:"Knit" redirects here. See also
KNITand Knitted fabric."
Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into
cloth. Knitting consists of loops called stitches pulled through each other. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them.
Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. By hand, there are numerous styles and methods. Flat knitting, which is done on two straight needles, produces a length of cloth, while circular knitting, which is done on circular or double-pointed needles, produces a seamless tube.
Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products, by giving the final piece different color, texture, weight, or integrity.
Courses and wales
weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric from a one-dimensional yarnor thread. In weaving, the threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a "course"), forming symmetric loops (also called bights or "stitches") symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which gives knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. For this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions, such as socks and hosiery. For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the "bias") and not very much, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to follow the body's curvature closely; by contrast, curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts, flares, gussets and gores, the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams, as in the heel of a sock; the effect of darts, flares, etc. can be obtained with short rows or by increasing/decreasing the number of stitches. The thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric.
If they are not secured, the loops of a knitted course will come undone when their yarn is pulled; this is known as "ripping out" or "unravelling" knitting. To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it. Although the new stitch is itself unsecured ("active"), it secures the stitch(es) suspended from it. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch suspended from the next is called a "wale". [A wale, according to "Knitting Technology: a Comprehensive Handbook and Practical Guide", is "a predominantly vertical column of needle loops generally produced by the same needles at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles. A wale starts as soon as an empty needle starts to knit" (Spencer 1989:17).] To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric, a method for casting on is used; to secure the final stitches in a wale, one uses a method of binding off. During knitting, the active stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks (in knitting machines) or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting.
Weft and warp knitting
There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and
warp knitting. [cite web
title = Knitting Basics
publisher = Alamac American Knits LLC
date = 2004
url = http://www.alamacknits.com/knitting.htm
accessdate = 2006-12-27 ] In the more common "weft knitting", the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn; however, in
warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine. [(Spencer 1989:11-12)] Warp-knitted fabrics such as tricot and milanese are resistant to runs, and are commonly used in lingerie.
Weft-knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns, usually to produce interesting color patterns. The two most common approaches are intarsia and
double knitting. In intarsia, the yarns are used in well-segregated regions, e.g., a red apple on a field of green; in that case, the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time. In the more complex double knitting, two or more yarns alternate repeatedly within one row and all the yarns must be carried along the row, as seen in Fair Isle sweaters. Double knitting can produce two separate knitted fabrics simultaneously, e.g., two socks; however, the two fabrics are usually integrated into one, giving it great warmth and excellent drape.
Knit and purl stitches
In securing the previous stitch in a wale, the next stitch can pass through the previous loop either from below or above. If the former, the stitch is denoted as a "knit stitch"; if the latter, as a "purl stitch". The two stitches are related in that a knit stitch seen from one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other side.
The two types of stitches have a different visual effect; the knit stitches look like "V"'s stacked vertically, whereas the purl stitches look like a wavy horizontal line across the fabric. Patterns and pictures can be created in knitted fabrics by using knit and purl stitches as "
pixels"; however, such pixels are usually rectangular, rather than square, depending on the gauge of the knitting. Individual stitches, or rows of stitches, may be made taller by drawing more yarn into the new loop (an elongated stitch), which is the basis for uneven knitting: a row of tall stitches may alternate with one or more rows of short stitches for an interesting visual effect. Short and tall stitches may also alternate within a row, forming a fish-like oval pattern.
In the simplest knitted fabrics, all of the stitches are knit or purl; these fabrics are denoted as "stockinette" and "reverse stockinette", respectively. Vertical stripes (ribbing) are possible by having alternating wales of knit and purl stitches; for example, a common choice is 2x2 ribbing, in which two wales of knit stitches are followed by two wales of purl stitches, etc. Horizontal striping (welting) is also possible, by alternating "rows" of knit and purl stitches; the simplest of these is "garter stitch", so-called because its great elasticity made it well-suited for garters. Checkerboard patterns (basketweave) are also possible, the smallest of which is known as "seed stitch": the stitches alternate between knit and purl in every wale and along every row.
Fabrics in which the number of knit and purl stitches are not the same, such as stockinette, have a tendency to curl; by contrast, those in which knit and purl stitches are arranged symmetrically (such as ribbing, garter stitch or seed stitch) tend to lie flat and drape well. Wales of purl stitches have a tendency to recede, whereas those of knit stitches tend to come forward. Thus, the purl wales in ribbing tend to be invisible, since the neighboring knit wales come forward. Conversely, rows of purl stitches tend to form an embossed ridge relative to a row of knit stitches. This is the basis of
shadow knitting, in which the appearance of a knitted fabric changes when viewed from different directions. [cite book | last = Høxbro | first = Vivian | year = 2004 | title = Shadow Knitting | publisher = Interweave Press | location = Loveland, CO | id = ISBN 978-1931499415]
Typically, a new stitch is passed through a single unsecured ("active") loop, thus lengthening that wale by one stitch. However, this need not be so; the new loop may be passed through an already secured stitch lower down on the fabric, or even between secured stitches (a dip stitch). Depending on the distance between where the loop is drawn through the fabric and where it is knitted, such dip stitches can produce a subtle stippling or long lines across the surface of the fabric, e.g., the lower leaves of a flower. The new loop may also be passed between two stitches in the "present" row, thus clustering the intervening stitches; this approach is often used to produce a
smockingeffect in the fabric. The new loop may also be passed through "two or more" previous stitches, producing a decrease and merging wales together. The merged stitches need not be from the same row; for example, a tuck can be formed by knitting stitches together from two different rows, producing a raised horizontal welt on the fabric.
Not every stitch in a row need be knitted; some may be left as is and knitted on a subsequent row. This is known as
slip-stitch knitting. [cite book | last = Bartlett | first = Roxana | year = 1998 | title = Slip-Stitch Knitting: Color Pattern the Easy Way | publisher = Interweave Press | location = Loveland, CO | id = ISBN 978-1883010324] The slipped stitches are naturally longer than the knitted ones; for example, a stitch slipped for one row before knitting would be roughly twice as tall as its knitted counterparts. This can produce interesting visual effects, although the resulting fabric is more rigid, because the slipped stitch "pulls" on its neighbours and is less deformable. Slip-stitch knitting plays an important role in "mosaic knitting", an important technique in hand-knitting patterned fabrics; mosaic-knit fabrics tend to be stiffer than patterned fabrics produced by other methods such as Fair-Isle knitting. [cite book | last = Starmore | first = Alice | year = 1988 | title = Alice Starmore's Book of Fair Isle Knitting | publisher = Taunton | id = ISBN 978-0918804976]
In some cases, a stitch may be deliberately left unsecured by a new stitch and its wale allowed to disassemble. This is known as
drop-stitch knitting, and produces a vertical ladder of see-through holes in the fabric, corresponding to where the wale had been.
Right- and left-plaited stitches
Both knit and purl stitches may be twisted: usually once if at all, but sometimes twice and (very rarely) thrice. When seen from above, the twist can be clockwise (right yarn over left) or counterclockwise (left yarn over right); these are denoted as right- and left-plaited stitches, respectively. Hand-knitters generally produce right-plaited stitches by knitting or purling through the back loops, i.e., passing the needle through the initial stitch in an unusual way, but wrapping the yarn as usual. By contrast, the left-plaited stitch is generally formed by hand-knitters by wrapping the yarn in the opposite way, rather than by any change in the needle. Although they are mirror images in form, right- and left-plaited stitches are functionally equivalent. Both types of plaited stitches gives a subtle but interesting visual texture, and tend to draw the fabric inwards, making it stiffer. Plaited stitches are a common method for knitting jewelry from fine metal wire.
Edges and joins between knitted fabrics
The initial and final edges of a knitted fabric are known as the "cast-on" and "bound-off" edges. The side edges are known as the "selvages"; the word derives from "self-edges", meaning that the stitches do not need to be secured by anything else. Many types of selvages have been developed, with different elastic and ornamental properties. Vertical and horizontal edges can be introduced within a knitted fabric, e.g., for button holes, by binding off and re-casting on again (horizontal) or by knitting the fabrics on either side of a vertical edge separately.
Two knitted fabrics can be joined by embroidery-based grafting methods, most commonly the Kitchener stitch. New wales can be begun from any of the edges of a knitted fabric; this is known as picking up stitches and is the basis for
entrelac, in which the wales run perpendicular to one another in a checkerboard pattern.
Cables, increases and lace
Ordinarily, stitches are knitted in the same order in every row, and the wales of the fabric run parallel and vertically along the fabric. However, this need not be so. The order in which stitches are knitted may be permuted so that wales cross over one another, forming a cable pattern. Cables patterns tend to draw the fabric together, making it denser and less elastic; [cite book | last = Leapman | first = Melissa | year = 2006 | title = Cables Untangled: An Exploration of Cable Knitting | publisher = Potter Craft | id = ISBN 978-1400097456]
Aran sweaters are a common form of knitted cabling. [cite book | last = Hollingworth | first = Shelagh | year = 1983 | title = The Complete Book of Traditional Aran Knitting | publisher = St. Martin's Press | id = ISBN 978-0312156350] Arbitrarily complex braid patterns can be done in cable knitting, with the proviso that the wales must move ever upwards; it is generally impossible for a wale to move up and then down the fabric. Knitters have developed methods for giving the illusion of a circular wale, such as appear in Celtic knots, but these are inexact approximations. However, such circular wales are possible using Swiss darning, a form of embroidery, or by knitting a tube separately and attaching it to the knitted fabric.
A wale can split into two or more wales using increases, most commonly involving a
yarn over. Depending on how the increase is done, there is often a hole in the fabric at the point of the increase. This is used to great effect in lace knitting, which consists of making patterns and pictures using such holes, rather than with the stitches themselves. [cite book | last = Sowerby | first = Jane | year = 2006 | title = Victorian Lace Today | publisher = XRX Books | id = ISBN 978-1933064079
cite book | last = Swansen | first = Meg | year = 2005 | title = A Gathering of Lace | edition = 2nd edition | publisher = Schoolhouse Press | id = ISBN 978-1893762244] The large and many holes in lacy knitting makes it extremely elastic; for example, some Shetland "wedding-ring" shawls are so fine that they may be drawn through a wedding ring.
By combining increases and decreases, it is possible to make the direction of a wale slant away from vertical, even in weft knitting. This is the basis for
bias knitting, and can be used for visual effect, similar to the direction of a brush-stroke in oil painting.
Ornamentations and additions
Various point-like ornaments may be added to knitting for their look or to improve the wear of the fabric. Examples include various types of bobbles, sequins and beads. Long loops can also be drawn out and secured, forming a "shaggy" texture to the fabric; this is known as
loop knitting. Additional patterns can be made on the surface of the knitted fabric using embroidery; if the embroidery resembles knitting, it is often called Swiss darning. Various closures for the garments, such as frogs and buttons can be added; usually buttonholes are knitted into the garment, rather than cut.
Ornamental pieces may also be knitted separately and then attached using
applique. For example, differently colored leaves and petals of a flower could be knit separately and applied to form the final picture. Separately knitted tubes can be applied to a knitted fabric to form complex Celtic knots and other patterns that would be difficult to knit.
Unknitted yarns may be worked into knitted fabrics for warmth, as is done in
tuftingand "weaving" (also known as "couching").
Types of knitting
Flat knitting versus circular knitting
Circular knitting (also called "knitting in the round") is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Knitting is worked in rounds (the equivalent of rows in flat knitting) in a spiral. Originally, circular knitting was done using a set of four or five double-pointed knitting needles. Later, circular needles were invented. A circular needle resembles two short knitting needles connected by a cable between them. Flat knitting, on the other hand, is used, in its most basic form, to make flat, rectangular pieces of cloth. [Differently shaped fabric may also be created using special stitches within the work. see also|Increase (knitting)|Decrease (knitting)|Cable knitting] It is done with two straight knitting needles and is worked in rows, horizontal lines of stitches.
Circular knitting is employed to create pieces that are circular or tube-shaped, such as
hats, socks, mittens, and sleeves. Flat knitting is usually used to knit flat pieces like scarves, blankets, afghans, and the backs and fronts of sweaters.
There is also such a thing as
finger knitting. It is not done like knitting on needles, it is done on your fingers. This produces a tube like piece.
History and culture
One of the earliest known examples of knitting was finely decorated cotton socks found in
Egyptin the end of the first millennium AD. [cite web
last = Theaker
first = Julie
title = History 101
publisher = Knitty
date = 2006
url = http://www.knitty.com/ISSUEspring06/FEAThistory101.html
accessdate = 2007-03-29 ] The first knitting trade guild was started in Paris in 1527. [cite book
last = Porter
first = Roy
authorlink = Roy Porter
coauthors = John Brewer
title = Consumption and the World of Goods
publisher = Routledge
date = 1994
location = London
pages = 232-233
id = ISBN 0-415-11478-0 ] With the invention of the
knitting machine, however, knitting "by hand" became a useful but non-essential craft. Similar to quilting, spinning, and needlepoint, knitting became a social activity.
Hand-knitting has gone into and out of fashion many times in the last two centuries, and at the turn of the 21st century it is enjoying a revival. According to the industry group
Craft Yarn Council of America, the number of women knitters in the United States age 25–35 increased 150% in the two years between 2002 and 2004. [Craft Yarn Council of America press release, [http://www.craftyarncouncil.com/know.html CYCA News: Knitting & Crocheting Are Hot!] "craftyarncouncil.com" Retrieved on 2006-12-13.] While some may say knittinghas never really gone away, this latest reincarnation is less about the make do and mend of the 1940’s and 50’s and more about making a statement about individuality as well as developing an innate sense of community.Additionally, many contemporary knitters have an interest in bloggingabout their knitting, patterns, and techniques.Cohan, Jillian. [http://www.kansas.com/mld/eagle/living/people/family/15963594.htm Women find creativity, comfort in knitting circle.] "The Witchita Eagle" ( November 9, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-13.]
Properties of knitted fabrics
topologyof a knitted fabric is relatively complex. Unlike woven fabrics, where strands usually run straight horizontally and vertically, yarn that has been knitted follows a loopy path along its row, as with the red strand in the diagram at left, in which the loops of one row have all been pulled through the loops of the row below it.
Because there is no single straight line of yarn anywhere in the pattern, a knitted piece can stretch in all directions. This elasticity is unavailable from woven fabrics, which only stretch along the bias. Many modern stretchy garments, even as they rely on elastic synthetic materials for some stretch, also achieve at least some of their stretch through knitted patterns.
reverse stockinette stitch] The basic knitted fabric (as in the diagram, and usually called a "stocking" or "stockinette" pattern) has a definite "right side" and "wrong side". On the right side, the visible portions of the loops are the verticals connecting two rows, arranged in a grid of "V" shapes. On the wrong side, the ends of the loops are visible, both the tops and bottoms, creating a much more bumpy texture sometimes called "reverse stockinette". (Despite being the "wrong side," reverse stockinette is frequently used as a pattern in its own right.) Because the yarn holding rows together is all on the front, and the yarn holding side-by-side stitches together is all on the back, stockinette fabric has a strong tendency to curl toward the front on the top and bottom, and toward the back on the left and right side.
Stitches can be worked from either side, and various patterns are created by mixing regular knit stitches with the "wrong side" stitches, known as
purl stitches, either in columns (ribbing), rows (garter, welting), or more complex patterns. Each such fabric has different properties: a garter stitch has much more vertical stretch, while ribbing stretches much more horizontally. Because of their front-back symmetry, these two fabrics have little curl, making them popular as edging, even when their stretch properties are not desired.
Different combinations of knit and purl stitches, along with more advanced techniques, generate fabrics of considerably variable consistency, from gauzy to very dense, from highly stretchy to relatively stiff, from flat to tightly curled, and so on.
The most common texture for a knitted garment is that generated by the flat stockinette stitch—as seen, though very small, in machine-made stockings and
T-shirts—which is worked in the round as nothing but knit stitches, and worked flat as alternating rows of knit and purl. Other simple textures can be made with nothing but knit and purl stitches, including garter stitch, ribbing, and moss and seed stitches. Adding a "slip stitch" (where a loop is passed from one needle to the other) allows for a wide range of textures, including heel and linen stitches, and a number of more complicated patterns.
Some more advanced knitting techniques create a surprising variety of complex textures. Combining certain increases, which can create small eyelet holes in the resulting fabric, with assorted decreases is key to creating knitted lace, a very open fabric resembling
lace. Changing the order of stitches from one row to the next, usually with the help of a cable needle or stitch holder, is key to cable knitting, producing an endless variety of cables, honeycombs, ropes, and Aran sweaterpatterning. Entrelacforms a rich checkerboard texture by knitting small squares, picking uptheir side edges, and knitting more squares to continue the piece.
The appearance of a garment is also affected by the "weight" of the yarn, which describes the thickness of the spun fibre. The thicker the yarn, the more visible and apparent stitches will be; the thinner the yarn, the finer the texture.
Plenty of finished knitting projects never use more than a single colour of yarn, but there are many ways to work in multiple colors. Some yarns are dyed to be either "variegated" (changing color every few stitches in a random fashion) or "self-striping" (changing every few rows). More complicated techniques permit large fields of colour (intarsia, for example), busy small-scale patterns of color (such as Fair Isle), or both (
double knittingand slip-stitch colour, for example).
Yarn with multiple shades of the same hue are called "ombre", while a yarn with multiple hues may be known as a given "
colorway" — a green, red and yellow yarn might be dubbed the "Parrot Colorway" by its manufacturer, for example. "Heathered" yarns contain small amounts of fibre of different colours, while "tweed" yarns may have greater amounts of different coloured fibres.
There are many hundreds of different
knitting stitchesused by knitters. A piece of knitting begins with the process of "casting on" (also known as "binding on"), which involves the initial creation of the stitches on the needle. Different methods of casting on are used for different effects: one may be stretchy enough for lace, while another provides a decorative edging — "Provisional" cast-ons are used when the knitting will continue in both directions from the cast-on. There are various method employed to "cast on," such as the "thumb method" (also known as "slingshot" or "long-tail" cast-ons), where the stitches are created by a series of loops that will, when knitted, give a very loose edge ideal for "picking up stitches" and knitting a border; the "double needle method" (also known as "knit-on" or "cable cast-on"), whereby each loop placed on the needle is then "knitted on," which produces a firmer edge ideal on its own as a border; and many more. The number of active stitches remains the same as when cast on unless stitches are added (an increase) or removed (a decrease).
Most Western-style knitters follow either the English style (in which the yarn is held in the right hand) or the Continental style (in which the yarn is held in the left hand). A third but less common method, called
combination knitting, may also be used. [cite web
last = Finlay
first = Amy
title = How to do the knit stitch
url = http://www.knittinghelp.com/knitting/basic_techniques/knit.php
accessdate = 2006-12-28] ]
Once the knitted piece is finished, the remaining live stitches are "cast off." Casting (or "binding") off loops the stitches across each other so they can be removed from the needle without unravelling the item. Although the mechanics are different from casting on, there is a similar variety of methods.
In knitting certain articles of clothing, especially larger ones like
sweaters, the final knitted garment will be made of several knitted pieces, with individual sections of the garment knit separately and then sewn together. Seamless knitting, where a whole garment is knit as a single piece, is also possible. Elizabeth Zimmermannis probably the best-known proponent of seamless or circular knitting techniques. Smaller items, such as socks and hats, are usually knit in one piece on double-pointed needles or circular needles. (See " Circular knitting".)
Yarn for hand-knitting is usually sold as balls or skeins (hanks), although it may also be wound on spools or cones. Skeins and balls are generally sold with a "yarn-band", a label that describes the yarn's weight, length, dye lot, fiber content, washing instructions, suggested needle size, likely gauge, etc. It is common practice to save the yarn band for future reference, especially if additional skeins must be purchased. Knitters generally ensure that the yarn for a project comes from a single dye lot. The dye lot specifies a group of skeins that were dyed together and thus have precisely the same color; skeins from different dye-lots, even if very similar in color, are usually slightly different and may produce a visible stripe when knitted together. If a knitter buys insufficient yarn of a single dye lot to complete a project, additional skeins of the same dye lot can sometimes be obtained from other yarn stores or online.
The thickness of the yarn is a significant factor in determining the gauge, i.e., how many stitches and rows are required to cover a given area for a given stitch pattern. Thicker yarns generally require thicker knitting needles, whereas thinner yarns may be knit with thick or thin needles. Hence, thicker yarns generally require fewer stitches, and therefore less time, to knit up a given garment. Patterns and motifs are coarser with thicker yarns; thicker yarns produce bold visual effects, whereas thinner yarns are best for refined patterns. Yarns are grouped by thickness into six categories: superfine, fine, light, medium, bulky and superbulky; quantitatively, thickness is measured by the number of wraps per inch (WPI). The related "weight per unit length" is usually measured in tex or dernier.
Before knitting, the knitter will typically transform a hank into a ball where the yarn emerges from the center of the ball; this making the knitting easier by preventing the yarn from becoming easily tangled. This transformation may be done by hand, or with a device known as a ballwinder. When knitting, some knitters enclose their balls in jars to keep them clean and untangled with other yarns; the free yarn passes through a small hole in the jar-lid.
A yarn's usefulness for a knitting project is judged by several factors, such as its "loft" (its ability to trap air), its "resilience" (elasticity under tension), its washability and colorfastness, its "hand" (its feel, particularly softness vs. scratchiness), its durability against abrasion, its resistance to pilling, its "hairiness" (fuzziness), its tendency to twist or untwist, its overall weight and drape, its blocking and felting qualities, its comfort (breathability, moisture absorption, wicking properties) and of course its look, which includes its color, sheen, smoothness and ornamental features. Other factors include allergenicity; speed of drying; resistance to chemicals, moths, and mildew; melting point and flammability; retention of static electricity; and the propensity to become stained and to accept dyes. Different factors may be more significant than others for different knitting projects, so there is no one "best" yarn. The resilience and propensity to (un)twist are general properties that affect the ease of hand-knitting. More resilient yarns are more forgiving of irregularities in tension; highly twisted yarns are sometimes difficult to knit, whereas untwisting yarns can lead to split stitches, in which not all of the yarn is knitted into a stitch. A key factor in knitting is "stitch definition", corresponding to how well complicated stitch patterns can be seen when made from a given yarn. Smooth, highly spun yarns are best for showing off stitch patterns; at the other extreme, very fuzzy yarns or eyelash yarns have poor stitch definition, and any complicated stitch pattern would be invisible.
Although knitting may be done with ribbons, metal wire and more exotic filaments, most yarns are made by spinning fibers. In spinning, the fibers are twisted so that the yarn resists breaking under tension; the twisting may be done in either direction, resulting in an Z-twist or S-twist yarn. If the fibers are first aligned by combing them, the yarn is smoother and called a "worsted"; by contrast, if the fibers are carded but not combed, the yarn is fuzzier and called "woolen-spun". The fibers making up a yarn may be continuous "filament" fibers such as
silkand many synthetics, or they may be "staples" (fibers of an average length, typically a few inches); naturally filament fibers are sometimes cut up into staples before spinning. The strength of the spun yarn against breaking is determined by the amount of twist, the length of the fibers and the thickness of the yarn. In general, yarns become stronger with more twist (also called "worst"), longer fibers and thicker yarns (more fibers); for example, thinner yarns require more twist than do thicker yarns to resist breaking under tension. The thickness of the yarn may vary along its length; a "slub" is a much thicker section in which a mass of fibers is incorporated into the yarn.
The spun fibers are generally divided into
animal fibers, plant and synthetic fibers. These fiber types are chemically different, corresponding to proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers, respectively. Animals fibers include silk, but generally are long hairs of animals such as sheep( wool), goat(angora, or cashmere goat), rabbit(angora), llama, alpaca, dog, camel, yak, and muskox( qiviut). Plants used for fibers include cotton, flax(for linen), bamboo, ramie, hemp, jute, nettle, raffia, yucca, coconuthusk, banana trees, soyand corn. Rayonand acetate fibers are also produced from cellulosemainly derived from trees. Common synthetic fibers include acrylics, [cite book | last = Masson | first = James | title = Acrylic Fiber Technology and Applications | publisher = Marcel Dekker, Inc. | date = 1995 | location = New York | pages = 172 | isbn = 0-8247-8977-6 ] polyesters such as dacron and ingeo, nylonand other polyamides, and olefins such as polypropylene. Of these types, wool is generally favored for knitting, chiefly owing to its superior elasticity, warmth and (sometimes) felting; however, wool is generally less convenient to clean and some people are allergic to it. It is also common to blend different fibers in the yarn, e.g., 85% alpaca and 15% silk. Even within a type of fiber, there can be great variety in the length and thickness of the fibers; for example, Merinowool and Egyptian cotton are favored because they produce exceptionally long, thin (fine) fibers for their type.
A single spun yarn may knitted as is, or braided or plied with another. In plying, two or more yarns are spun together, almost always in the opposite sense from which they were spun individually; for example, two Z-twist yarns are usually plied with an S-twist. The opposing twist relieves some of the yarns' tendency to curl up and produces a thicker, "balanced" yarn. Plied yarns may themselves be plied together, producing "cabled yarns" or "multi-stranded yarns". Sometimes, the yarns being plied are fed at different rates, so that one yarn loops around the other, as in
bouclé. The single yarns may be dyed separately before plying, or afterwards to give the yarn a uniform look.
The dyeing of yarns is a complex art. Yarns need not be dyed; or they may be dyed one color, or a great variety of colors. Dyeing may be done industrially, by hand or even hand-painted onto the yarn. A great variety of synthetic dyes have been developed since the synthesis of
indigo dyein the mid-19th century; however, natural dyes are often favored, although they are generally less brilliant. The color-scheme of a yarn is sometimes called its colorway. Variegated yarns can produce interesting visual effects, such as diagonal stripes; conversely, a variegated yarn may frustrate an otherwise good knitting pattern by producing distasteful color combinations.
The process of knitting has three basic tasks: (1) the active (unsecured) stitches must be held so they don't drop; (2) these stitches must be released sometime after they are secured; and (3) new bights of
yarnmust be passed through the fabric, usually through active stitches, thus securing them. In very simple cases, knitting can be done without tools, using only the fingers to do these tasks; however, knitting is usually carried out using tools such as knitting needles, knitting machines or rigid frames. Depending on their size and shape, the rigid frames are called knitting boards, knitting rings (also called knitting looms) or knitting spools (also known as knitting knobbies, knitting nancies, or corkers). Other tools are used to prepare yarn for knitting, to measure and design knitted garments, or to make knitting easier or more comfortable.
There are three basic types of knitting needles (also called "knitting pins"). The first and most common type consists of two slender, straight sticks tapered to a point at one end, and with a knob at the other end to prevent stitches from slipping off. Such needles are usually 10-16
inches long but, due to the compressibility of knitted fabrics, may be used to knit pieces significantly wider. The most important property of needles is their diameter, which ranges from below 2 mm to 25 mm (roughly 1 inch). The diameter affects the size of stitches, which affects the gauge of the knitting and the elasticity of the fabric. Thus, a simple way to change gauge is to use different needles, which is the basis of uneven knitting. Although knitting needle diameter is often measured in millimeters, there are several different size systems, particularly those specific to the United States, the United Kingdomand Japan; a conversion table is given at knitting needle. Such knitting needles may be made out of any materials, but the most common materials are metals, wood, bamboo, and plastic. Different materials have different frictions and grip the yarn differently; slick needles such as metallic needles are useful for swift knitting, whereas rougher needles such as bamboo are less prone to dropping stitches. The knitting of new stitches occurs only at the tapered ends, and needles with lighted tips have been sold to allow knitters to knit in the dark.
The second type of knitting needles are straight, double-pointed knitting needles (also called "dpns"). Double-pointed needles are tapered at both ends, which allows them to be knit from either end. Dpns are typically used for
circular knitting, especially smaller tube-shaped pieces such as sleeves, collars, and socks; usually one needle is active while the others hold the remaining active stitches. Dpns are somewhat shorter (typically 7 inches) and are usually sold in sets of four or five.
Cable needles are a special case of dpns, although they usually are not straight, but dimpled in the middle. Cable needles are typically very short (a few inches), and are used to hold stitches temporarily while others are being knitted. Cable patterns are made by permuting the order of stitches; although one or two stitches may be held by hand or knit out of order, cables of three or more generally require a cable needle.
The third needle type consists of circular needles, which are long, flexible double-pointed needles. The two tapered ends (typically convert|5|in|mm long) are rigid and straight, allowing for easy knitting; however, the two ends are connected by a flexible strand (usually nylon) that allows the two ends to be brought together. Circular needles are typically 24-60 inches long, and are usually used singly or in pairs; again, the width of the knitted piece may be significantly longer than the length of the circular needle. Special kits are available that allow circular needles of various lengths and diameters to be made as needed; rigid ends of various diameters may be screwed into strands of various lengths. The ability to work from either end of one needle is convenient in several types of knitting, such as slip-stitch versions of
double knitting. Circular needles may be used for flat or circular knitting.
Various tools have been developed to make hand-knitting easier. Tools for measuring needle diameter and yarn properties have been discussed above, as well as the yarn swift, ballwinder and "yarntainers". Crochet hooks and a darning needle are often useful in binding off or in joining two knitted pieces edge-to-edge. The darning needle is used in
duplicate stitch(also known as Swiss darning), while the crochet hook is also essential for repairing dropped stitches and some specialty stitches such as tufting. Other tools are used to prepare specific ornaments include the pompom tree for making pompoms conveniently. For large or complex patterns, it is sometimes difficult to keep track of which stitch should be knit in a particular way; therefore, several tools have been developed to identify the number of a particular row or stitch, including circular stitch markers, hanging markers, extra yarn and counters. A second potential difficulty is that the knitted piece will slide off the tapered end of the needles when unattended; this is prevented by "point protectors" that cap the tapered ends. Another problem is that too much knitting may lead to hand and wrist troubles; for this, special stress-relieving gloves are available. Finally, there are sundry bags and containers for holding knitting, yarns and needles.
wireis also knitted into a metal fabric for a wide range of uses including the filter material in cafetieres, catalytic convertersfor cars and many other uses. These fabrics are usually manufactured on circular knitting machines that would be recognised by conventional knitters as sockmachines.
*Hiatt, June Hemmons. (1988). "The principles of knitting: Methods and techniques of hand knitting". Simon and Schuster, New York.
title = Knitting
encyclopedia = The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition
publisher = Columbia University Press
date = 2003
accessdate = 2006-12-21
*Rutt, Richard (2003). "A history of handknitting". Interweave Press, Loveland, CO. (Reprint Edition ISBN)
last = Spencer
first = David J.
title = Knitting Technology: a Comprehensive Handbook and Practical Guide
publisher = Woodhead Publishing
date = 1989
location = Lancaster
id = ISBN 1 85573 333 1
*Stoller, Debbie. (2004) "Stitch 'n Bitch: The Knitter's Handbook." Workman Publishing Company
*Thomas, Mary. (1938). "Mary Thomas's Knitting Book". Dover Publications. New York. (1972 Reprint Edition ISBN)
*Zimmermann, Elizabeth. (1972). "Knitting Without Tears". Simon and Schuster, New York. (Reprint Edition ISBN)
*Gschwandtner, Sabrina. (2007). "KnitKnit: Profiles and Projects from Knitting's New Wave". Stewart, Tabori and Chang, New York.
* [http://www.yarnandfiber.com/catalog/yarnweight.php Yarn Weight] Relationship between yarn weight and knitting gauge.
* [http://www.yarnandfiber.com/catalog/needlechart.php Needle Conversion Chart] Shows conversion between current and past US and European knitting needle sizes.
* cite web |publisher=
Victoria and Albert Museum
work=Fashion, Jewellery & Accessories
* [http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/item10/21946 A collection of 19th century decorative knitting sheaths]
* [http://www.wonderhowto.com/arts-crafts/knitting-crochet-video/ Knitting How-To Videos] : Hundreds of free knitting how-to videos
* [http://www.learntoknit.com/instructions_kn.php3 Basic knitting] : Beginner's instructions with clear illustrations
* [http://www.knittingfool.com/ KnittingFool] : Knitting abbreviations; Knitting symbols; and free knitting patterns
* [http://www.knittinghelp.com/ Knitting Help] : Knitting videos and tutorials, with both beginner and advanced techniques
* [http://www.letsknit2gether.com/ Lets Knit2gether] : Instructional videos on knitting techniques
* [http://knitting.craftgossip.com Knitting News] Product, pattern and website reviews
* [http://www.craftown.com/knitlesson.htm Free Knitting Instructions]
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