Hefei


Hefei

Infobox Settlement
name =Hefei
official_name =
other_name =Ho-fei, Luzhou, Luchow
native_name =合肥
nickname =
settlement_type =Prefecture-level city
motto =



imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Downtown Hefei's "Sipailou" business district


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mapsize = 275px
map_caption = Location of Hefei Prefecture within Anhui


mapsize1 =
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pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =Location within China
pushpin_mapsize =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Anhui
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
subdivision_type3 = County-level divisions
subdivision_name3 = 7
subdivision_type4 =
subdivision_name4 =
government_footnotes =
government_type =
leader_title =CPC Committee Secretary
leader_name =Sun Jinlong (孙金龙)
leader_title1 =Mayor
leader_name1 =Wu Cunrong (吴存荣)
leader_title2 =
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established_title =
established_date =
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area_magnitude =
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area_total_km2 = 7266
area_land_km2 =
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area_urban_km2 =
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population_as_of = 2004
population_footnotes =
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population_total = 4446800
population_density_km2 = auto
population_density_sq_mi =
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population_blank2_title =Major nationalities
population_blank2=
timezone = China Standard Time
utc_offset = +8
timezone_DST =
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latd=31 |latm=52 |latNS=N
longd=117 |longm=17 |longEW=E
elevation_footnotes =
elevation_m =
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postal_code_type =Postal code
postal_code =230000
area_code =551
blank_name =License plate prefixes
blank_info =皖A
blank1_name =GDP (2004)
blank1_info =CNY 58.97 billion
blank2_name = - per capita
blank2_info =CNY 13,378
blank3_name =
blank3_info =
blank4_name =
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website = [http://www.hefei.gov.cn www.hefei.gov.cn] (Chinese)
footnotes =
City flowers
Southern magnolia ("Magnolia grandiflora L.")


City trees Sweet Osmanthus ("Osmanthus fragrans Lour.")
Blossom of pomegranate ("Punica granatum L.")

Hefei (zh-cpw|c=wd|合wd|肥|p=Héféi|w=Hofei; literally: "Junction of the (South) Fei Rivers"; former names: Ho-fei, Luzhou, Luchow) is a prefecture-level city and the provincial capital of Anhui province, China. Located in central Anhui, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Chaohu to the southeast and Lu'an to the west.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Hefei administers 7 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 3 counties.

*Yaohai District (瑶海区)
*Luyang District (庐阳区)
*Shushan District (蜀山区)
*Baohe District (包河区)
*Changfeng County (长丰县)
*Feidong County (肥东县)
*Feixi County (肥西县)

History

From the 8th to the 6th century BC, Hefei was the site of the small state of Shu, later a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made. The name Hefei was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC. During the 4th to the 6th century AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over; its name and administrative status were consequently often changed. During the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture — a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou.

In 3rd century AD, the famous Three Kingdoms battle, Battle of Hefei, was fought at what is currently Leisure Ford (逍遥津) in Hefei. General Zhang Liao of the Kingdom of Wei commanding 800 picked cavalry defeated the 200,000-men army of the Kingdom of Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle.

The present city dates from the Song dynasty (960–1126), the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom (902–938) and was an important center of the Southern Tang state (937–975).

After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty (1126–1279) against the Jin (Jurchen) invaders, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states. When the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, and the city took the name of Hefei.

The city was known as Luzhou (庐州; pinyin Lúzhōu) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (after 14th century to 19th century). Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862. It was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui.

Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It was a collecting center for grain, beans, cotton, and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, leather, bamboo goods, and ironware.

The construction in 1912 of the TianjinPuzhou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, and much of its importance passed to Bengbu. In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou (on the Yangtze opposite Wuhu) to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built primarily to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it also did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing.

Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years. The city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1949, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city. A cotton mill was opened in 1958, and a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s. It also became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries. There are several universities based in the city.

On May 13 2003, in Hefei, an underground gas explosion in the Luling coal mine killed at least 81 miners, with 5 others missing. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/china/mine_disaster.html CBC News Indepth: China ] ]

Geography

Hefei is located convert|130|km|mi|0|abbr=on west of Nanjing.

Hefei's annual average temperature is about convert|15.7|C|F|0|abbr=on. Its annual precipitation is about convert|1000|mm|in|0|abbr=on. It snows irregularly in the winter.

In the months of June, July, August, and often September, daily temperatures can reach highs of convert|37|C|F|0|abbr=on with high humidity levels being the norm.

May and June see the air quality level in Hefei diminish. The city is blanketed by a sweet-smelling smog caused by the smoke generated as farmers outside the city burn their fields in preparation for planting the next crop.

Chaohu Lake, a lake convert|15|km|mi|0|abbr=on southeast of the city, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in China. However, the lake has unfortunately been polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus in recent decades.

Demographics

The majority of the population in Hefei is Han Chinese. There are a small number of Hui Chinese living in the city. There are over three million people in the city.

Economy

The GDP per capita was ¥13,378 (ca. US$ 1,654) in 2004.

The average monthly wage for most people in 2005 ranged from 600 RMB to 1500 RMB.

Before the Chinese civil war Hefei was a town whose main industry was agriculture. Soon after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the capital of Anhui was moved from Huaining to Hefei. To assist the development of the city, many talented people were sent in from other parts of the country. Modern-day Hefei has machinery, electronics, chemistry, steel, textile, and cigarette industries, among others.

Despite being the Provincial Capital of Anhui, Hefei still exudes an air of poverty. Migrants from all over Anhui converge on the city looking for opportunities which do not actually exist for many of them. This constant influx keeps wages low. However, new industrial development in special economic zones ringing the city has resulted in new manufacturing jobs for technical school and college graduates.

In the summer of 2005, the municipal government implemented changes designed to beautify the city by demolishing thousands of illegally built structures, and clearing away long established marketplaces in many parts of the city. Overnight, longstanding businesses housed in flimsy structures that once lined many streets were gone. The impact on the local economy could be seen immediately as hundreds, if not thousands, of low paid workers no longer had employment.

On the other hand, these actions removed many unlicensed food stalls which had contributed to the spread of diseases that struck the city in the past. These changes also removed many unlicensed buildings that posed a fire hazard in the city. While it is undeniable that some people were forced to make sacrifices for the beautification of the city, the changes ensured that all the residents in the city have a better environment.

Under this project, the Fei River, which used to be known as a “sewage” river by many local people, has shown improvement in its water quality. Residents who used to live along the bank of the river now have a much more pleasant environment to live in.Fact|date=August 2008

Transportation

Hefei has been the provincial capital since 1949 and is a natural center of communications, being situated to the north of Lake Chao and standing on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which form the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers. From Hefei there is easy water transport via the lake to the Yangtze River opposite Wuhu. Important land routes run through Hefei — east-west from Puzhou (opposite Nanjing in Jiangsu) to Xi'an (in Shaanxi) and north-south from Xuzhou (in Jiangsu) and Bengbu to Anqing (both in Anhui). There are also two train stations in Hefei, the new one was built a few years ago and the old one is no longer used by the public. In 2008 the thoroughfare Chang Jiang Lu (Chang Jiang Road) (长江路) is undergoing a renovation project to widen the roads and to create a bus route in the center of the road, with bus stations at islands that are connected to the sidewalks by skyways. The First Ring Road is also undergoing construction, with traffic lights being replaced by overpasses and ramps built to connect the First Ring Road and all major intersecting roads. Both projects are intended to ease the traffic Hefei now experiences at rush hour.

Culture

Hefei plays an important role in scientific research in China. It has three national laboratories, second only to Beijing: the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (国家同步辐射实验室), the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale (微尺度物质科学国家实验室), both of which are under the University of Science and Technology of China, and the National Laboratory for Nuclear Fusion (Tokomak) Research (磁约束核聚变国家实验室), under the Hefei Institute of Physical Sciences, Institute of Plasma Physics, which itself is under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

port

Hefei has its own football team called Anhui Jiufang (安徽九方),who in the 2007-08 season were promoted from the Chinese Football Association Yi League to the Chinese Football Association Jia League which is the second highest tier of Chinese football.

ites of interest

*Leisure Ford, a public park sitting on the ancient site of the Battle of Hefei.
*Temple of Lord Bao, built in 1066 near the tomb of Lord Bao.
*Hui Garden (徽园) (Opened to the public in September 2001)
*Children's Welfare Institute (a.k.a. "Social Welfare Institute"), children's orphanage
*Anhui Laomingguang Stadium, the home ground of Anhui Jiufang, but also used for other public sporting events.

ister cities

Hefei is a sister city of the following cities around the world:

*flagicon|Japan Kurume, Japan (May 20, 1980)
*flagicon|Sierra Leone Freetown, Sierra Leone (March 20, 1984)
*flagicon|Burundi Bujumbura, Burundi (July 7, 1986)
*flagicon|United States Columbus, Ohio, U.S. (November 17, 1988)
*flagicon|Denmark Aalborg, Denmark (April 22, 1989)
*flagicon|Spain Lleida, Spain (April 4, 1998)
*flagicon|South Korea Wonju, South Korea (June 20, 2002)
*flagicon|Australia Darebin, Australia (October 29, 2003)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Belfast, Northern Ireland (December 26, 2003)

Notable people

*Bao Zheng (999 - 1062), Northern Song Dynasty bureaucrat and judge whose name has become synonymous with judicial wisdom and uprightness.
*Chen Ning Yang, (b. 1922), 1957 Nobel Physics Prize laureate, one of the two earliest Chinese to receive the prize.
*Li Hongzhang (1823 - 1901), prominent late Qing Dynasty bureaucrat and diplomat.
*Yang Yuanqing (1964 - ), Chairman of Board of Lenovo.
*Liu Mingchuan (1836 - 1896). Statesman during the late Qing dynasty, first governor of Taiwan.
*Jin Jing (1981- ), paralympic fencer.

Universities

*University of Science and Technology of China (USTC)(中国科学技术大学)
*Hefei University of Technology (HFUT)(合肥工业大学)
*Anhui University (AHU)(安徽大学)
*Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (AHTCM)(安徽中医学院)
*Anhui Medical University (AHMU)(安徽医科大学)
*Anhui Agricultural University (AHAU)(安徽农业大学)
*Anhui Institute of Architecture and Industry (AIAI) (安徽建筑工业学院)

References

ANHUI SANLIAN university(安徽三联学院)

External links

* [http://www.hefei.gov.cn/ Government website of Hefei zh icon] [http://www.hefei.gov.cn/english/ en icon]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hefei — Héféi · 合肥 Localisation de la préfecture de Hefei (en jaune) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hefei — (chino: 合肥, pinyin: Héféi) es la capital de la provincia de Anhui en la República Popular China. Tiene una población aproximada de 1.200.000 habitantes y ocupa un área de 120 Km². Está dividida en cuatro distritos y tres condados. Está situada a… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hefei — Hefei,   Hofei, bis 1912 Luchow [ludʒɔʊ], Lutschou, Luzhou, Hauptstadt der chinesischen Provinz Anhui, 4,20 Mio. Einwohner; Universität, TU, Fachhochschulen für Landwirtschaft, Bergbau und Medizin; …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hefei — [hu′fā′] city in E China: capital of Anhui province: pop. 692,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Hefei — 合肥市 Héféi Shì Sitz der Stadtregierung Stadtbezirk Shushan Fläche 6.911 km² Bevölkerung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hefei — Ciudad prefectura 合肥市市 Hefei …   Wikipedia Español

  • Hefei — /hue fay /, n. Pinyin. a city in and the capital of Anhui province, in E China. 400,000. Also, Hofei. * * * or Ho fei formerly Luzhou or Lu chou City (pop., 1999 est.: 1,000,655), central China. The capital of Anhui province since 1949, the… …   Universalium

  • Hefei — Original name in latin Hefei Name in other language Che fej, HFE, Hefei, Hefejo, Hefejus, Hefjus, Heyfey, Ho fei, Ho fei hsien, Ho fei shih, Hop Phi, Hp Ph Khefej, Khehfehj, Khufej, Lu chou, Luchow, Luchowfu, Lunchow, he fei, he fei shi, hefe i,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Hefei — or Hofei or formerly Luchow geographical name city E China capital of Anhui W of Nanjing population 733,278 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Hefei — noun A prefecture level city in central China; capital of Anhui Province …   Wiktionary


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