Ionic Greek


Ionic Greek

Ionic Greek was a sub-dialect of the Attic-Ionic dialectal group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).

Ionic (or Ionian) dialect appears to have spread originally from the Greek mainland across the Aegean at the time of the Dorian invasions, around the 11th Century B.C.

By the end of the Greek Dark Ages in the 8th Century B.C, the central west coast of Asia Minor, along with the islands of Chios and Samos, formed the heartland of Ionia proper. The Ionic dialect was also spoken on islands across the central Aegean and on the large island of Euboea north of Athens. The dialect was soon spread by Ionian colonization to areas in the northern Aegean, the Black Sea, and the western Mediterranean.

Ionic dialect is generally divided into two major time periods, Old Ionic (or Old Ionian) and New Ionic (or New Ionian). The exact transition between the two is not clearly defined, but 600 B.C. is a good approximation.

The Homeric works (the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Homeric Hymns), and the works of Hesiod, were written in a literary dialect called Homeric Greek or Epic Greek, which consists largely of Old Ionic, with some borrowings from the neighboring Aeolic dialect to the north. The poet Archilochus wrote in late Old Ionic.

The most famous New Ionic authors are Anacreon, Theognis, Herodotus, Hippocrates and in Roman times Aretaeus, Arrian, and Lucian.

The main differences between the Ionic dialect (Old and New) and Classical Attic were the following:

# In Ionic, the shift from long alpha to eta occurs in almost all words, whereas in Attic it does not occur after eta, iota, or rho. Example: Attic νεανίας (ne-a-ni-as) versus Ionic νεηνίης (ne-ē-ni-ēs), a "young person". Often the simple vowel ε or o of Attic dialect appears in Ionic as a diphthong (κούρη, "kourē", "young lady, girl", for κόρη, korē; πείρας, "peiras" "end, border" for πέρας, "peras")
# In many cases Ionic turned Proto-Greek labiovelar sound /kw/ into /k/ rather than /p/ before back vowels. Example: Attic ὅπως ("hopōs") versus Ionic ὄκως ("okōs"), "the same way (as)". It is worth mentioning that similar divergent outcomes for /kw/ occurred also in Celtic and Italic branches of the Indo-European language family, for example between Latin and Oscan, as well as between P-Celtic (Welsh) and Q-Celtic (Irish) — e.g. Welsh "pump", Breton "pemp", Cornish "pymp" vs. Gaelic "cóig" or "cùig", Irish "cúig", Manx "queig" (note the treatment of the same consonant in English with this word meaning "f"ive" ").
# Ionic contracted adjoining vowels much less frequently than Attic. Example: Ionic γένεα ("gen-e-a") versus Attic γένη (gen-ē), "family, stock".
# Ionic "ss" appears as "tt" in later Classical Attic. Example: Ionic τέσσαρες (tessares) versus Attic τέτταρες (tettares), "four".
# Ionic had a very analytical word-order, perhaps the most analytical one within ancient Greek dialects. Moreover the Ionic morphology of noun and verb doesn't have dual-forms.
# In some words, Attic initial aspiration was lacking in Old Ionic (the so called "psilosis"), and in New Ionic initial aspiration was probably lost entirely. Example: Attic ἵππος (hippos) versus Ionic ἴκκος (ikkos), "horse".

Glossary

*Polytonic|ἄβδης " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2371 abdês] " scourge ( Hipponax .98)
*Polytonic|ἄεθλον " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%232032 aethlon] " (Attic Polytonic|ἆθλον athlon prize)
*Polytonic|ἀειναῦται " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%231630 aeinautai] " archontes in Miletus and Chalcis ("aei" always + "nautai" sailors)
*Polytonic|ἀλγείη " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%233891 algeiē] " illness (Cf.Attic Polytonic|ἀλγηδὼν algēdōn pain) Algophobia
*Polytonic|ἄμπωτις " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%235551 ampôtis] " ebb,being sucked back, i.e. of sea (Attic anapôtis, verb anapinô) (Koine,Modern Greek ampotis)
*Polytonic|ἄνου " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%239324 anou] " (Attic Polytonic|ἄνω anō, up)
*Polytonic|Απατούρια Apatouria Pan-ionic festival ( see also Panionium )
*Polytonic|ἀππαλλάζειν " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2314382 appallazein] " (Attic Polytonic|ἐκκλησιάζειν ekklesiazein gather together,decide) (Doric apellazein)
*Polytonic|ἀχάντιον " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2318646 achantion] " (Attic Polytonic|ἀκάνθιον akanthion small thorn acanthus)
*Polytonic|βάθρακοι " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2319009 bathrakoi] " (Attic Polytonic|βάτραχοι batrachoi, frogs) in Pontus [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2318958 babakoi]
*Polytonic|βροῦκος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2321068 broukos] " specie of locust (Attic akris) (Cypriots call the green locust Polytonic|βρούκα brouka)
*Polytonic|βυσσός " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;layout=;query=entry%3D%2321267;loc=bu%2Fssos2 byssos] " (Attic Polytonic|βυθός bythos depth,bottom,chaos)
*Polytonic|γάννος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2321599 gannos] " Ephesian (Attic huaina (glanos Aristotle.HA594a31.) (Phrygian and Tsakonian ganos
*Polytonic|εἴδη eidē (Attic Polytonic|ὕλη hyle forest) (Aeolic Greek eide also) (Greek Eidos)
*Polytonic|ἐνθαῦτα " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2336166 enthauta] " here ("entoutha" also) (Attic polytonic|ἐνταῦθα entautha) (Elean polytonic|ἐνταῦτα entauta)
*Polytonic|ἐργύλος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2342224 ergylos] " (Attic Polytonic|ἐργάτης [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2342186 ergatēs] worker)
*Polytonic|ἑστιᾶχος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2343000 hestiachos] " ionic epithet for Zeus ,related to Hestia (oikouros,housekeeper, Polytonic|οἰκῶναξ "oikonax")
*Polytonic|ἠγὸς [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346639 ēgos] (Attic Polytonic|εὐδαίμων eudaimon happy) (Hesychius s.v. Polytonic|εὐηγεσίη) (τ 114)
*Polytonic|ἠέλιος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2346893 êelios] " (Attic helios sun) (Cretan abelios)
*Polytonic|Ἰαστί Iasti, "the ionic way" ( Polytonic|Ἰάονες, "Iaones", Ionians; Polytonic|Ἰάς, "Ias", old name of Attica, Strabo IX, 1.5 )
*Polytonic|ἰδη idē forested mountain (Attic Polytonic|δρυμῶν ὄρος drymon oros) (Herodotus 4,109,2) (Mount Ida)
*Polytonic|ἰητρὸς " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2349762 iētros,iētēr] " (Attic iatros,iatēr doctor)
*Polytonic|ἴκκος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2350268 ikkos] " (Attic Polytonic|ἵππος hippos ,horse) (Mycenaean i-qo )
*Polytonic|κάρη " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2353249 karê] " head (Common kara) (Poetic [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2359656 kras] )
*Polytonic|κιθών " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2357364 kithôn] " (Attic Polytonic|χιτών chiton)
*Polytonic|κοεῖν " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2358297 koein] " (Attic Polytonic|νοεῖν noein to think) noesis
*Polytonic|κοῖος " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2384364 koios] " (Attic Polytonic|ποῖος poios who?)
*Polytonic|κύθρη " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23115119 kythrē] " (Attic Polytonic|χύτρα chytra cooking pot)
*Polytonic|μύτταξ " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2369501 myttax] " (Attic Polytonic|πώγων pôgôn beard)
*Polytonic|Ξουθίδαι Xouthidai Ionians from Xuthus
*Polytonic|ὀδμή " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2372035 odmê] " (Attic Polytonic|ὀσμή "osmê" scent,smell)
*Polytonic|πηλός " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2382955 pēlos] " thick wine, lees (Attic πηλός pelos mud, silt) (proverbial phrase "mê dein ton Oinea Pêlea poiein" , don't make wine into lees, Ath.9.383c, cf. Demetr.Eloc.171)
*Polytonic|ῥηχίη " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2392237 rhêchiê] " flood-tide , loanword to Attic as Polytonic|ῥαχία "rhachia" (Homeric,Koine,Modern Greek polytonic|πλημμυρίς plêmmuris -ida)
*Polytonic|σαβακός " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2392980 sabakos] " (Attic Polytonic|σαθρός sathros decayed) Chian
*Polytonic|σάρμοι "sarmoi" lupins (Attic polytonic|θέρμοι [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2348481 thermoi] } Carystian
*Polytonic|σκορπίζω " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2395161 skorpizô] " scatter, disperse (probably from skorpios scorpion and an obsolete verb [http://www.biblestudytools.net/Lexicons/Greek/grk.cgi?number=4651&version=nas skerpô] ,penetrate)
*Polytonic|ταῦροι [Athenaeus Deipnosophists [http://www.attalus.org/old/athenaeus10.html 10 425c] ] " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23102590 tauroi] " (Attic tauroi bulls) (Ephesian word ,the youths who acted as cupbearers at the local festival of Poseidon)
*Polytonic|φοινικήια " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23111951 phoinikêia] grammata" Lydians and Ionians called so the letters
*Polytonic|χλοσσός " [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%23114196 chlossos] " (Attic Polytonic|ἰχθῦς ichthys fish)
*Polytonic|ὦ οἰοῖ ō oioi exclamation of discontent Polytonic|ἐπιφώνημα σχετλιαστικὸν παρ' Ἴωσι

References

*Hesychius of Alexandria
*A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity- A.Panayotou [http://books.google.com/books?id=WJbd0m6YaFkC&pg=PA405&dq=Ionic+and+Attic&sig=y5EnNiFJ6gOVN5J8K11gHEMYFso#PPA405,M1 Ionic and Attic]
*A Grammar of the Greek Language by Benjamin Franklin Fisk [http://books.google.com/books?id=_rQRAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA217&dq=Ionic++dialect#PPA217,M1 Ionic Dialect]

ee also

*Ionians
*Ionic order
*Ionian


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