with strategic influence in the Bay of Bengal, in the wider Indian Oceanregion and in Southeast Asia. China has developed a deep-water porton Kyaukpyuin the Bay of Bengal. It has also built an 85- metre jetty, naval facilities and major reconnaissanceand electronic intelligencesystems on the Great Coco Island, [http://www.atimes.com/reports/CB21Ai01.html#top5 Myanmar shows India the road to Southeast Asia] (February 21, 2001). AsiaTimes. Accessed 2008-05-30.] located 18 kilometresfrom India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, giving China capabilities to monitor India's military activities, including missile tests. China assists in constructing a naval base in Sittwe, a strategically important sea port close to eastern India's largest city and port, Kolkata. Beijing also funds road construction linking Yangon and Sittwe, providing the shortest route to the Indian Ocean from southern China.
China and Russia once vetoed a
U.N. Security Councilresolution designed to punish Burma. In recent years, China has shown a lack of willingness to back the Burmese government and has attempted to stabilize the political situation in Burma.
In recent years, Burma has moved to develop strategic and commercial relations with India, with which it shares a long land border and the Bay of Bengal. Increasing trade and military cooperation with India and developing bilateral relations with
Japanand within the Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN) shows a shift in Burma's foreign policy to avoid excessive dependence on China.
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