- Foreign relations of Kazakhstan
Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security. The Nazarbayev administration has tried to balance relations with
Russiaand the United Statesby sending petroleumand natural gasto its northern neighbor at artificially low prices while assisting the U.S. in the War on Terror. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe(which it will chair in 2010), North Atlantic Cooperation Council, Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and NATO's Partnership for Peaceprogram. Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Communityin 2000 to begin the process of creating a free trade zone under a Customs Union.
Not until 2005, did Kazakhstan,
Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistanagree to begin demarcating their shared borders. No seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea has been agreed upon and the usage of Caspian Seawater is a matter that remains unsettled by international agreement. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html#Issues Kazakhstan - Transnational Issues] CIA World Factbook]
cannabisand, to a lesser extent, opiumproduction in Kazakhstan is an international issue since much of the crop ends up being sold in other countries, particularly in other member-states of Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS). In 1998, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimeestimated that a "minimum of 1,517 tons of cannabis was harvested" in Kazakhstan. [http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/inside/research/narcotics_crime/FactSheet/2004/Kazakhstan.pdf Kazakhstan Narcotics Factsheet 2004] The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program]
With the fall of the
Soviet Union, Kazakhstan became a major transit country for narcoticsproduced in Southwest Asia, primarily from Afghanistan. In 2001, Kazakh authorities reported 1,320 cases of drug trafficking and seized 18 metric tons of narcotics. However, this is viewed as a fraction of the actual total volume trafficked and widespread corruption continues to hamper government anti-drug efforts; Transparency Internationalgave Kazakhstan a score of 2.2, on a scale of 0-10 with 0 indicating a "highly corrupt" state. [ [http://www.transparency.org/content/download/2274/14262/file/TI%20Annual%20Report%202004.pdf 2004 Annual Report] Transparency International] Russia and other parts of Europe are the main markets for these drugs although drug use is growing in Kazakhstan as well.
Kazakhstan formed diplomatic relations with
Armeniaon 6 November2006. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayevsaid, "The trade level cannot satisfy either side, this low indicator does not meet our states' demands." Fortunately however, "Documents signed today create a legal base for closer cooperation between our companies... As a result of talks, we confirmed the urge of our states to further strengthen our relations. Increasing trade and economic ties will contribute to this, for Kazakhstan's business and capital not to be afraid to go to Armenia." Former Armenian President Robert Kocharyanechoed Nazarbayev's statements, saying, "We want this visit to prompt the arrival of Kazakh investment in Armenia." [http://en.rian.ru/world/20061106/55407731.html Kazakhstan, Armenia sign agreements to develop relations] RIA Novosti]
People's Republic of Chinaand Kazakhstan formed diplomatic relations on 3 January1992. The two nations signed their first boundary agreement in April 1994, and their second supplementary boundary agreement in July 1998 to mark their 1,700 km shared border. [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-05/27/content_166588.htm Brief introduction to relations between China and Kazakhstan] China Daily]
Notwithstanding its membership in the
Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Kazakhstan has good relations with Israel. Diplomatic relations were established in 1992 and President Nazarbayevpaid official visits to Israel in 1995 and 2000. [http://www.kazakhemb.org.il/?CategoryID=165&ArticleID=163 About Kazakhstan–Israeli relations] Embassy of Kazakhstan in Israel] In 2006, during a state visit by Kazakh Deputy Prime Minister Karim Masimov, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmertremarked, "Kazakhstan can show a beautiful face of Islam ... Contemporary, ever-developing Kazakhstan is a perfect example of both economic development and interethnic accord that should be followed by more Muslim states." [Citation|last=Eglash|first=Ruth|title=Kazakhs seek stronger ties with Israel|newspaper=Jerusalem Post|date= November 6, 2006|url=http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1162378331988&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull] Bilateral trade between the two countries amounted to $724 million in 2005.
Diplomatic relations between
Japanand Kazakhstan were established in 1992. Kazakhstan is part of the Central Asia plus Japandialogue. Pakistan
Kazakhstan is trying to attract this Muslim-Majority nuclear state, thought recent attempts have no avail. Pakistan's interests lie in the Middle East. There are many other countries competing for better relations for Pakistan, even India wishes for peace with its neighbor. However, if the rate of interest of Central Asia continues (by China, Russia, Pakistan, India and Iran) then Pakistan will look to Kazakhstan.
Diplomatic relations between
Russiaand Kazakhstan has been both good and bad, but especially worse after the independence of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan has leaned more towards the West and USA in many cases, both civilian and military. Stalin and the Soviet Union treated Kazakhstan bad in the Soviet times, and did not respect the ethnic Kazakhstani people, and many nuclear facilities have been built in the country without the wishes of Kazakhstan. USA started a program with Kazakhstan in the mid 1990's to remove and disarm several of the nuclear material in Kazakhstan to prevent the dangerous material to get on the black-market and in the hands of terrorists and/or countries like Iran, Syria or North Korea.
Rakhat Aliyev, the First Vice Foreign Ministerof Kazakhstan met with Anton Tahlmann, the Vice Foreign Minister of Switzerland, in Berne, Switzerland from 13- 14 November2006. Tahlmann announced that the Swiss Federal Councilis considering opening an embassyin Kazakhstan, saying, "Switzerland is interested in comprehensive development of relations with your country because of its dynamic development and the growing role in the region. In relation with this Berne regards an increase of its diplomatic presence in this country, an opening of the Swiss embassy in perspective." He confirmed his government's support for Kazakhstan's candidacy for the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europein 2009. The two ministers also discussed trade, migration, and the environment. [http://eng.gazeta.kz/art.asp?aid=83338 Switzerland confirms support of Kazakhstan's candidacy for OSCE chairmanship] Gazeta.KZ] [http://www.trend.az/?mod=shownews&news=31790&lang=en Switzerland considers opening embassy in Kazakhstan] Gazeta.KZ]
Kazakhstan-United Kingdom relations were formally established on
19 January1992. The United Kingdomopened an embassyin Kazakhstan in October 1992 and Kazakhstan opened an embassy in Britain in February 1996.
United States Vice President Dick Cheneyvisited Kazakhstan on 5 May2006. [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40B15FA345B0C758CDDAC0894DE404482&n=Top%2fNews%2fWorld%2fCountries%20and%20Territories%2fKazakhstan Cheney, Visiting Kazakhstan, Wades Into Energy Battle] New York Times]
Kazakhstan - Uzbekistan relations have always been sincere and strong. Since the rapid development of Kazakhstan the President of Uzbekistan Mr. Karimov has visited Kazakhstan several times.
Kazakh diplomatic missions
List of diplomatic missions in Kazakhstan
Terrorism in Kazakhstan
* cite journal
last = Bukkvoll
first = Tor
year = 2004
month = September
title = Astana's privatised independence: private and national interests in the foreign policy of Nursultan Nazarbayev
volume = 32
issue = 3
pages = 631–650
* [http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/kazakhstan/hypermail/news/0007.shtml Kazakhstan to deliver more oil to Iran with swaps]
* [http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/kazakhstan/hypermail/news/0004.shtml Egyptian President visits Kazakhstan]
* [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/12/F3CA3AA6-6FA8-4A61-A5C6-D517EB5E7F5A.html 'Victorious' Kazakhs Told To Wait On OSCE Decision]
* [http://www.azertag.com/en/index.shtml?language=english&catid=&news_year=&news_month=&news_day=&newsid=211128&themes_viewing=&themes_page=&themeid=&news_page= Azeri Parliamentarians visit Kazakhstan]
* [http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/business/articles/pp082706.shtml Central Asia: Japanese Premier Visits energy-rich region]
* [http://www.chinaconsulatesf.org/eng/xw/t258442.htm Hu Jintao Meets with Kazakh President Nazarbayev]
* [http://www.kazakhemb.org.il/160804-eng.html Ambassador of Israel Ends His Mission]
* [http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-237/0612080919191325.htm Kazakhstan keen to share experience with Iran in ports]
* [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/12/7f595e9b-5811-46e6-a587-5a29cf8845ce.html Kazakhstan: Democracy, Energy, And Ambiguity]
* [http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/76268.html Only Kazakhstan consulate in western Europe opens in Aberdeen]
* [http://eng.gazeta.kz/art.asp?aid=84203 President of Kazakhstan visited Egypt on his way to Belgium]
* [http://www.inform.kz/showarticle.php?lang=eng&id=146555 Kazakhstan President to visit Belgium on Dec 3-6]
* [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/12/04/europe/EU_GEN_OSCE.php U.S. urges Russia to withdraw from Georgia, Moldova; Russia criticizes OSCE solutions]
* [http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C12%5C05%5Cstory_5-12-2006_pg4_16 EU approves nuclear pact with Kazakhstan]
* [http://www.kazakhemb.org.il/Kazakhstan-Israel-eng.html About the Kazakhstan-Israeli relations] - Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the State of Israel
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