- Salus Populi Romani
Salus Populi Romani, meaning "Protectress (literally "Health") of the Roman People" is the title given in the 19th century to the Byzantine
iconof the Madonna and Child, reputed to date to Early Christian times, in the Borghese or Pauline Chapel of the Santa Maria MaggioreBasilica in Rome. It has historically been the most important Marian icon in Rome, and although devotion to it has declined somewhat relative to other images, such as Our Mother of Perpetual Help, over the last two centuries, it regained some status by being crowned by Pope Pius XIIin 1954.
The phrase "Salus Populi Romani" (as 'Health or well-being of the Roman people') goes back to the legal system and pagan rituals of the ancient
Roman Republic, where Livytells us that the augurwould ask the gods for permission for the praetors to pray for it. ["The Augural Law" by J. Linderski,p2256, in " Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren" Eds Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase, (this paper in English) ]
For centuries it was placed above the door to the basilica's
baptistery, and in 1240 it was called "Regina Caeli" ("Queen of Heaven") in a document. Later it was moved to the nave, and from the 13th c. it was preserved in a marble tabernacle. Since 1613. it has been located in the altar tabernacleof the Cappella Paolina (built specifically for it), known to English-speaking pilgrims as the Lady Chapel. The church, Saint Maria Maggiore, is considered the third of the Roman patriarchal basilicas. The church and its Marian shrine are under the special patronage of the popes.
From at least the
15th century, it was honored as a miraculous image, and it was later used by the Jesuitsin particular to foster devotion to the Mother of God through the Sodality of Our Ladymovement.
Roman Breviarystates, "After the Council of Ephesus( 431) in which the Mother of Jesus was acclaimed as Mother of God, Pope Sixtus IIIerected at Rome on the Esquiline Hill, a basilica dedicated to the honor of the Holy Mother of God. It was afterward called Saint Mary Major and it is the oldest church in the West dedicated to the honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary." The Roman Pontificalgives an additional account, "The Liberian basilica, today called Saint Mary Major, was founded by Pope Liberius( 352- 366) and was restored and enlarged by Sixtus III. ... Pope Liberius selected a venerated picture that hung in the pontifical oratory. It had allegedly been brought to Rome by St. Helena."
Among many evidences of papal devotion, the current
Pope Benedict XVItwice referred to Mary as the "Salus Populi Romani" during the funeral prayers for his predecessor John Paul II[ [http://biblelight.net/Salus-Populi-Romani.htm Mary the Savior of the People of Rome? ] ]
Legend of Saint Luke
"Salus Populi Romani" is one of the so-called "Luke images" of which there are many throughout the world. These were believed to have been painted from the life by
Saint Lukehimself. According to the Crucifixion, when Our Lady moved to the home of St. John, she took with her a few personal belongings--among which was a table built by the Redeemer in the workshop of St. Joseph. When pious virgins of Jerusalemprevailed upon St. Luke to paint a portrait of the Mother of God, it was the top of this table that was used to memorialize her image. While applying his brush and paints, St. Luke listened carefully as the Mother of Jesus spoke of the life of her son, facts which the Evangelist later recorded in his Gospel. Legend also tells us that the painting remained in and around Jerusalem until it was discovered by St. Helena in the fourth century. Together with other sacred relics, the painting was transported to Constantinople where her son, Emperor Constantine the Great, erected a church for its enthronement." [ Joan Carroll Cruz, OCDS, "Miraculous Images of Our Lady", 1993, p. 137f.]
The image is five feet high by three and a quarter feet wide (117 x 79 cm) - very large for an icon, especially one with an early date. It is painted on a thick
cedarpanel. Mary wears a gold-trimmed dark blue mantle over a purple/red tunic. The letters in Greek at the top identify Mary as "Mother of God", as is usual in Byzantine art (Christ may originally have had an inscription under later re-painting). Christ is holding a book in his left hand, presumably a Gospel Book. His right hand is raised in a blessinggesture, and it is Mary not he who looks directly out at the viewer.The folded together position of Mary's hands distinguishes this image as a version of the earlier type from before the development of the iconographyof the Hodegetriaimage in the 10th century, where she points to Christ with her right hand. [Maria Vasilakē; "Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium",p.196, Ashgate publishing Co, Burlington, Vermont, ISBN 07546 3603 8] "Rather than offering the Child, she keeps his body closer to hers and seeks physical and tactile contact with him" [Vasilakē, op and page cit] However the few other examples of this type do not have the Virgin's hands folded together - the right hand holds Christ's knee.
Although neither wear crowns, the holding by Mary in her right hand of a "mappa" (or "mappula", a sort of embroidered ceremonial handkerchief), originally a
consular symbol, later an imperial one, means this image is probably one of the type showing Mary as Regina coelior "Queen of Heaven". [ Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages By Mayke de Jong, F. (Frans) Theuws, Carine van Rhijn, p64]
Dating by art historians
The image "has been confidently dated to almost every possible period between the fifth century and the thirteenth". [ de Jong op cit, p64, n.33] The recent full-length study by M. Wolf (see further reading) "says, cautiously, that it is probably Late Antique" in its original form. [ de Jong op cit, p64, n.33] The icon in its current state seems to be a work of the thirteenth century (as witnessed by the features of the faces), but other layers visible under the top one suggest it is a repainting of a much earlier piece; especially revealing is the modeling of Child's right hand in the first layer, which can be compared to other early Christian icons that display 'Pompeian' illusionistic qualities [Herbert Kessler, "Rome 1300: on the path of the pilgrim", Yale University Press, 2000.] The areas of linear stylization, such as Christ's garment which is rendered in golden hatching producing a flat effect, seem to go back to the 8th century, and can be compared with a very early icon of
Elijahfrom Sinai. A second restoration process started around 1100 and came to an end in the 13th c. Virgin's blue mantle which is wrapped over her purple dress was severely altered in the outline; the red halos are also not part of the original image.
The image type itself suggests it is not a medieval invention, but rather an Early Christian concept dating from antiquity: a majestic, half-length portrait showing a frank outward gaze of the rulerlike Virgin, with her upright, stately pose, and folded hands gently clasping the Child, unique among all icons. Lively turning of the maturely developed and attired Child also attests to the painting's antiquity. The vivid
contrappostoof the two bodies, which suggests direct observation, can be compared with 5th c. Mount Sinai icon of the Virgin and Child in Kiev, and contrasted with Pantheon Marian icon from 609. which already shows Mother slightly subordinated to the Child by the imploring gesture and the turn of the head, and where the interaction of the bodies exists only in a flat plane. [Hans Belting, "Likeness and Presence: a history of the image before the era of art", The University of Chicago Pres, 1996.] These comparisons suggest a date of 7th c. for the icon.
The early fame of the icon can be gauged from the production of replicas (a fresco in
Santa Maria Antiquaseems to have reproduced it already in the 8th c.), and the role it played in the ritual on the feast of the Virgin's Assumption, where the "achiropiite" (the panel painting of Christ from the Lateran Basilica) was moved in a procession to Santa Maria Maggiore to 'meet' with it. More far flung apparent copies include a Moghul miniature, presumably based on a copy given to Akbarby the Jesuits, and copies in China, of which a 16th century example is in the Field Museum in Chicago.
The Salus Populi Romani has been a favorite of several Popes and acted as a Roman Catholic Mariological symbol, especially in Rome itself. Roman-born
Pope Pius XII(Eugenio Pacelli) celebrated his first Holy Mass in front of it on April 1, 1899. In 1953, the icon was carried through Rome to initiate the first Marian year in Church history. In 1954, the icon was crowned by Pope Pius XII as he introduced a new Marian feast Queenship of Mary. Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul IIand Pope Benedict XVIall honoured the Salus Populi Romani with personal visits and liturgical celebrations.
Mother Thrice Admirable
Salus Populi Romani is also said to be the source of the title "Mater ter Admirabilis" (Mother Thrice Admirable) used for the Blessed Virgin Mary within the Schoenstatt Marian Movement.
Salus Populi Romani was the centerpiece of the "Colloquium Marianum" in Ingolstadt, in 1604. According to the Schoenstatt, on April 6th 1604, Father Jakob Rem, SJ, desired to know which of the invocations from the
litany of Loretowould please the Virgin Mary the most. He reported that after meditation and looking at the image of Salus Populi Romani, the title "Mother Thrice Admirable" was revealed to him. [ Univrsity of Dayton [http://campus.udayton.edu/mary//resources/motherthriceadmirable.htm] ]
The title "Mother Trice Admirable" has since become part of the
Schoenstatt Movementand is also associated with another well known Madonna, namely the 1898 Refugium Peccatorum Madonna by the Italian artist Luigi Crosiowhich was purchased by the Schoenstatt Sisters in Switzerland in 1964 and has since been called the Mother Thrice Admirable Madonna. [Research on Luigi Crosio [http://www.schoenstatt.de/news2005/10/5t1068en-it--mta-crosio.php] ]
Also sourced from The Marian library Dayton (see link below)
* [http://campus.udayton.edu/mary//meditations/saluspr.html The Marian Library Dayton]
*"The icon of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome: an image and its afterlife", K Noreen, R People - Renaissance Studies, 2005.
*"Salus populi Romani, Die Geschichte römischer Kultbilder im Mittelalter" 1990, G Wolf,- VCH, Acta Humaniora
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