- Æthelred of Mercia
:"For the later earl, see Earl Æthelred of Mercia."
Æthelred (IPAEng|ˈæθəlrɛd) (died after 704) was
King of Merciafrom 675 until 704. He was the son of Penda of Merciaand came to the throne in 675, when his brother, Wulfhere of Mercia, died. Within a year of his accession he invaded Kent, where his armies destroyed the city of Rochester. In 679 he defeated his brother-in-law, Ecgfrith of Northumbria, at the Battle of the Trent: the battle was a major setback for the Northumbrians, and effectively ended their military involvement in English affairs south of the Humber. It also permanently returned the kingdom of Lindseyto Mercia's possession. However, Æthelred was unable to re-establish his predecessors' domination of southern Britain.
He was known as a pious and religious king, and made many grants of land to the church. It was during his reign that Theodore, the
Archbishop of Canterbury, reorganized the church's diocesan structure, creating several new sees in Mercia and Northumbria. Æthelred befriended Bishop Wilfridof York when Wilfrid was expelled from his see in Northumbria; Æthelred made Wilfrid Bishop of the Middle Anglesduring his exile, and supported him at the synod of Austerfield in about 702, when Wilfrid argued his case for the return of the ecclesiastical lands he had been deprived of in Northumbria.
Osthryth, was a daughter of King Oswiu, one of the dominant seventh-century Northumbrian kings. Osthryth was murdered in unknown circumstances in 697, and in 704 Æthelred abdicated, leaving the throne to Wulfhere's son Cenred. Æthelred became a monk at Bardney, a monastery which he had founded with his wife, and was buried there. Ceolred, who was Æthelred's son (though apparently not by Osthryth), became king after Cenred; it is also possible that Æthelred had another son named Ceolwald who was briefly king before Ceolred.
Mercia in the seventh century
By the seventh-century, England was almost entirely divided into kingdoms ruled by the
Anglo-Saxonswho had come to Britain two hundred years before. The kingdom of Merciaoccupied what is now the English midlands; the origin of the kingdom is not recorded, but royal genealogies preserved in the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" and the Anglian collectionagree that the royal houses were descended from a founder named Icel. The Mercian royal house is hence known as the Iclingas.Yorke, Barbara, "The Origins of Mercia" in Brown & Farr, "Mercia", pp. 15–16] The earliest Mercian king about whom definite historical information has survived is Penda of Mercia, Æthelred's father.Barbara Yorke, "The Origins of Mercia" in Brown & Farr, "Mercia", pp. 18–19] The larger neighbouring kingdoms included Northumbriato the north, recently united from its constituent kingdoms of Berniciaand Deira, East Anglia to the east, and Wessex, the kingdom of the West Saxons, to the south.
According to "Ecclesiastical History of the English People", a history of the English church written by the eighth-century monk
Bede, there were seven early Anglo-Saxon rulers who held "imperium", or overlordship, over the other kingdoms.Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", II, 5, p. 111.] The fifth of these was Edwin of Northumbria, who was killed at the battle of Hatfield Chaseby a combined force including Cadwallon, a British king of Gwynedd, and Penda.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 103–104] Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 83.] After Edwin's death, Northumbria briefly fell apart into its two subkingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Within a year Oswald, Edwin's nephew, killed Cadwallon and reunited the kingdoms, and subsequently re-established Northumbrian hegemony over the south of England. In 642 Penda killed Oswald at the battle of Maserfield,Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", pp. 88–90] and Northumbria was again divided. Oswald's son Oswiu succeeded to the throne of Bernicia, and Osric's son Oswine to Deira, the southern of the two kingdoms.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 78]
In 655, Oswiu defeated and killed Penda at the
Battle of the Winwaed. Oswiu installed Peada, a son of Penda, as king of southern Mercia, and ruled the northern half himself; after Peada was murdered in 656 Oswiu took direct control of all of Mercia. A coup in 658 threw off Northumbrian overlordship and established Wulfhere as king.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 96–97.] By the early 670s, Wulfhere had become the most powerful king in southern Britain, with an effective hegemony over all the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms except for Northumbria.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 115.]
The main source for this period is Bede’s "History", completed in about 731. Despite its focus on the history of the church, this work also provides valuable information about the early Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. For Wessex and Kent, Bede had informants who supplied him with details of the church's history in each province, but he appears to have had no such contact in Mercia, about which he is less well-informed.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 100] A further source for this period is the "
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", compiled at the end of the ninth century in Wessex. The Chronicle's anonymous scribe appears to have incorporated much information recorded in earlier periods.Simon Keynes, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", in "Blackwell Encyclopedia", p. 35]
Ancestry and early reign
Æthelred was the son of Penda of Mercia. Penda's queen, Cynewise, is named by Bede, who does not mention her children; no other wives of Penda are known and so it is likely but not certain that she was Æthelred's mother.Stafford, Pauline, "Political Women in Mercia" in Brown & Farr, "Mercia", p. 36] [Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", III, 24, pp. 183–185.] The "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" gives Penda’s age as fifty in 626, and credits him with a thirty-year reign, but this would put Penda at eighty years old at the time of his death, which is generally thought unlikely as two of his sons (Wulfhere and Æthelred) were young when he was killed. At least as likely is that Penda was fifty years old at his death, rather than at his accession."Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 103–104] Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 82.] Æthelred’s date of birth is unknown, but Bede describes Wulfhere as a youth at the time of his accession in 658, so it is likely he and Æthelred were in their middle teens at that time.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 113] The early sources do not say whether Æthelred was older or younger than Wulfhere.
Nothing is known of Æthelred’s childhood. He had another brother, Peada, and two sisters, Cyneburh and Cyneswith;Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 93] Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", "sub anno" 656, p. 29] it is also possible that
Merewalh, king of the Magonsæte, was Æthelred’s brother. [Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 107, accepts the account in the "Life of St Mildburh", which makes Merewalh and Æthelred brothers, as genuine. Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 93, expresses doubts.]
In 674, according to
Stephen of Ripon, Wulfhere "stirred up all the southern nations against [Northumbria] ",Eddius Stephanus, "Life of Wilfrid", 20, in "Age of Bede", pp. 126–127.] but he was defeated by Oswiu's son Ecgfrithwho forced him to surrender Lindsey, and to pay tribute. [Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 116; Williams, "Kingship and Government", p. 23.] Wulfhere survived the defeat, but died in 675, possibly of disease, [Henry of Huntingdon, sub anno 670.] and Æthelred became king. [A detailed discussion of Æthelred's likely accession date can be found in Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 113.]
The first recorded act of Æthelred's reign is in 676, when his armies ravaged Kent, destroying Rochester, the seat of the bishops of West Kent.Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", IV, 12, p. 223.] The reason for his attack is not recorded, but he may have wished to prevent King
Hlothhere of Kentfrom regaining control of Surrey, which had been recently brought into the Mercian orbit by Wulfhere.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 117.] It may also be that Æthelred wished for revenge for the murder of the sons of Eormenred of Kent; the murders had been instigated by Ecgberht of Kent, Hlothhere's brother, and it is possible that Æthelred was the uncle of the murdered princes. [The suggestion is due to D.W. Rollason, and is described by Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 137, n. 14.] A third suggestion is that the kings of Essex solicited the invasion, in response to recent Kentish attempts to gain dominance over the East Saxons.Zaluckyj, "Mercia", p. 130, quoting Leonard Dutton's "Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms".] Regardless of the reason, Hlothhere was likely then forced to accept Æthelred's overlordship. The damage to the see of Rochester was so great that the incumbent bishop, Putta, retired from his diocese; his appointed successor, Cwichelm, also gave up the see "because of its poverty". [Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 106.]
Early in Æthelred's reign, Theodore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, began a substantial reorganization of the church in Mercia. In 675 he removed Winfred from his position as
Bishop of Lichfield, and over the next four years he divided the vast Mercian see into the five dioceses of Leicester, Lichfield, Worcester, Dorchester and Hereford.Kirby, "Making of Early England", p. 49.] Æthelred was a devout king, "more famed for his pious disposition than his skill in war",Quoted in Sarah & John Zaluckyj, "The Age of Mercian Supremacy", in Zaluckyj et al., "Mercia", p. 129.] and he made several gifts of land to the expanding church, including grants at Tetbury, Long Newton, and Somerford Keynes. There is also a tradition that Æthelred was associated with the founding of Abingdon Abbey, in southern Oxfordshire.Sarah & John Zaluckyj, "The Age of Mercian Supremacy", in Zaluckyj et al., "Mercia", p. 131.]
Relations with Northumbria
Mercia had been in conflict with Northumbria since at least 633, when
Penda of Merciahad defeated and killed Edwin of Northumbriaat the Battle of Hatfield Chase.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 78.] However, there were diplomatic marriages between the two kingdoms: Æthelred's sister Cyneburh married Alhfrith, a son of Oswiu of Northumbria, and both Æthelred and his brother Peada married daughters of Oswiu. Cyneburh's marriage to Alhfrith took place in the early 650s, and Peada's marriage, to Ealhflæd, followed shortly afterwards; Æthelred's marriage, to Osthryth, is of unknown date but must have occurred before 679, since Bede mentions it in describing the Battle of the Trent, which took place that year.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 93.] Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", IV, 21, p. 240.]
Bede does not mention the cause of the battle, simply saying that it occurred in the ninth year of Ecgfrith's reign. He is more informative on the outcome. Ælfwine, the young subking of Deira, was killed; Ælfwine was brother to Osthryth and Ecgfrith, and was well-liked in both Mercia and Northumbria since Æthelred's marriage to Osthryth. According to Bede, his death threatened to cause further strife between the two kingdoms, but Theodore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, intervened: [This translation is by Leo Sherley-Price, from Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", IV, 21, p. 240; except that "Ecgfrith" has been substituted for "Egfrid" to keep the spelling consistent within this article.]
Theodore, the beloved of God, enlisting God's help, smothered the flames of this awful peril by his wholesome advice. As a result, peace was restored between the kings and peoples, and in lieu of further bloodshed the customary compensation was paid to King Ecgfrith for his brother's death.
Æthelred took possession of Lindsey again after the battle; the change in control this time was lasting, and Lindsey remained part of Mercia until the Viking invasion of the ninth century remade the map of England.Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", IV, 12, p. 225.] Conflict between Northumbria and Mercia did not completely cease after this date: Scottish annals record that Æthelbald, an eighth century Mercian king, ravaged Northumbrian territory in 740 while King
Eadberht of Northumbriawas absent fighting the Picts. [Anderson, "Scottish Annals", pp. 55–56.] However, the Battle of the Trent effectively ended Northumbrian involvement in southern Britain. [Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", p. 85.]
A conflict between Bishop
Wilfridof York and the church and secular establishment led to Wilfrid's expulsion from Northumbria and the division of his vast diocese. After the death of Ecgfrith in 685, Archbishop Theodorearranged a reconciliation between Wilfrid and Aldfrith, Ecgfrith's successor, but in 692 Aldfrith and Wilfrid fell out and Wilfrid went into exile in Mercia.Alan Thacker, "St Wilfrid", in Lapidge et al., "Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England", pp. 474–476.] Æthelred made Wilfrid bishop of the Middle Angles, and supported him at the council of Austerfield in about 702, when Wilfrid argued his case before an assembly of bishops led by Archbishop Berhtwaldof Canterbury.Stenton, "Anglo-Saxon England", p. 143.] Æthelred's support for Wilfrid embroiled him in dispute with both Canterbury and Northumbria, and it is not clear what his motive was, though it may be relevant that some of Wilfrid's monasteries were in Mercian territory.
The southern kingdoms
Two charters of 681 show Æthelred granting land near
Tetbury, on what is now the border between Gloucestershireand Wiltshire. [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=71 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 71 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller] [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=73 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 73 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller] This may indicate that Æthelred was able to extend Mercian influence further into the territory of the West Saxons, as Wulfhere had done before him. The West Saxons managed a significant military resurgence under Cædwalla, king of Wessex from about 685 to 688, but when Cædwalla departed for Rome on pilgrimage there may have been internal strife before Ine, his successor, took the throne. Cædwalla had successfully conquered the kingdoms of Sussex and Kent, and his abdication may have contributed to the unsettled history of the southeast over the next few years.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 122.] In Kent, Oswine emerged as king, though only in eastern Kent; the western half of the kingdom was ruled by Swæfheard, son of Sæbbi, the king of Essex. It is possible that Æthelred provided support to both Swæfheard and Oswine; for each king a charter survives in which Æthelred confirms land grants they made in Kent, and Æthelred's invasion of Kent in 676 indicates his opposition to the traditional Kentish royal house.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 30.] [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=10 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 10 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller] [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=12 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 12 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller] The charter of Swæfheard's, dated 691, is also of interest as it indicates that Æthelred had invaded Kent; it has been suggested that Æthelred intended to place Wilfrid in the Archbishop's seat at Canterbury, but if so he was unsuccessful.Brooks, "Early History of the Church at Canterbury", p. 77.] Alternatively, Æthelred may have needed assistance in Kent from the East Saxons who may have been independent of Mercia for a decade or more by that time.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 123.] The East Saxons did return to the Mercian orbit over the next few years: a charter of Æthelred's, dated between 693 and 704, shows him granting land to Wealdhere, the bishop of London, and in 704 Æthelred consented to a grant made by Swæfheard. [cite web | url = http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/kemble/pelteret/Lsp/Lsp%202.htm | title = Charters of St. Paul's: 2 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher= Trinity College, Cambridge] cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=65 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 65 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller] The latter charter also appears to show that a "comes", or local official, was put in place by the Mercians to protect their interests.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 109.]
Despite this evidence of Mercian involvement in the southeast there is very little indication that Æthelred had expansionist ambitions to the south.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", pp. 126–127.] The increasing strength of the West Saxons under Cædwalla and Ine would have limited Mercian opportunities in that direction.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 105.] The Northumbrians were no longer a distraction; they had been contained north of the Humber since the Battle of the Trent, and became even less of a threat after their disastrous defeat in 685 at the hands of the Picts. A possible explanation is that Æthelred was preoccupied with war with the Welsh. It was also at this time that the Hwicce came more definitely into the Mercian orbit. The last Hwiccean ruler to take the title of king was
Oshere, who died in 685; but from the mid-670s he sought Æthelred's consent for his grants, and Æthelred regarded him as a subking. Further evidence of Æthelred's involvement among the Hwicce comes from a charter in which he grants land for a minster in Gloucestershire, in Hwiccean territory; the charter is generally thought to be a fabrication, but it appears to be based on an authentic earlier source. [cite web | url = http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=charter&id=70 | title = Anglo-Saxons.net: S 70 | accessmonthday=11 March | accessyear = 2008|publisher=Sean Miller]
Abdication and final years
Osthryth was murdered in 697, for reasons unknown; according to Bede the murderers were "her own people, the Mercian chieftains".Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", V, 24, p. 327.] Bede records that Peada's death, forty years earlier, stemmed from "the treachery, it is said, of his own wife";Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", III, 24, p. 185.] Peada's wife was Ealhflæd, Osthryth's sister. Hence Osthryth's murder may have been in revenge for Peada's assassination. Osthryth was buried at
Bardneyin Lindsey, the monastery where, at her urging, the relics of her uncle, Oswald of Northumbria, were kept and revered.Bede, "Ecclesiastical History", III, 11, p. 160.]
In 704, Æthelred abdicated to become a monk and abbot at
Bardney, leaving the kingship to his nephew Cenred.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", p. 111.] Seventh century Mercian rulers often patronised religious establishments outside the Mercian heartlands, perhaps as a way of gaining support in outlying provinces. Æthelred's and Osthryth's interest in Bardney is consistent with this pattern. The encouragement of the cult of royal saints in areas beyond the central Mercian lands also seems to have been a deliberate policy, and both Æthelred and Osthryth were later revered as saints at Bardney.Yorke, "Kings and Kingdoms", pp. 109–110] It appears that Æthelred continued to have influence in the kingdom after his abdication: a passage in Stephen of Ripon's "Life of Wilfrid" shows Æthelred summoning Cenred to him and advising him to make peace with Wilfrid.Eddius Stephanus, "Life of Wilfrid", in "Age of Bede", pp.&169–170.] The date of Æthelred's death is not recorded; though it is known that he was buried at Bardney.Swanton, "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", "sub anno" 716, p. 42.]
Æthelred had at least one son, Ceolred. The medieval "Chronicon Abbatiae de Evesham" records that Ceolred was not the son of Osthryth, though it does not name Ceolred's mother. Ceolred succeeded to the throne in 709, after Cenred abdicated in 709 to go to Rome on pilgrimage.Kirby, "Earliest English Kings", p. 128.] One version of the regnal lists for Mercia shows a king named Ceolwald reigning after Ceolred, and it is possible that Ceolwald, if he existed, was also a son of Æthelred's.
Kings of Mercia family tree
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