July 18

Events

* 390 BC - Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.
* 64 - Great fire of Rome: a fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control. The Emperor Nero reportedly plays his lyre and sings while watching the blaze from a safe distance.
*1334 - The bishop of Florence blesses the first foundation stone for the new "campanile" (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral, designed by the artist Giotto di Bondone.
*1656 - Polish-Lithuanian forces clash with Sweden and its Brandenburg allies in the start of what is to be known as The Battle of Warsaw which ends in a decisive Swedish victory.
*1857 - Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrives to relieve French forces at Kayes, effectively ending El Hajj Umar Tall's war against the French.
*1863 - American Civil War: Battle of Fort Wagner/Morris Island - the first formal African American military unit, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, unsuccessfully assaults Confederate-held Battery Wagner but their valiant fighting still proves the worth of African American soldiers during the war.
*1870 - The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.
*1914 - The U.S. Congress forms the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, giving definite status to aircraft within the U.S. Army for the first time.
*1925 - Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto "Mein Kampf".
*1936 - In Morocco, Franco starts a coup d'état against the legitimacy of the Spanish government. This will lead to the Spanish Civil War.
*1942 - World War II: the Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jet engines for the first time.
*1944 - World War II: Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort.
*1965 - Russian satellite Zond 3 launched.
*1966 - Gemini 10 launched.
*1968 - The Intel Corporation is founded in Santa Clara, California
*1969 - After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a wooden bridge into a tide-swept pond and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.
*1976 - Nadia Comăneci became the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.
*1982 - 268 campesinos ("peasants" or "country people") are slain in the Plan de Sánchez massacre in Ríos Montt's Guatemala.
*1984 - McDonald's massacre in San Ysidro, California: in a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.
*1984 - Beverly Lynn Burns becomes first woman Boeing 747 airline captain.
*1986 - A tornado is broadcast live on KARE television in Minnesota when the station's helicopter pilot makes a chance encounter.
*1992 - The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappear from their university in Lima.
* 1994- The Amia bombings occurred in Buenos Aires killing 85 people and injuring 300.
*1995 - On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufriere Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.
*1996 - Storms provoke severe flooding on the Saguenay River, beginning one of Québec's costliest natural disasters ever.

Births

*1501 - Isabella of Burgundy, wife of Christian II of Denmark (d. 1526)
*1504 - Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (d. 1575)
*1552 - Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1612)
*1634 - Johannes Camphuys, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1695)
*1635 - Robert Hooke, English scientist (d. 1703)
*1670 - Giovanni Bononcini, Italian composer (d. 1747)
*1718 - Saverio Bettinelli, Italian writer (d. 1808)
*1720 - Gilbert White, English ornithologist (d. 1793)
*1797 - Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher (d. 1879)
*1811 - William Makepeace Thackeray, English author (d. 1863)
*1818 - Louis De Geer, 1st Swedish Prime Minister (d. 1896)
*1821 - Pauline Garcia-Viardot, French mezzo-soprano and composer (d. 1910)
*1837 - Vasil Levski, Bulgarian revolutionary (d. 1873)
*1845 - Tristan Corbière, French poet (d. 1875)
*1848 - W. G. Grace, English cricketer (d. 1915)
*1850 - Rose Hartwick Thorpe, American poet (d. 1939)
*1853 - Hendrik Lorentz, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1928)
*1862 - Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich, Russian general (d. 1933)
*1864 - Phillip Snowden, British politician (d. 1937)
*1867 - Margaret Brown, American activist, philanthropist, and RMS "Titanic" passenger (d. 1932)
*1871 - Sada Yacco, Japanese stage actress (d. 1946)
*1881 - Larry McLean, baseball player (d. 1921)
*1884 - Alberto di Jorio, former head of the Vatican Bank and secretary of the 1958 conclave (d. 1979)
*1887 - Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian soldier, politician and convicted traitor (d. 1945)
*1890 - Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1983)
*1892 - Arthur Friedenreich, Brazilian football player (d. 1969)
*1895 - George Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (d. 1954)
*1897 - E. A. D. Eldridge, British racing driver (d. 1935)
*1898 - John Stuart, Scottish actor (d. 1979)
*1900 - Nathalie Sarraute, French writer (d. 1999)
*1902 - Jessamyn West, American writer (d. 1984)
*1903 - Chill Wills, American actor (d. 1978)
*1906 - S. I. Hayakawa, American semanticist and politician (d. 1992)
* 1906 - Clifford Odets, American writer (d. 1963)
*1908 - Lupe Vélez, Mexican actress (d. 1944)
* 1908 - Mildred Lisette Norman, American peace activist, earned the moniker Peace Pilgrim (d. 1981)
*1909 - Andrei Gromyko, Soviet diplomat and President (d. 1989)
* 1909 - Mohammed Daoud Khan, President of Afghanistan (d. 1978)
* 1909 - Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
*1911 - Hume Cronyn, Canadian actor (d. 2003)
*1912 - Max Rousié, French rugby footballer (d. 1950)
*1913 - Red Skelton, American actor and comedian (d. 1997)
*1914 - Gino Bartali, Italian cyclist (d. 2000)
*1916 - Johnny Hopp, baseball player (d. 2003)
*1917 - Henri Salvador, French singer (d. 2008)
*1918 - Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
*1920 - Eric Brandon, British racing driver (d. 1982)
*1921 - John Glenn, American astronaut and politician
*1922 - Thomas Kuhn, American philosopher (d. 1996)
*1923 - Jerome H. Lemelson, American inventor (d. 1997)
*1924 - Inge Sørensen, Danish swimmer
*1925 - Shirley Strickland, Australian athlete (d. 2004)
* 1925 - Hubert Doggart, Former England cricketer
*1926 - Robert Sloman, writer (d. 2005)
* 1926 - Margaret Laurence, Canadian writer (d. 1987)
*1927 - Kurt Masur, Silesian-born conductor
*1929 - Dick Button, American figure skater
* 1929 - Screamin' Jay Hawkins, American singer (d. 2000)
*1930 - Burt Kwouk, English actor
*1932 - Robert Ellis Miller, American film director
*1933 - Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Russian poet
* 1933 - Syd Mead, American industrial and conceptual designer
* 1933 - Jean Yanne, French film actor and director (d. 2003)
*1934 - Darlene Conley, American actress (d. 2007)
* 1934 - Roger Reynolds, American composer and teacher
*1935 - Jayendra Saraswathi, Hindu religious leader
*1936 - Ted Harris, Canadian ice hockey player
*1937 - Roald Hoffman, Polish-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1937 - Hunter S. Thompson, American journalist and author (d. 2005)
*1938 - Paul Verhoeven, Dutch film director
* 1938 - Ian Stewart, Scottish pianist (d. 1985)
*1939 - Dion DiMucci, American singer
* 1939 - Brian Auger, British musician
* 1939 - Edward Gramlich, American economics professor (d. 2007)
* 1939 - Jerry Moore, American football coach
*1940 - James Brolin, American actor
* 1940 - Joe Torre, American baseball player and manager
*1941 - Frank Farian, German music producer
* 1941 - Lonnie Mack, American guitarist and singer
* 1941 - Martha Reeves, American singer
*1942 - Adolf Ogi, Swiss politician
* 1942 - Bobby Susser, American songwriter and record producer
* 1942 - Giacinto Facchetti, Italian footballer (d. 2006)
*1946 - Leo Madder, Belgian actor
*1947 - Steve Forbes, American entrepreneur and politician
* 1947 - Steven W. Mahoney, Canadian politician
* 1948 - Hartmut Michel, German chemist, Nobel laureate
* 1948 - Carlos Colón, Sr., Puerto Rican professional wrestler
* 1950 - Jerome Barkum, American football player
* 1950 - Sir Richard Branson, British entrepreneur
* 1950 - Glenn Hughes, American singer (Village People) (d. 2001)
* 1950 - Jack Layton, Canadian politician
* 1950 - Kostas Eleftherakis, Greek footballer
*1951 - Elio Di Rupo, Belgian politician
* 1951 - Margo Martindale, American actress
*1954 - Ricky Skaggs, American country/bluegrass musician
*1955 - Bernd Fasching, Austrian painter and sculptor
*1956 - Razor Shines, American baseball player, manager and coach
*1957 - Nick Faldo, English golfer
*1960 - Anne-Marie Johnson, American actress
*1961 - Elizabeth McGovern, American-born actress
*1962 - Lee Arenberg, American actor
* 1962 - Jack Irons, American drummer
* 1962 - Shaun Micallef, Australian comedian
*1963 - Martín Torrijos Espino, President of Panama
* 1963 - Mike Greenwell, baseball player
* 1963 - Al Snow, American professional wrestler
*1964 - Wendy Williams, radio host
*1966 - Lori Alan, American actress
*1967 - Vin Diesel, American actor
*1969 - Masanori Murakawa, Japanese professional wrestler
*1971 - Penny Hardaway, American basketball player
* 1971 - Sarah McLeod, New Zealand actress
*1974 - Alan Morrison, British poet
*1975 - Torii Hunter, baseball player
* 1975 - Daron Malakian, American guitarist (System of a Down, Scars on Broadway)
*1976 - Elsa Pataky, Spanish actress
*1977 - Dylan Lane, American television host
* 1977 - Alfian bin Sa'at, Singaporean writer, poet and playwright
*1978 - Shane Horgan, Irish rugby player
* 1978 - Ben Sheets, American baseball player
* 1978 - Mélissa Theuriau, French newscaster
* 1978 - Verónica Romeo, Spanish singer
*1979 - Rick Baxter, American politician
* 1979 - Deion Branch, American football player
* 1979 - Jared Hess, American film director and screenwriter
* 1979 - Joey Mercury, American professional wrestler
* 1979 - Jermaine Paul, American musician
*1980 - Kristen Bell, American actress
* 1980 - Ryoko Hirosue, Japanese actress and singer
*1982 - Priyanka Chopra, Indian actress and beauty queen
* 1982 - Ryan Cabrera, American musician and TV host
* 1982 - Panagiotis Lagos, Greek footballer
*1983 - Carlos Diogo, Uruguayan footballer
*1985 - Chace Crawford, American actor
*1988 - César Villaluz, Mexican footballer
*1991 - Karina Pasian, American singer and pianist

Deaths

*715 - Muhammad bin Qasim (b. 695)
*1100 - Godfrey of Bouillon, Protector of the Holy Sepulcher
*1488 - Alvise Cadamosto, Italian explorer (b. 1432)
*1591 - Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer (b. 1550)
*1608 - Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1546)
*1610 - Michelangelo Merisi, Italian artist (b. 1573)
*1639 - Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, German general (b. 1604)
*1695 - Johannes Camphuys, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (b. 1634)
*1698 - Johann Heinrich Heidegger, Swiss theologian (b. 1633)
*1721 - Antoine Watteau, French painter (b. 1684)
*1730 - François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French soldier (b. 1644)
*1792 - John Paul Jones, American naval commander (b. 1747)
*1817 - Jane Austen, English novelist (b. 1775)
*1863 - Robert Gould Shaw, American military officer (b. 1837)
*1872 - Benito Juárez, President of Mexico (b. 1806)
*1884 - Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Austrian geologist (b. 1829)
*1892 - Thomas Cook, English travel agent (b. 1808)
*1899 - Horatio Alger, Jr., American writer (b. 1832)
*1916 - Benjamin C. Truman, American journalist and author
*1918 - Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna (b. 1864)
*1925 - Louis Nazaire Bégin, Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Quebec (b. 1840)
*1937 - Julian Bell, British poet (b. 1908)
*1944 - Thomas Sturge Moore, English poet and author (b. 1870)
*1948 - Herman Gummerus, Finnish historian and politician (b. 1877)
*1949 - Vítězslav Novák, Czech composer (b. 1870)
*1952 - Paul Saintenoy, Belgian architect (b. 1862)
* 1952 - Jack Earle, American actor and sideshow performer (b. 1906)
*1953 - Lucy Booth, Daughter of William and Catherine Booth (b. 1868)
*1954 - Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (b. 1895)
*1966 - Bobby Fuller, American rock singer (b. 1942)
*1968 - Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1892)
*1969 - Mary Jo Kopechne, American Robert F. Kennedy campaign worker (b. 1940)
*1973 - Jack Hawkins, English film actor (b. 1910)
*1982 - Lionel Daunais, French-Canadian singer and composer (b. 1902)
*1985 - Shahnawaz Bhutto, son of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
*1988 - Nico, German model and singer (b. 1938)
*1989 - Donnie Moore, American baseball player (b. 1954)
* 1989 - Rebecca Schaeffer, American actress (b. 1967)
*1990 - Yoon Boseon, President of South Korea (b. 1897)
* 1990 - Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist (b. 1896)
* 1990 - Gerry Boulet, Quebec rock singer (b. 1946)
* 1990 - Johnny Wayne, Canadian comedian (b. 1918)
*1995 - Srinagarindra, Mother of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand (b. 1900)
* 1995 - Fabio Casartelli, Italian cyclist (b. 1970)
*1997 - Eugene Merle Shoemaker, American astronomer (b. 1928)
*2001 - James Hatfield, American author (b. 1958)
* 2001 - Fabio Taglioni, Italian automotive engineer (b. 1920)
*2002 - Victor Emery, British theoretical physicist (b. 1933)
*2004 - Paul Foot, British journalist (b. 1937)
* 2004 - Émile Peynaud, French oenologist (b. 1912)
*2005 - William Westmoreland, American military officer (b. 1914)
* 2005 - Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1938)
*2007 - George Caiazzo, American professional wrestler
* 2007 - Jerry Hadley, American opera singer, (b. 1952)
* 2007 - Kenji Miyamoto, Japanese politician (b. 1908)
*2008 - Khosrow Shakibai, Iranian actor (b. 1944)

Holidays and observances

* Uruguay - Constitution Day
* Saint Marina
* Saint Symphorosa
* Saint Theneva

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/18 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Jul&day=18 On This Day in Canada] ----


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