- Religion in Hong Kong
Religionin Hong Kongis part and parcel of the culture of Hong Kong. Religious freedomis one of the fundamental rights enjoyed by Hong Kong residents. It is protected by the Basic Lawand relevant legislation. There is a large variety of religious groups in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(HKSAR), including Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhismand Judaism. All of these groups have a considerable number of adherents. Apart from offering religious instructions, many major religious bodies have established schools and provided social welfarefacilities.
Buddhism and Taoism
Buddhismand Taoismhave a considerable number of adherents in Hong Kong. There are more than 600 temples in the HKSAR. [Discoverhongkong. " [http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/travelneeds/faith/mk_fait_budd.jhtml Discoverhongkong] ." " Buddhist and Taoist Communities." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.] The history of some of these temples can be traced back to more than 700 years ago, while some others have been built in recent years. Notable temples include the Wong Tai Sin Templelocated in the Wong Tai Sin Districtin Kowloon. This popular temple is dedicated to the Taoist deity, Wong Tai Sin. Besides that, the Chi Lin Nunneryin Diamond Hillis a group of temple structures in the Tang Dynasty's architectural style. It is now open to the public following the completion of its redevelopment in 2000.
Po Lin Monasteryon Lantau Islandis famous for the outdoor bronze statue, Tian Tan Buddha, which attracts a large number of visitors during the weekends and holidays. It is now linked to the city's latest tourist attraction Ngong Ping 360Skyrail [NP360. " [http://www.np360.com.hk/html/eng/lantau/tour.html?play= [type%20Function] &continue1=yes&soundpos= NP360] ." "Themes." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.] . The cable car and park complex is built around a Buddhism theme, featuring sites of the Wisdom Path and the Po Lin Monastery.
Besides, buddhists'organizations and temples in Hong Kong have long been involved in social welfare and education in the city. The [http://www.hkbuddhist.org/index.html Buddhist's Association of Hong Kong] operates a dozen primary and secondary schools, and elderly homes as well as centres for youth and children in Hong Kong. [Bya.org. " [http://www.bya.org.hk/ Bya.org] ." "Buddhist Youth Association." Retrieved on
2008-03-06.] [Bya.org. " [http://www.hkbayouthcenter.org.hk/ Bya.org] ." "Buddhist Youth Association." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.]
The leadership of mainstream buddhists organizations have aligned themselves with the establishment in Hong Kong. For example, high-ranking Buddhist Association's executives have openly endorsed the re-election of the city's Chief Executive
Donald Tsang. Several of the association's members were on the drafting committee of the Basic Law.
Under the leadership of the former Chief Executive
Tung Chee Hwa, the SAR government formally recognized the influence of Buddhism in Hong Kong. In 1997 the SAR government designated one public holiday in May or June to mark Buddha's Birthday, which replaced the Queen's birthday. Tung himself is a Buddhist and participated in major, widely publicised Buddhist activities in Hong Kong and China.
Academic studies and research of Buddhism in Hong Kong have thrived over the past 10 years. The
University of Hong Konghas a Centre of Buddhist Studies. [HKU.HK. " [http://www.hku.hk/buddhism/ HKU.hk] ." "Centre of Buddhist Studies." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.] The Chinese University of Hong Kongalso has a Centre for the Study of Humanistic Buddhism. [Cuhk.edu.hk. " [http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/cpr/pressrelease/050418e.htm Cuhk.edu.hk] ." "CUHK Sets up Centre for the Study of Humanistic Buddhism." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.]
Strictly speaking a
philosophyrather than a religion, Confucianismis a belief in the teachings of Confuciuswho lived in ancient Chinafrom 551 to 479 B.C. His teachings were based on moral code for human relations with emphasis on the importance of tradition and rites. He was one of the most eminent thinkers of the time, a great sage and educator whose philosophy has deeply influenced the political, economic and social systems of China. He has also been hailed as an exemplary mentor for all ages. The major festival of Confucianism is Confucius' birthday that falls on the 27th day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar. Confucians in Hong Kong have been deeply involved in education. They run a number of local schools with an objective of promoting the teachings of Confucius.
The Roman Catholic community
Roman Catholic Churchin Hong Kong was established as a Mission Prefecturein 1841 and as an Apostolic Vicariatein 1874. It became a diocesein 1946. About 239 400 Hongkongers(or Hongkongese) are Catholics. They are served by 309 priests, 60 brothers and 519 sisters. There are 52 parishes, comprising 40 churches, 30 chapels and 28 halls for religious service. Services are conducted in Cantonese, with three-fifths of the parishes providing services in English and in Tagalog in some cases. The diocese has established its own administrative structure while maintaining close links with the Popeand other Catholic communities around the world. It has the same creed, Scripture, liturgyand organisation as the other culture communities world wide. The assistant secretary-general of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferencehas his office in Hong Kong. Along with its apostolic work, one of the prime concerns of the diocese has been for the well-being of all the Hongkongers. In education, there are 320 Catholic schools and kindergartens which have about 286 000 pupils. There is the Catholic Board of Educationto assist in this area. The medical and social services include six hospitals, 15 clinics, 13 social centres, 15 hostels, 12 homes for the aged, 15 rehabilitation service centres and many self-help clubs and associations. Caritas(which runs many youth and social organisations and even a hospital) is the official social welfare arm of the Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong. These services are open to all people. Indeed, 95 per cent of those who have benefited from the wide range of services provided by the diocese are not Catholics. To reach people through the media, the diocese publishes two weekly newspapers, " Kung Kao Po" and " The Sunday Examiner". In addition, the Diocesan Audio-Visual Centreproduces tapes and films for use in schools and parishes and, overall, the Hong Kong Catholic Social Communications Officeacts as an information and public relations channel for the diocese.
The Protestant community
The presence of the Protestant community dates back to 1841. About 300 000 Protestant Christians live in Hong Kong. The
Protestant Churchis made up of over 1 300 in more than 50 denominations. Major denominations are Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of Christ in China, Methodist, Pentecostaland Salvation Army. With their emphasis on youth work, many congregations have a high proportion of young people. The Protestant churches are also deeply involved in education, health care and social welfare. Protestant organisations operate three post-secondary institutions: Chung Chi College at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Baptist Universityand Lingnan University. They run 144 secondary schools, 192 primary schools, 273 kindergartens and 116 nurseries. In addition, they operate 16 theological seminaries and Bible institutes,16 Christian publishing houses and 57 Christian bookshops. They run seven hospitals with 3 749 beds, 18 clinics and 59 social service organisations that provide a wide range of social services including 227 community and youth centres, 74 day care centres, 17 children’s homes, 35 homes for the elderly, 106 elderly centres, two schools for the blind and deaf, 47 training centres for the mentally handicapped and 15 camp sites. Five international hotel-type guest houses are managed by the YMCAand YWCA. The church supports emergency relief and development projects in Third Worldcountries. Two weekly newspapers are published, " The Christian Weekly" and " The Christian Times". Two ecumenical bodies facilitate co-operative work among the Protestant churches in Hong Kong. The older one, dating from 1915, is the Hong Kong Chinese Christian Churches Union. The second co-operative body is the Hong Kong Christian Council, formed in 1954. Major mainline denominations and ecumenical services constitute the membership core of the council, which is committed to building closer relationships among all churches in Hong Kong as well as with churches overseas, and to stimulating local Christians to play an active part in the development of Hong Kong society.
The LDS/Mormon community
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintshas 22,500 recorded members in Hong Kong divided into 33 congregations, doubling the number of members from 10 years earlier. [LDS. " [http://www.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=953f8fffdd28f010VgnVCM100000176f620aRCRD&vgnextchannel=d10511154963d010VgnVCM1000004e94610aRCRD LDS] ." "LDS newsroom." Retrieved on 2008-03-06.] Among these, 5,565 are estimated to be 'active' in the faith. [ [http://www.cumorah.com/cgi-bin/db.cgi?view_records=View%2BRecords&Country=Hong+Kong Cumorah Project International LDS Database ] ]
The LDS Church first sent missionaries to Hong Kong in 1853 but did not establish a headquarters until 1949. In 1996 the Church completed the
Hong Kong China Templein Kowloon. In 2005, the Church dedicated the Church Administration Building Hong Kong.
The geographical administrative area for the China Hong Kong Mission includes all of
China. There are missionaries in Macaubut as of 2007, there are no LDS Missionaries preaching within mainland China, although there are some service Missionaries.
The Orthodox Community
For some years, a small band of dedicated and devout Orthodox Christians kept the Orthodoxy flame alive in Hong Kong; while services with a priest were rare, they continued to live the ancient expression of Eastern Christianity. A small delegation, representing the St. Luke Orthodox Community, approached Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, requesting that the community be given a full-time clergyman, who could serve the needs of the faithful and offer Orthodox Christianity to the local people. With the efforts of the then Bishop Athenagoras (later Metropolitan of Mexico, Central America and Caribbean, with seat in Panama), a systematic plan was developed. Upon the research and advice of the Bishop, the Holy and Sacred Synod of Constantinople founded the new [http://www.cs.ust.hk/faculty/dimitris/metro/hkmetropolis.html Orthodox Metropolitanate (Archdiocese) of Hong Kong and South East Asia] in November 1996. On December 2, 1996, Archmandrite Nikitas Lulias was elected as the first Orthodox Metropolitan of Hong Kong and assigned the ecclesiastical responsibilities of
Southeast Asia. On January 12, 1997, the Enthronment of Nikitas Lulias as the first Metropolitan of the OMHKSEA took place. The ceremony was held at the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Luke, Stanley Fort, Hong Kong, with Metropolitan Athenagoras of Panama representing the [http://www.ec-patr.org/default.php?lang=en Ecumenical Patriarchate] . Ten years later, in August 2007, Metropolitan Nikitas was transferred as Metropolitan of Dardanellia and OMHKSEA stayed vacant for a few months. On January 9, 2008, the Holy and Sacred Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate took the decision to split the huge area of OMHKSEA, by creating a new Metropolitanate in Singapore. Under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitanate of Hong Kong remained the countries: Popular Republic of China, Taiwan, Philippine Islands, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar. With the same decision, Archimandrite Nectarios Tsilis was elected as the New Metropolitan (Archbishop) of OMHKSEA. His ordination took place on January 20, 2008, in the patriarchal St George Holy Church of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Phanar, Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, and his enthronement is scheduled for March 1, 2008, in the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Luke, Stanley Fort, Hong Kong.
The Muslim community
To date, there are over 80,000 Muslims in Hong Kong and the existence of four mosques and an Islamic centre is an acknowledgement of the fast-growing communityHong Kong has about 80 000 Muslims. The majority are ethnic Chinese, with the rest mainly from
Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Middle Eastern and African countries. Four principal masjids are used daily for prayers. The oldest is the Shelley Street Masjidon Hong Kong Island, which was built in the 1840s and rebuilt in 1915. The Kowloon Masjid and Islamic Centrein Nathan Road, opened in 1984, can accommodate about 3 500 worshippers. The Masjid and Islamic Centre at Oi Kwan Roadin Wan Chaiwas opened in September 1981 and can accommodate a congregation of more than 700 worshippers. The Cape Collinson Muslim Cemeteryalso has a masjid. The Incorporated Trustees of the Islamic Community Fund of Hong Kongco-ordinates religious affairs and manages masajid and Muslim cemeteries in Hong Kong. The constituent bodies of the Trustees are the Islamic Union of Hong Kong, the Pakistan Association, the Indian Muslim Associationand the Dawoodi Bohra Association. Charitable work among the Muslim community, including financial aid to the needy, medical care, educational assistance, the provision of an Islamic kindergarten and assistance for the aged, is conducted through various Muslim organisations in Hong Kong.
The Sikh community
The Sikhs are perhaps one of Hong Kong’s most colourful minorities. Like all Gurdwaras, the temple in
Wan Chaiprovides free meals and short-term accommodation to overseas visitors of any faith. The main holy days and festivals observed are the birthdays of Guru Nanak(founder of the faith), Guru Gobind Singh(the 10th Guru) and Baisakhi(birthday of all Sikhs). The Sikhs originally came to Hong Kong from the Punjab, in North India, as part of the British Armed Forces in the 19th century. Because of their generally strong physique, they also formed a large segment of the Hong Kong Police Force before World War II.
The Jewish community
With a history dating back to the 1840s, Hong Kong’s Jewish community, comprising families from various parts of the world, worships at three main congregations. Daily services are held at the
Ohel Leah Synagogue(Orthodox), Sabbath and festival services at the United Jewish Congregation of Hong Kong(Reform). Both are located in the same residential complex in Robinson Road, Hong Kong Island. Daily services are also held at the Chabad Lubavitchshul based in the Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong, Central and in [http://www.kehilat-zion.org Kehilat Zion - Hechal Ezra] (Sephardi) in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The Ohel Leah Synagogue was built in 1901 on land given by Sir Jacob Sassoonand his family and includes a Mikvah(ritual bath). There is also a Jewish Cemetery at Happy Valley, a historical site in Hong Kong. The site adjoining the Ohel Leah Synagogue, now containing a residential complex, also houses the Jewish Community Centre which serves all three congregations. The centre offers its 650 member families and visiting Jewish guests supervised kosherdining and banquet, cultural and recreational facilities as well as a specialist library covering all aspects of Judaica. The centre functions as the focal point of social and cultural life for a growing Jewish community.
Traditional and religious festivals
Traditional Chinese holidays, Public holidays in Hong KongThere are five major festivals in the Chinese lunar calendar, with the Lunar New Year being the most important. Gifts and visits are exchanged among friends and relatives and children receive " lai see", or ‘lucky money’. During the Ching Ming Festivalin spring, ancestral graves are visited. In early summer (fifth day of the fifth lunar month), the Tuen Ng Festival is celebrated with dragon boat races and by eating cooked glutinous ricewrapped in lotus leaves. The Mid-Autumn Festivalfalls on the 15th day of the eighth lunar month. Gifts of mooncakes, wine and fruit are exchanged and adults and children go into parks and the countryside at night with colourful lanterns. Chung Yeungis on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, when many visit their ancestors’ graves or hike up mountains in remembrance of an ancient Chinese family’s escape from plague and death by fleeing to a mountain top. Apart from the above traditional festivals, quite a number of important religious festivals, including Good Friday, Easter, Buddha's Birthdayand Christmas, have been listed as public holidays. Adherents hold special celebration or memorial ceremonies on these occasions.
Culture of Hong Kong
Places of worship in Hong Kong
* [http://www.lds.org.hk Offical LDS Church Hong Kong Website]
* [http://www.cs.ust.hk/faculty/dimitris/metro/hkmetropolis.html Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and South-East Asia]
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