- Ground zero
Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hallwas only 150 m from the hypocenter, or ground zero, of the atomic bomb explosion over Hiroshima.] The term Ground Zero may be used to describe the point on the earth's surface where an explosion occurs. In the case of an explosion above the ground, Ground Zero refers to the point on the ground directly below an explosion (see hypocenter).The term has often been associated with nuclear explosions and other large bombs, but is also used in relation to earthquakes, epidemics and other disasters to mark the point of the most severe damage or destruction.Fact|date=September 2008 Damage gradually decreases with distance from this point.
History of term
The origins of the term "Ground Zero" began with the
Manhattan Projectand the bombing of Japan. The Oxford English Dictionary, citing the use of the term in a 1946 New York Times report on the destroyed city of Hiroshima, defines “ground zero” as “that part of the ground situated immediately under an exploding bomb, especially an atomic one.”
The term was military slang — used at the
Trinity sitewhere the weapon tower for the first nuclear weaponwas at point 'zero' — and moved into general use very shortly after the end of World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Relating to a specific event, the term was first used to refer to the devastation caused by the
atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. [cite web|url=http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-cold-war/hiroshima-nagasaki/index.htm|title=Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: History: Pre Cold War: Hiroshima and Nagasaki|accessdate=2008-02-04|publisher=Nuclear Age Peace Foundation]
. The open space in the center is informally known as ground zero, and a snack bar located at the center of this plaza is named the "Ground Zero Cafe."
World Trade Center
The term was also used to describe the site of the
World Trade Centerin New York City, which was destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks. The term had been applied to the site in the 1980s by the authors of messages that were stenciled on the sidewalks of Manhattan. Each stenciled message included an arrow that pointed towards the southern tip of the island and stated: " [Number] miles to Ground Zero," in apparent reference to the targeting of the financial district by the Soviet Union in the event of a nuclear war.Fact|date=August 2008 The adoption of this term by the mainstream North American media with reference to the September 11th attacks began as early as 7:47 p.m. (EDT) on that day, when CBS Newsreporter Jim Axelrodsaid, Cquote | Less than four miles behind me is where the Twin Towers stood this morning. But not tonight. Ground Zero, as it's being described, in today's terrorist attacks that have sent aftershocks rippling across the country. [ [http://www.archive.org/details/cbs200109111938-2019 CBS 9] , Washington, D.C., at Internet Archive's [http://www.archive.org/details/sept_11_tv_archive September 11 Television Archive] . Kathleen Matthews, of WJLA, Washington, D.C. said at 7:02 p.m. EDT, "Ground Zero for the terrorist attack here in the Washington area is of course The Pentagon." [http://www.archive.org/details/abc200109111856-1938 September 11 Television Archive] .] Rescue workers also used the phrase "The Pile", referring to the pile of rubble that was left after the buildings collapsed. [cite news |author=Hamill, Denis |title=Rescue Workers Keep Up Quest for Signs of Life Ruin All Over, But Not One Unkind Word |publisher=Daily News (New York) |date=September 16, 2001]
The term is often re-used for disasters that have a geographic or conceptual epicenter.
* [http://www.altpr.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=8&mod History of the phrase "Ground Zero"]
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Ground Zero (9-11) — Ground Zero, in der Militärsprache die Explosionsstelle einer Bombe oder Rakete über dem Boden, wird seit dem 11. September 2001 auch für das zerstörte World Trade Center in New York verwendet. Manhattan am 12. September, NASA Satellitenbild Das… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ground Zero — (deutsch: Bodennullpunkt) bezeichnet in der Militärsprache die Explosionsstelle einer Bombe oder Rakete über dem Boden; seit dem 11. September 2001 steht der Begriff auch für das zerstörte World Trade Center in New York (Ground Zero New York).… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ground Zero — Pour les articles homonymes?, voir Ground zero (homonymie). Ground zero est un terme anglais utilisé pour indiquer l endroit précis sur le sol où a lieu n importe quelle explosion … Wikipédia en Français
Ground Zero — Ground Ze|ro 〈[ graʊnd zi:roʊ] m.; od. s; unz.〉 unmittelbare Umgebung des durch einen Terroranschlag zerstörten World Trade Centers in New York [engl.; <ground „Gebiet, Boden, Erde“ + zero „null“] * * * Ground Ze|ro [ graʊnd ziəroʊ ], der,… … Universal-Lexikon
ground zero — n [U] the exact place where a bomb explodes ▪ Buildings within 25 km of ground zero would be flattened … Dictionary of contemporary English
Ground Zero — [ graund ziərəu] der auch das; s <aus gleichbed. engl. amerik. Ground Zero, eigtl. »Gelände Null«, urspr. amerik. Bez. für jenen Punkt auf dem Erdboden, der genau unterhalb der Stelle lag, wo in größerer Höhe die [erste] Atombombe… … Das große Fremdwörterbuch
ground zero — noun uncount 1. ) the point on the surface of the Earth directly above or below where a nuclear explosion has happened 2. ) a place at the center of changes that are happening fast or violently: Silicon Valley remains ground zero for the… … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
ground zero — 1946, originally with reference to atomic blasts. In reference to the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York, it was in use by Sept. 13 … Etymology dictionary
ground zero — ☆ ground zero n. 1. the land or water surface area directly below or above the point of detonation of a nuclear bomb 2. Slang a) nothing b) the starting point c) the most basic condition or level … English World dictionary
Ground Zero — Мемориальная стела на месте эпицентра ядерного взрыва в Нагасаки Ground Zero (граунд зироу, буквально «нулевая отметка», подразумевается «на земле», в отличие от англ. … Википедия