Infobox UK place
country = England
population = 5504
region = East of England
static_image_caption= The Church of St Michael and All Angels
constituency_westminster= Mid Norfolk
postcode_district = NR11
Aylsham is a historic
market townand civil parishon the River Burein north Norfolk, England, about 15km (10 miles) north of Norwich. The river rises near Aylsham and continues to Great Yarmouthand the North Sea, although it was only navigable after 1779, allowing corn, coal and timber to be brought up river.
The civil parish has an area of 17.52 square kilometres and in the 2001 census had a population of 5504 in 2448 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of
Broadland. [Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council, 2001. " [http://www.norfolk.gov.uk/consumption/groups/public/documents/general_resources/ncc017867.xls Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes] ". Retrieved December 2, 2005.]
Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the town has been occupied since
prehistorictimes. Aylsham is just over two miles from a substantial Roman settlement at Brampton, linked to Venta Icenorumat Caistor St Edmund, south of Norwich, by a Roman roadwhich can still be traced in places - the site was a bustling industrial centre with maritime links to the rest of the empire. Excavations in the 1970s provided evidence of severall kilns, showing that this was an industrial centre, pottery and metal items being the main items manufactured.
Aylsham is thought to have been founded by an Anglo Saxon thane called Aegel around 500 AD. The town is mentioned in the
Domesday Bookof 1086 as "Elesham" and "Ailesham", said to be derived from "Aegel's Ham" (meaning "Aegel's settlement"), with a population of about 1,000. Until the 15th century, the linenand worstedindustry was important here, as well as in North Walshamand Worstead, and "Aylsham webb" or 'cloth of Aylsham' was supplied to the royal palacesof Edward II and III. John of Gauntwas Lord of the manorfrom 1372 and Aylsham became the principal town of the Duchy of Lancaster. Although John of Gaunt probably never came to Aylsham the townspeople enjoyed many privileges, including exemption from jury service outside the manor and payment of certain taxes.The village signdepicts John of Gaunt.
In 1519 Henry VIII granted a market on Saturdays and an annual fair to be held on
March 12, which was the eve of the feast of St Gregorythe pope. Aylsham markets have always been an important feature of the town and businesses developed to meet the needs of the town and the farming lands around it. Besides weekly markets there were cattle fairs twice a year and, in October, a hiring fair.
The historic Black Boys Inn in the Market Place is one of Aylsham's oldest surviving buildings, and has been on the site since the 1650s, although the present frontage dates to between 1710 and 1720. There is a frieze of small black boys on the cornice and a good staircase and assembly room. The Black Boys was a stop for the
post coachfrom Norwich to Cromer, had stabling for 40 horses, and employed three ostlers and four postboys.
thatchedwaterpump was built in 1911 at Carr's Corner in memory of John Soame by his uncle, a wealthy financier. An artesian well, it is 170 feet (52 m) deep, and its canopy is thatched in Norfolk reed.
As with many of the other
market townsin the county, the weaving of local cloth brought prosperity to the town in medievaltimes. Until the 15th century it was the manufacture of linenwhich was the more important, and Aylsham linens and Aylsham canvases were nationally known. From the 16th century linen manufacture declined and wool became more important, a situation that continued until the coming of the Industrial Revolution. Thereafter the principal trade of the town for the 19th century was cornand timber, together with the range of trades to be found in a town which supported local agriculture. Records show that Aylsham had markets and fairs, certainly from the 13th century. Such weekly and annual events were important for the trade that they brought. Annual horse fairswould bring many other traders to the town, and the weekly market would be the occasion for more local trade. The rights of the stallholders in the market place today date back to the rights established in medievaltimes.
In medieval times the parish of Aylsham was established as four manors, the main manor of Lancaster, Vicarage manor, Sexton's manor and Bolwick manor. The ownership of the Lancaster manor changed hands many times, before James I assigned it to his son, the future Charles I.
In the course of the events which lead up to the
English Civil WarCharles I had to raise as much money as possible, and mortgaged Lancaster manor to the Corporation of the City of London. The Corporation eventually sold it to Sir John Hobart, and through him and the ownership of the Blickling Estate. The current lords of the manor are the National Trust.
Formerly part of the South Erpingham Hundred, Aylsham was, for administrative purposes, absorbed into St. Faiths and Aylsham Rural District Council in 1894 and became part of Broadland District Council in 1974.
A plaque on the wall of
Barclays Bankin the Market Place commemorates Christopher Layer (born 1683), who was a militant Jacobite and supporter of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the 'Young Pretender'. He was tried for high treason and hanged at Tyburn in London in 1723. Nearby, a plaque commemorates Joseph Thomas Clover(1825–82), the father of modern anaesthetics, who was born above a shop overlooking the Market Place. Daniel Defoestayed in Aylsham in 1732 and enjoyed a meal at the Black Boys Inn. Parson Woodforde, the famous Norfolk diarist, also dined there in 1781, and Horatio Nelson, whose cousin lived in Aylsham, is said to have danced in the Assembly Room attached to the inn. Humphry Repton(1752–1818), the landscape gardener who lived at nearby Sustead, is buried in St Michael's Churchyard, and his watercolours provide a fascinating record of the Market Place in the early 19th century. Clive Payne(b. 2 March 1950), former professional footballerfor Norwich Cityand A.F.C. Bournemouth. Kathleen Starling(1890–ca 1970) became an opera singerunder the name of Kathleen Destournel. She sang at Covent Gardenand entertained troops in north Africa during World War Two, before moving to Arizona, USA until her husband's death after which she returned to Aylsham to live with her sisters.
The Parish church
The Market Place and surrounding area is dominated by the tower of the parish church of St Michael and All Angels, a fine example of
Gothic architectureof the Decoratedstyle. The small spireon top of the 30 metre (98 ft) tower is also a landmark that can be seen for miles around. The nave, aislesand chancelwere built in the 13th century. The tower and ground floor of the south porch were added in the 14th century. The north transeptwas built under the patronage of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancasteraround 1380. An upper floor to the porch was added in 1488. The lower part of the rood screensurvived the destruction visited by Oliver Cromwelland the Puritans, although some of the painted panels were disfigured.
Transport and tourism
The ancient but natural transport route for Aylsham would have been the
River Bure, but it was not open to substantial navigation. There was a scheme in the 1700s to widen the navigation from Coltishallto Aylsham and, after many difficulties, trading wherries from Great Yarmouthwere able to reach a staitheat Aylsham. The final end for this scheme was the devastating floodof 1912.
Road transport for Aylsham was very important. It was the principal coaching point on the Norwich-Cromer road, and the meeting point for other roads. Each day the coaches from
Cromerand Holt would draw up at the Black Boys, the main inn in Aylsham market place. Coaching ended with the coming of the railways in the 1880s. There were many different plans for railways, but eventually two lines served Aylsham, with the town having both North and South stations until the 1950s.
Aylsham once had two railway stations, both now closed, one
Aylsham railway stationon the Great Easternline between County School(near North Elmham) and Wroxhamand the other Aylsham (North) railway stationon the M&GNJRline from Melton Constableto Yarmouth.
Aylsham is also the terminus for the
Bure Valley Railway, the Bure Valley Pathand the Marriott's Way. Blickling Hall, the great country housein the care of the National Trust, is a mile and a half (2 km) away. With its dramatic symmetrical front, flanked by two great yew hedges, it is a fine example of a Jacobean brick-built manor house, and was formerly the home of the young Anne Boleyn, later to become Henry VIII's second wife.
Aylsham was once noted for its
spa, situated about half a mile south of the town, comprising a chalybeatespring, formerly used by those suffering from asthmaand other chronic conditions.
Tourist Information Centreoffice is located adjacent to the Bure Valley Railway station.
Today Aylsham remains well-known for its twice-weekly market and its Monday
auctions. It is a popular town for people working in Norwich, but remains an active local business centre in its own right, particularly in the support of agriculture. Today the town has a population of about 5,000, several local industries and still serves the needs of a wide area with twice weekly markets and a farmers' marketon the morning of the first Saturday of each monthThe Aylsham Partnership was formed in 2001 to implement the Market towns Initiative in Aylsham. The Partnership includes elected members of County, District and Parish/Town Councils in the Aylsham County Council Division and representatives of other statutory bodies and community organisations.
Aylsham came fourth in the world in an international competition celebrating liveable
communities, winning a Silver Award in category A (towns with a population up to 20,000) of the International Awards for Liveable Communities, [ [http://www.livcomawards.com/media-2005/finalists.htm International awards for Liveable Communities finalists, 2005] ] held in El Coruña, Spainin November 2005.
The Market Towns Initiative finished in 2004 but the Partnership successfully bid for funding to take part in the Cittaslow pilot project and to sustain work on
traffic managementand heritage. As a result, Aylsham became one of the founding towns, and the first in Norfolk, of the Cittaslowmovement, an international organisation promoting the concept of 'Slow Towns' ("a Network of towns where Quality of Life is important"). [ [http://www.cittaslow.org.uk/town.php?Tid=2&Pid1=1&PLv=1 The first Cittaslow in Norfolk.] "Cittaslow UK" (Official Website). Retrieval Date: February 10, 2008.] It is claimed that Aylsham did not have to change to become a member, as it was already a clear example of the type of community advocated by the Cittaslow movement.
Aylsham became Norfolk's first plastic-bag-free town on May 3, 2008. [ [http://aylshamplasticbagfree.blogspot.com/ Norfolk's First Plastic-bag Free Town.] Retrieved:
March 30, 2008.] Tesco's new store built from wood, recyclable plastic and other sustainable materials, and claimed to be the " greenest in the world " opened in the town July 2008. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/norfolk/4942228.stm Tesco news report] Retrieved July 26 2008]
Aylsham is twinned with
La Chaussée-Saint-Victor, Loir-et-Cher, Franceand formerly had an informal connection with
List of closed railway stations in Britain
Aylsham High School
* [http://www.eastspace.net/aylsham/ The Aylsham Partnership]
* [http://www.visitaylsham.co.uk/ Visit Aylsham and the Bure Valley]
* [http://aylshamplasticbagfree.blogspot.com/ Aysham – Norfolk's first Plastic Bag-free Town]
* [http://www.livcomawards.com/ International Awards for Liveable Communities]
* [http://www.aylshamtwinning.co.uk/ Aylsham twinning]
* [http://www.origins.org.uk/genuki/NFK/places/a/aylsham/ Information from Genuki Norfolk] on Aylsham.
* [http://www.poppyland.co.uk/norfolk/aylsham.htm Information from Poppyland Publishing] on Aylsham.
* [http://www.norfolkmills.co.uk/mills.html Aylsham watermill and windmills] from the Norfolk Mills website
* [http://www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/aylsham/aylsham.htm Norfolk churches]
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